|Embryology - 27 Jul 2016 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Movies
- 4 Timeline and Stages of Embryonic Development
- 5 Skull
- 6 Neural
- 7 Molecular
- 8 References
- 9 Additional Images
- 10 Terms
- 11 External Links
- 12 Glossary Links
Zebrafish or zebra danio (danio rerio) are seen as the latest "model' for embryological development studies. These embryos have the great advantage that they develop as "see through" embryos, that is, all internal development can be clearly observed from the outside in the living embryo. Much of the early modern work using this embryo model began with the papers of Kimmel.
Several large laboratories in the US are now developing large breeding programs to carry out "knockouts" and to find spontaneous mutants of interest.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Dana Zivna, Jana Blahova, Zuzana Siroka, Lucie Plhalova, Petr Marsalek, Veronika Doubkova, Gabriela Zelinska, Vladimir Vecerek, Frantisek Tichy, Pavla Sehonova, Zdenka Svobodova The Effects of Salicylic Acid on Juvenile Zebrafish Danio rerio Under Flow-Through Conditions. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol: 2016; PubMed 27385367
Nathalia G Holtzman, M Kathryn Iovine, Jennifer O Liang, Jacqueline Morris Learning to Fish with Genetics: A Primer on the Vertebrate Model Danio rerio. Genetics: 2016, 203(3);1069-1089 PubMed 27384027
Lucas J T Kaaij, Michal Mokry, Meng Zhou, Michael Musheev, Geert Geeven, Adrien S J Melquiond, António M de Jesus Domingues, Wouter de Laat, Christof Niehrs, Andrew D Smith, René F Ketting Enhancers reside in a unique epigenetic environment during early zebrafish development. Genome Biol.: 2016, 17(1);146 PubMed 27381023
Lucie Rochard, Stefanie D Monica, Irving T C Ling, Yawei Kong, Sara Roberson, Richard Harland, Marnie Halpern, Eric C Liao Roles of Wnt pathway genes wls, wnt9a, wnt5b, frzb and gpc4 in regulating convergent-extension during palate morphogenesis. Development: 2016; PubMed 27287801
D T Grimes, C W Boswell, N F C Morante, R M Henkelman, R D Burdine, B Ciruna Zebrafish models of idiopathic scoliosis link cerebrospinal fluid flow defects to spine curvature. Science: 2016, 352(6291);1341-4 PubMed 27284198
| Movie of an immobilized zebrafish embryo development from the 1-cell stage to 85 hours post fertilisation (hpf).
Timeline and Stages of Embryonic Development
|0 - 0.75 hrs||Zygote Period|
|0.75 - 2.25 hrs||Cleavage Period|
|2.25 - 5.25 hrs||Blastula Period|
|5.25 - 10.33 hrs||Gastrula Period|
|10.33 - 24 hrs||Segmentation Period|
|24 - 48 hrs||Pharyngula Period|
|48-72 hrs||Hatching Period|
|72 hrs - 30 Days||Larval Period|
- Transition from Prim 5 to Long-pec
- The body axis begins to straighten and the head straightens out and lifts dorsally
- Notochord is well developed
- Formation of the Dorsal and Ventral Stripe
- Nervous system is hollow and expanding anteriorly
- The brain has developed into 5 distinct lobes
- Seven pharyngeal arch's develop rapidly during this stage
- Pectoral fins begin to develop
- The Circulatory system develops and the heart beats for the first time
- Blood begins to circulate through a closed circuit of channels
- Tactile sensitivity appears and uncoordinated movements occur
| Zebrafish Skull Neural Crest Contribution
Lateral line is a zebrafish sensory system, used to detect changes in water flow, composed of clusters of mechanosensory hair cells called neuromasts.
Fibroblast Growth Factor
- Fgf8 and Fgf3 - regulating the segmentation of the pharyngeal endoderm into pouches. 
- Fgf24 and Fgf8 - promotes posterior mesodermal development.
