Urinary Bladder Development
|Embryology - 29 May 2017 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Textbook References
- 4 Movies
- 5 Cloaca
- 6 Embryonic Urinary Bladder
- 7 Week 8
- 8 Fetal Urinary Bladder
- 9 Newborn Urinary Bladder
- 10 Animal Models
- 11 Abnormalities
- 12 Stage 22
- 13 Images
- 14 References
- 15 Terms
- 16 Glossary Links
The paired adult kidneys filter blood, reabsorb water, have endocrine functions and excrete waste. The waste in the form of urine for excretion, collects initially in the renal pelvis and flows through the ureters to the urinary bladder. The wall of the urinary bladder is composed of layers of smooth muscle and in the male has close anatomical relationship with the prostate gland. (More? Prostate Development)
Abnormalities in renal development can lead to ureter obstruction and interfere with flow of urine to the bladder during the fetal period.
Historic Bladder: 1912 Cloaca, Bladder, Urethra, and Urogenital Sinus | 1921 Urinary Bladder
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Fahim Haque, Yusuke Kaku, Sayoko Fujimura, Tomoko Ohmori, Robert S Adelstein, Ryuichi Nishinakamura Non-muscle Myosin II Deletion in the Developing Kidney Causes Ureter-bladder Misconnection and Apical Extrusion of the Nephric Duct Lineage Epithelia. Dev. Biol.: 2017; PubMed 28478097
Gladell P Paner, Rodolfo Montironi, Mahul B Amin Challenges in Pathologic Staging of Bladder Cancer: Proposals for Fresh Approaches of Assessing Pathologic Stage in Light of Recent Studies and Observations Pertaining to Bladder Histoanatomic Variances. Adv Anat Pathol: 2017, 24(3);113-127 PubMed 28398951
Ilker Tinay, Tarik E Sener, Ozge Cevik, Selin Cadirci, Hale Toklu, Sule Cetinel, Göksel Sener, Tufan Tarcan Antioxidant Agent Quercetin Prevents Impairment of Bladder Tissue Contractility and Apoptosis in a Rat Model of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury. Low Urin Tract Symptoms: 2017, 9(2);117-123 PubMed 28394499
Vaclav Liska, Vladislav Treska, Tomas Skalicky, Jakub Fichtl, Jan Bruha, Ondrej Vycital, Ondrej Topolcan, Richard Palek, Jachym Rosendorf, Jiri Polivka, Lubos Holubec Evaluation of Tumor Markers and Their Impact on Prognosis in Gallbladder, Bile Duct and Cholangiocellular Carcinomas - A Pilot Study. Anticancer Res.: 2017, 37(4);2003-2009 PubMed 28373474
Reza Nabavizadeh, Behnam Nabavizadeh, Lance J Hampton, Aliakbar Nabavizadeh Herniation of a urinary bladder diverticulum: diagnosis and management of a fluctuating inguinal mass. BMJ Case Rep: 2017, 2017; PubMed 28325718
- The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (8th Edition) by Keith L. Moore and T.V.N Persaud - Moore & Persaud Chapter 13 p303-346
- Larsen’s Human Embryology by GC. Schoenwolf, SB. Bleyl, PR. Brauer and PH. Francis-West - Chapter 10 p261-306
Animation - Endoderm forming the cloaca and the primitive urinary bladder continuous with the allantois.
- hindgut region ending at the cloacal membrane
- divided (ventro-dorsally) by the urogenital septum
- ventral - common urogenital sinus
- dorsal - rectum
Common Urogenital Sinus
- superior end continuous with allantois
- common urogenital sinus and mesonephric duct fuse (connect)
- differentiates to form the bladder
- inferior end forms urethra
- this will be different in male and female development
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Embryonic Urinary Bladder
- early origins of the bladder at the superior end of the common urogenital sinus
- 8 open inferiorly to the cloaca and superiorly to the allantois
- Septation of the claoca - divides the anterior region to the primordial bladder component from the posterior rectal component.
