Some Recent Findings
- Homeobox Genes of Caenorhabditis elegans and Spatio-Temporal Expression "We show that, out of 103 homeobox genes, 70 are co-orthologous to human homeobox genes. 14 are highly divergent, lacking an obvious ortholog even in other Caenorhabditis species. One of these homeobox genes encodes 12 homeodomains, while three other highly divergent homeobox genes encode a novel type of double homeodomain, termed HOCHOB. To understand how transcription factors regulate cell fate during development, precise spatio-temporal expression data need to be obtained. Using a new imaging framework that we developed, Endrov, we have generated spatio-temporal expression profiles during embryogenesis of over 60 homeobox genes, as well as a number of other developmental control genes using GFP reporters." [[Developmental Signals - Homeobox]
- Basic Caenorhabditis elegans Methods: Synchronization and Observation "Research into the molecular and developmental biology of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was begun in the early seventies by Sydney Brenner and it has since been used extensively as a model organism (1). C. elegans possesses key attributes such as simplicity, transparency and short life cycle that have made it a suitable experimental system for fundamental biological studies for many years (2). ...Because of its transparency, C. elegans structures can be distinguished under the microscope using Differential Interference Contrast microscopy, also known as Nomarski microscopy. The use of a fluorescent DNA binder, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), for instance, can lead to the specific identification and localization of individual cells, as well as subcellular structures/defects associated to them."
- Small RNAs and temporal control in Caenorhabditis elegans. "Developmental timing studies in C. elegans led to the landmark discovery of miRNAs and continue to enhance our understanding of the regulation and activity of these small regulatory molecules. Current views of the heterochronic gene pathway are summarized here, with a focus on the ways in which miRNAs contribute to temporal control and how miRNAs themselves are regulated. Finally, the conservation of heterochronic genes and their functions in timing, as well as their related roles in stem cells and cancer, are highlighted."
| More recent papers
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
- Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
- References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
- Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches
Search term: Worm Embryology
Thomas Ruzicka, Jon M Hanifin, Masutaka Furue, Grazyna Pulka, Izabela Mlynarczyk, Andreas Wollenberg, Ryszard Galus, Takafumi Etoh, Ryosuke Mihara, Hiroki Yoshida, Jonathan Stewart, Kenji Kabashima, XCIMA Study Group Anti-Interleukin-31 Receptor A Antibody for Atopic Dermatitis. N. Engl. J. Med.: 2017, 376(9);826-835 PubMed 28249150
Tokumitsu Wakabayashi, Ayumi Ymamoto, Akira Kazaana, Yuta Nakano, Yui Nojiri, Moeko Kashiwazaki Antibacterial, Antifungal and Nematicidal Activities of Rare Earth Ions. Biol Trace Elem Res: 2016, 174(2);464-470 PubMed 27147430
Liang Ming, Ruo Yu Peng, Lei Zhang, Chun Li Zhang, Pin Lv, Zhong Quan Wang, Jing Cui, Hui Jun Ren Invasion by Trichinella spiralis infective larvae affects the levels of inflammatory cytokines in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Exp. Parasitol.: 2016, 170;220-226 PubMed 27717772
Zhenyang Yu, Guohua Sun, Yanjun Liu, Daqiang Yin, Jing Zhang Trans-generational influences of sulfamethoxazole on lifespan, reproduction and population growth of Caenorhabditis elegans. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.: 2017, 135;312-318 PubMed 27770646
James Hester, Wendy Hanna-Rose, Francisco Diaz Zinc deficiency reduces fertility in C. elegans hermaphrodites and disrupts oogenesis and meiotic progression. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol.: 2016; PubMed 27663471
Adult Hermaphrodite Gonad
Adult hermaphrodite gonad arm - A drawing representation of an adult hermaphrodite gonad arm. The progression of germ cell proliferation and meiosis are indicated by the arrows starting from the distal tip region of the gonad arm.
The features that differentiate the C. elegans male from the hermaphrodite arise during postembryonic development.
The two researchers, Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello, were investigating how gene expression is regulated in C. elegans and identified the novel regulation method of RNA interference (RNAi), gene silencing by double-stranded RNA. This discovery was awarded the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
- Links: 2006 Nobel Press Release
Embryonic Cell Lineages
The overview diagram above shows the fate of each individual cell in the developing c. elegans.
- Zygote (P0 cell) divides into two daughter cells (AB and P1 cells).
- These two daughter cells then divide into the next generation.
- the "X" indicates cells that die by apoptosis during development.
Note the above image is not at a readable resolution, to view see large readable version (10,389 × 1,336 pixels). Embryonic cell lineage developed by J .E. Sulston, E. Schierenberg, J. G. White, J. N. Thomson.
- Links: Apoptosis | Worm Atlas - Cell Lineages
The worm digestive tract consists of a pharynx, intestine, and rectum and contains only about 100 cells. Development is regulated by similar transcription factors found for other species (FoxA and GATA factors).
- FoxA - pharynx and rectum
- GATA - intestine
Jürgen Hench, Johan Henriksson, Akram M Abou-Zied, Martin Lüppert, Johan Dethlefsen, Krishanu Mukherjee, Yong Guang Tong, Lois Tang, Umesh Gangishetti, David L Baillie, Thomas R Bürglin The Homeobox Genes of Caenorhabditis elegans and Insights into Their Spatio-Temporal Expression Dynamics during Embryogenesis. PLoS ONE: 2015, 10(5);e0126947 PubMed 26024448
| PLoS One.
Montserrat Porta-de-la-Riva, Laura Fontrodona, Alberto Villanueva, Julián Cerón Basic Caenorhabditis elegans methods: synchronization and observation. J Vis Exp: 2012, (64);e4019 PubMed 22710399
| J Vis Exp.
Tamar D Resnick, Katherine A McCulloch, Ann E Rougvie miRNAs give worms the time of their lives: small RNAs and temporal control in Caenorhabditis elegans. Dev. Dyn.: 2010, 239(5);1477-89 PubMed 20232378
Jeremy S Bickel, Liting Chen, Jin Hayward, Szu Ling Yeap, Ashley E Alkers, Raymond C Chan Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins promote homolog-independent recombination repair in meiosis crucial for germ cell genomic stability. PLoS Genet.: 2010, 6(7);e1001028 PubMed 20661436
| PLoS Genetics
Scott W Emmons Male development. WormBook: 2005;1-22 PubMed 18050419
Worm Book - Male development
Lisa Timmons, Hiroaki Tabara, Craig C Mello, Andrew Z Fire Inducible systemic RNA silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol. Biol. Cell: 2003, 14(7);2972-83 PubMed 12857879
Jay D Kormish, Jeb Gaudet, James D McGhee Development of the C. elegans digestive tract. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev.: 2010, 20(4);346-54 PubMed 20570129
WormBook - a comprehensive, open-access collection of original, peer-reviewed chapters covering topics related to the biology of Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes.
July 2010 "c elegans Development" All (5126) Review (898) Free Full Text (2363)
Search Pubmed: Worm Development | Caenorhabditis elegans Development | c elegans Development
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