- Sox9 - required for cartilage morphogenesis.
- C B Kimmel, S K Sessions, R J Kimmel Morphogenesis and synaptogenesis of the zebrafish Mauthner neuron. J. Comp. Neurol.: 1981, 198(1);101-20 PubMed 7229136
- C B Kimmel, D S Sepich, B Trevarrow Development of segmentation in zebrafish. Development: 1988, 104 Suppl;197-207 PubMed 3077108
- Akihiko Muto, Anne L Calof, Arthur D Lander, Thomas F Schilling Multifactorial origins of heart and gut defects in nipbl-deficient zebrafish, a model of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome. PLoS Biol.: 2011, 9(10);e1001181 PubMed 22039349
- Peng-Fei Xu, Nathalie Houssin, Karine F Ferri-Lagneau, Bernard Thisse, Christine Thisse Construction of a vertebrate embryo from two opposing morphogen gradients. Science: 2014, 344(6179);87-9 PubMed 24700857
- B Frank Eames, April DeLaurier, Bonnie Ullmann, Tyler R Huycke, James T Nichols, John Dowd, Marcie McFadden, Mark M Sasaki, Charles B Kimmel FishFace: interactive atlas of zebrafish craniofacial development at cellular resolution. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2013, 13;23 PubMed 23714426
- Liselotte Vesterlund, Hong Jiao, Per Unneberg, Outi Hovatta, Juha Kere The zebrafish transcriptome during early development. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2011, 11;30 PubMed 21609443
- Thomas J Carney, Natália Martins Feitosa, Carmen Sonntag, Krasimir Slanchev, Johannes Kluger, Daiji Kiyozumi, Jan M Gebauer, Jared Coffin Talbot, Charles B Kimmel, Kiyotoshi Sekiguchi, Raimund Wagener, Heinz Schwarz, Phillip W Ingham, Matthias Hammerschmidt Genetic analysis of fin development in zebrafish identifies furin and hemicentin1 as potential novel fraser syndrome disease genes. PLoS Genet.: 2010, 6(4);e1000907 PubMed 20419147
- Ian A Swinburne, Kishore R Mosaliganti, Amelia A Green, Sean G Megason Improved Long-Term Imaging of Embryos with Genetically Encoded α-Bungarotoxin. PLoS ONE: 2015, 10(8);e0134005 PubMed 26244658 | PLoS One.
- Kague E, Gallagher M, Burke S, Parsons M, Franz-Odendaal T, et al. (2012) Skeletogenic Fate of Zebrafish Cranial and Trunk Neural Crest. PLoS ONE 7(11): e47394. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047394 PLoS ONE
- Justin Gage Crump, Lisa Maves, Nathan D Lawson, Brant M Weinstein, Charles B Kimmel An essential role for Fgfs in endodermal pouch formation influences later craniofacial skeletal patterning. Development: 2004, 131(22);5703-16 PubMed 15509770
- Bruce W Draper, David W Stock, Charles B Kimmel Zebrafish fgf24 functions with fgf8 to promote posterior mesodermal development. Development: 2003, 130(19);4639-54 PubMed 12925590
- Yi-Lin Yan, Craig T Miller, Robert M Nissen, Amy Singer, Dong Liu, Anette Kirn, Bruce Draper, John Willoughby, Paul A Morcos, Adam Amsterdam, Bon-Chu Chung, Monte Westerfield, Pascal Haffter, Nancy Hopkins, Charles Kimmel, John H Postlethwait, Robert Nissen A zebrafish sox9 gene required for cartilage morphogenesis. Development: 2002, 129(21);5065-79 PubMed 12397114
Zebrafish "is the only peer-reviewed journal to focus on the zebrafish, which has numerous valuable features as a model organism for the study of vertebrate development. Due to its prolific reproduction and the external development of the transparent embryo, the zebrafish is a prime model for genetic and developmental studies, as well as research in toxicology and genomics. While genetically more distant from humans, the vertebrate zebrafish nevertheless has comparable organs and tissues, such as heart, kidney, pancreas, bones, and cartilage." [jour PubMed listing]