- associated ureters and urethra
Dorsal view of developing bladder
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- Ultrasound measurement of the bladder size can be used as a diagnostic tool for developmental abnormalities.
Can be described anatomically by its 4 layers from outside inward:
- Serous - the superior or abdominal surfaces and the lateral" surfaces of the bladder are covered by visceral peritoneum, the serous membrane (serosa) of the abdominal cavity, consisting of mesthelium and elastic fibrous connective tissue.
- Muscular - the detrusor muscle is the muscle of the urinary bladder wall.
- Submucosa - connects the muscular layer with the mucous layer.
- Mucosa - (mucus layer) a transitional epithelium layer formed into folds (rugae).
- The adult detrusor muscle consists of three layers of smooth (involuntary) muscle fibres.
- external layer - fibres arranged longitudinally
- middle layer - fibres arranged circularly
- internal layer - fibres arranged longitudinally
- The adult ureter is a thick-walled muscular tube, 25 - 30 cm in length, running from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
- Anatomically can be described in two parts the abdominal part (pars abdominalis) and pelvic part (pars pelvina).
- The ureter is composed of three layers: outer fibrous layer (tunica adventitia), muscular layer (tunica muscularis) and mucous layer (tunica mucosa).
- The muscular layer can also be subdivided into 3 fibre layers: an external longitudinal, a middle circular, and an internal longitudinal.
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The Carnegie stage 22 human male embryo is 27mm (CRL) in size and approximately equal to day 54 - 56 of development. These images have been selected to show some key features of late embryo development.
|G5 urogenital||G6 urogenital||G7 urogenital||unlabeled||labeled|
Fetal Urinary Bladder
Fetal Development - 10 Weeks - Early female fetal bladder development. Anatomically lying behind the pubic symphysis and in front of the developing uterus. Surrounded by the developing detrusor muscle and the superior end extending towards the ventral body wall herniation.
|midline section||medial section|
- Links: Fetal Development - 10 Weeks
|MRI appearance of normal fetal kidney. Sagittal T2- SSFSE of a fetal abdomen at GA 25 week. Adequate volume of the amniotic fluid and the developing lungs indicate good renal function.
Note that the urinary bladder can occupy a considerable portion of the abdomen as a normal finding.
Newborn Urinary Bladder
|The Newborn Male Bladder||The Newborn Female Bladder|
Mouse bladder development E12.5-E16.5
|Urinary bladder duplication is an extremely rare abnormality.
This MRI of a male newborn infant shows the duplicated bladder and also duplicated external genitalia (phallus).
- fusion of the lower poles of the kidney.
- During migration from the sacral region the two metanephric blastemas can come into contact, mainly at the lower pole.
- The ureters pass in front of the zone of fusion of the kidneys.
- The kidneys and ureters usually function adequately but there is an increased incidence of upper urinary tract obstruction or infection.
- Some horseshoe variations have been described as having associated ureter abnormalities including duplications.
Urorectal Septum Malformation
- thought to be a deficiency in caudal mesoderm which in turn leads to the malformation of the urorectal septum and other structures in the pelvic region.
- Recent research has also identified the potential presence of a persistent urachus prior to septation of the cloaca (common urogenital sinus).
- absent or small bladder - associated with renal agenesis.
- developmental abnormality associated with bladder development.
- origins appear to occur not just by abnormal bladder development, but by a congenital malformation of the ventral wall of abdomen (between umbilicus and pubic symphysis).
- There may also be other anomolies associated with failure of closure of abdominal wall and bladder (epispadias, pubic bone anomolies).
Ureter and Urethra
- Ureter - Duplex Ureter
- Urethra- Urethral Obstruction and Hypospadias
Prune Belly Syndrome
- lower urinary tract obstruction
- mainly male
- fetal urinary system ruptures leading to collapse and "prune belly" appearance.