Willy Supatto, Julien Vermot From cilia hydrodynamics to zebrafish embryonic development. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol.: 2011, 95;33-66 PubMed 21501748
Lara Carvalho, Carl-Philipp Heisenberg The yolk syncytial layer in early zebrafish development. Trends Cell Biol.: 2010, 20(10);586-92 PubMed 20674361
Sebastiaan A Brittijn, Suzanne J Duivesteijn, Mounia Belmamoune, Laura F M Bertens, Wilbert Bitter, Joost D de Bruijn, Danielle L Champagne, Edwin Cuppen, Gert Flik, Christina M Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Richard A J Janssen, Ilse M L de Jong, Edo Ronald de Kloet, Alexander Kros, Annemarie H Meijer, Juriaan R Metz, Astrid M van der Sar, Marcel J M Schaaf, Stefan Schulte-Merker, Herman P Spaink, Paul P Tak, Fons J Verbeek, Margriet J Vervoordeldonk, Freek J Vonk, Frans Witte, Huipin Yuan, Michael K Richardson Zebrafish development and regeneration: new tools for biomedical research. Int. J. Dev. Biol.: 2009, 53(5-6);835-50 PubMed 19557689
Jeroen Bakkers, Manon C Verhoeven, Salim Abdelilah-Seyfried Shaping the zebrafish heart: from left-right axis specification to epithelial tissue morphogenesis. Dev. Biol.: 2009, 330(2);213-20 PubMed 19371733
Tzu-Min Chan, William Longabaugh, Hamid Bolouri, Hua-Ling Chen, Wen-Fang Tseng, Chung-Hao Chao, Te-Hsuan Jang, Yu-I Lin, Shao-Chin Hung, Horng-Dar Wang, Chiou-Hwa Yuh Developmental gene regulatory networks in the zebrafish embryo. Biochim. Biophys. Acta: 2009, 1789(4);279-98 PubMed 18992377
Search Pubmed: Zebrafish Development
- deep cell layer - (DEL) formed after blastula stage that forms the three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm).
- epiboly - (Greek, "epibol" = a throwing or laying on) Term describing the division and movement of ectodermal cells during gastrulation, thinning and spreading this layer to cover the whole of the embryo. Cellular movements are thought to occur in all vertebrates, but have been most clearly identified in both the zebrafish and frog (xenopus laevis).
- enveloping layer - (EVL) an epithelial monolayer formed after blastula stage that undergoes epiboly.
- Kupffer's vesicle - (ciliated organ of asymmetry, primitive node) a transient epithelial fluid-filled sac located midventrally posterior to the yolk cell or its extension. The vesicle has been described as equivalent to the primitive node for establishing embryo left-right (L-R) axis. PMID 21876750
- yolk syncytial layer - (YSL) membrane-enclosed group of nuclei that lie on top of the yolk cell formed after blastula stage that undergoes epiboly.
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- NIH NIH Zebrafish Initiative
- ZFIN - The Zebrafish Model Organism Database
- Keller at European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Germany Movies - Reconstruction of zebrafish early embryonic development by scanned light sheet microscopy
- YouTube Timelapse recording of about 18 hours of embryonic development of the zebrafish with some annotation
- Fish Face Atlas 3D-interactive atlas of craniofacial development in the zebrafish Danio rerio.
- Zebrafish Atlas
- 3D Atlas of Zebrafish Vasculature Anatomy
- Zebrafish Brain Atlas
- Atlas of Zebrafish Anatomy
- Atlas of Zebrafish Development
- Zebrafish Anatomy Portal
- FishNet 3D developmental atlas
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2016) Embryology Zebrafish Development. Retrieved July 27, 2016, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Zebrafish_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2016, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G