- L A Favorito, H M Pazos, S F Costa, W S Costa, F J Sampaio Morphology of the fetal bladder during the second trimester: Comparing genders. J Pediatr Urol: 2014; PubMed 25434295
- Syed S Islam, Reza Bayat Mokhtari, Sushil Kumar, Joe Maalouf, Sara Arab, Herman Yeger, Walid A Farhat Spatio-temporal distribution of Smads and role of Smads/TGF-β/BMP-4 in the regulation of mouse bladder organogenesis. PLoS ONE: 2013, 8(4);e61340 PubMed 23620745
- Stacy T Tanaka, Kenichiro Ishii, Romano T Demarco, John C Pope, John W Brock, Simon W Hayward Endodermal origin of bladder trigone inferred from mesenchymal-epithelial interaction. J. Urol.: 2010, 183(1);386-91 PubMed 19914648 PMC2794964 | J Urol.
- Sahar N Saleem Fetal MRI: An approach to practice: A review. J Advanc Res: 2014, 5(5);507-23 PubMed 25685519 | J Adv Res.
- Vishal Gajbhiye, Sasanka Nath, Priya Ghosh, Argha Chatterjee, Dipanjan Haldar, Sukanta K Das Complete duplication of the urinary bladder: An extremely rare congenital anomaly. Urol Ann: 2013, 7(1);91-3 PubMed 25657554 | Urol Ann.
Ellen Shapiro Clinical implications of genitourinary embryology. Curr Opin Urol: 2009, 19(4);427-33 PubMed 19461520
Andrea Brenner-Anantharam, Cristina Cebrian, Richard Guillaume, Romulo Hurtado, Tung-Tien Sun, Doris Herzlinger Tailbud-derived mesenchyme promotes urinary tract segmentation via BMP4 signaling. Development: 2007, 134(10);1967-75 PubMed 17442697
Frank Costantini Renal branching morphogenesis: concepts, questions, and recent advances. Differentiation: 2006, 74(7);402-21 PubMed 16916378
Renata Viana, Ekatherina Batourina, Hongying Huang, Gregory R Dressler, Akio Kobayashi, Richard R Behringer, Ellen Shapiro, Terry Hensle, Sarah Lambert, Cathy Mendelsohn The development of the bladder trigone, the center of the anti-reflux mechanism. Development: 2007, 134(20);3763-9 PubMed 17881488
- bladder exstrophy - A congenital malformation with bladder open to ventral wall of abdomen (between umbilicus and pubic symphysis) and may have other anomolies associated with failure of closure of abdominal wall and bladder (epispadias, pubic bone anomolies).
- hydronephrosis - (congenital hydronephrosis, Greek, hydro = water) A kidney abnormality due to partial or complete obstruction at the pelvi-ureteric junction. This leads to a grossly dilated renal pelvis causing extensive renal damage before birth.
- mesonephric duct - (= Wollfian duct) An early developing urogenital duct running the length of the embryo that will differentiate and form the male reproductive duct system. In females this duct degenerates (some remnants may remain associated in broad ligament).
- proteinuria - The abnormal presence of protein in the urine and an indicator of diesease including diabetic kidney disease (DKD, diabetic nephropathy).
- renal - (Latin, renes = kidney) Term used in relation to the kidney and associated structures (renal pelvis, renal artery)
- ureter - The two ureters are hollow tubes that link and carries urine from kidney to the bladder. The tubes have a muscular wall lined with transitional epithelium.
- urethra - The single muscular tube that links and carries urine from the bladder to the exterior. In humans, the urethral length differs between the sexes (male longer, female shorter).
- urinary - Term used to describe all components of the kidney system including the bladder, ureters and urethra.
- urine - Term used to describe the liquid waste produced by the kidney, stored in the bladder and excreted from teh body through the urethra.
- urorectal septum - (URS) The structure which develops to separate the cloaca (common urogenital sinus) into an anterior urinary part and a posterior rectal part.
- Wolffian duct - (= mesonephric duct, preferred terminology), runs from the mesonephros to cloaca, differentiates to form the male vas deferens and in the female regresses. Named after Caspar Friedrich Wolff (1733-1794), a German scientist and early embryology researcher and is said to have established the doctrine of germ layers. (More? Caspar Friedrich Wolff)
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Urinary Bladder Development. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Urinary_Bladder_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G