Seahorse Development

From Embryology

Introduction

Newborns of three syngnathid species (A) N. ophidion, (B) S. abaster, and (C) H. abdominalis. Scale bars are 2 mm.[1]

Hippocampus (Greek, ippos = horse; kampe = curvature)


Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes (Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae (Pipefishes and seahorses) > Hippocampinae


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Seahorse Development

Some Recent Findings

  • Standardised classification of pre-release development in male-brooding pipefish, seahorses, and seadragons (Family Syngnathidae)[1] "We propose a standardised classification of early syngnathid development that extends from the activation of the egg to the release of newborn. The classification consists of four developmental periods - early embryogenesis, eye development, snout formation, and juvenile - which are further divided into 11 stages. Stages are characterised by morphological traits that are easily visible in live and preserved specimens using incident-light microscopy."

Standardised classification of pre-release development in male-brooding pipefish, seahorses, and seadragons (Family Syngnathidae)

BMC Dev Biol. 2012 Dec 29;12:39. doi: 10.1186/1471-213X-12-39.

Sommer S, Whittington CM, Wilson AB. Source Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, Zürich, CH-8057, Switzerland. stefan.sommer@ieu.uzh.ch.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Members of the family Syngnathidae share a unique reproductive mode termed male pregnancy. Males carry eggs in specialised brooding structures for several weeks and release free-swimming offspring. Here we describe a systematic investigation of pre-release development in syngnathid fishes, reviewing available data for 17 species distributed across the family. This work is complemented by in-depth examinations of the straight-nosed pipefish Nerophis ophidion, the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster, and the potbellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis.

RESULTS: We propose a standardised classification of early syngnathid development that extends from the activation of the egg to the release of newborn. The classification consists of four developmental periods - early embryogenesis, eye development, snout formation, and juvenile - which are further divided into 11 stages. Stages are characterised by morphological traits that are easily visible in live and preserved specimens using incident-light microscopy.

CONCLUSIONS: Our classification is derived from examinations of species representing the full range of brooding-structure complexity found in the Syngnathidae, including tail-brooding as well as trunk-brooding species, which represent independent evolutionary lineages. We chose conspicuous common traits as diagnostic features of stages to allow for rapid and consistent staging of embryos and larvae across the entire family. In view of the growing interest in the biology of the Syngnathidae, we believe that the classification proposed here will prove useful for a wide range of studies on the unique reproductive biology of these male-brooding fish.


Common Name - Seahorse

Country Species
Cuba Hippocampus erectus
Malaysia Hippocampus erectus
Malaysia Hippocampus histrix
Malaysia Hippocampus kuda
Malaysia Hippocampus spinosissimus
Malaysia Hippocampus barbouri
Malaysia Hippocampus comes
Azores Islands Hippocampus histrix
Puerto Rico Hippocampus reidi
St Helena Hippocampus erectus
United Kingdom Hippocampus guttulatus

Table data from Fishbase.[2]

Developmental Stages

Then following images and staging information is from a study of N. ophidion, S. abaster, and H. abdominalis. development.[1]

Syngnathidae development 01.jpg

Figure 1 Early embryogenesis Descriptions of the four stages of the early-embryogenesis period, along with examples for each stage. (A) Animal-pole view of a zygote of N. ophidion ca. 45 min after mating. (B) Animal-pole view of a N. ophidion blastula during early cleavages. (C) Embryonic-shield stage in N. ophidion; the white circle represents the germ ring. (D) Primitive-streak embryo of S. abaster (dechorionated). Scale bars are 0.5 mm.


Syngnathidae development 02.jpg

Figure 2 Eye development Descriptions and schematic drawings of stage-defining eye-structures of the three stages of the eye-development period, along with examples for each stage. (A) Optic-vesicle stage in N. ophidion. (B) Optic-cup stage in S. abaster. (C) Eye-pigmentation stage in N. ophidion. All embryos were dechorionated prior to photographing. Scale bars are 0.5 mm.

Syngnathidae development 03.jpg

Figure 3 Snout formation. Descriptions of the three stages of the snout-formation period, along with examples for each stage. (A) S. abaster embryo (dechorionated) with ventrally developing jaws. (B) H. abdominalis larva with jaws rising frontally. (C) S. abaster larva with an elongated snout. Scale bars are 1 mm.

Syngnathidae development 04.jpg

Figure 4 Newborns of three syngnathid species. The newborn stage represents the first stage of the juvenile period and, for the purpose of this classification, refers to the first day post-release. Shown are (A) N. ophidion, (B) S. abaster, and (C) H. abdominalis. Scale bars are 2 mm.


References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Stefan Sommer, Camilla M Whittington, Anthony B Wilson Standardised classification of pre-release development in male-brooding pipefish, seahorses, and seadragons (Family Syngnathidae). BMC Dev. Biol.: 2012, 12;39 PubMed 23273265 | BMC Dev Biol.
  2. Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2012. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org, version (12/2012).

Reviews

Articles

Kai N Stölting, Anthony B Wilson Male pregnancy in seahorses and pipefish: beyond the mammalian model. Bioessays: 2007, 29(9);884-96 PubMed 17691105

A B Wilson, A Vincent, I Ahnesjö, A Meyer Male pregnancy in seahorses and pipefishes (family Syngnathidae): rapid diversification of paternal brood pouch morphology inferred from a molecular phylogeny. J. Hered.: 2001, 92(2);159-66 PubMed 11396574


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Syngnathidae Development

Masahito Tsuboi, Jun Shoji, Atsushi Sogabe, Ingrid Ahnesjö, Niclas Kolm Within species support for the expensive tissue hypothesis: a negative association between brain size and visceral fat storage in females of the Pacific seaweed pipefish. Ecol Evol: 2016, 6(3);647-55 PubMed 26865955

Camilla M Whittington, Oliver W Griffith, Weihong Qi, Michael B Thompson, Anthony B Wilson Seahorse brood pouch transcriptome reveals common genes associated with vertebrate pregnancy. Mol. Biol. Evol.: 2015; PubMed 26330546

Ines Braga Goncalves, Ingrid Ahnesjö, Charlotta Kvarnemo The evolutionary puzzle of egg size, oxygenation and parental care in aquatic environments. Proc. Biol. Sci.: 2015, 282(1813);20150690 PubMed 26290070

Ines Braga Goncalves, Ingrid Ahnesjö, Charlotta Kvarnemo Embryo oxygenation in pipefish brood pouches: novel insights. J. Exp. Biol.: 2015, 218(Pt 11);1639-46 PubMed 26041030

B Novelli, J A Socorro, M J Caballero, F Otero-Ferrer, A Segade-Botella, L Molina Domínguez Development of seahorse (Hippocampus reidi, Ginsburg 1933): histological and histochemical study. Fish Physiol. Biochem.: 2015; PubMed 26023002


Seahorse Development

Steven Mink, Subir K Roy Chowdhury, Jose Gotes, Zhao-Qin Cheng, Krika Kasian, Paul Fernyhough Gentisic acid sodium salt, a phenolic compound, is superior to norepinephrine in reversing cardiovascular collapse, hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and lactic acidemia in Pseudomonas aeruginosa septic shock in dogs. Intensive Care Med Exp: 2016, 4(1);24 PubMed 27456956

Yongmin Liu, Eunwoo Shim Park, Alexander T Gibbons, Eric D Shide, Rao L Divi, Ruth A Woodward, Miriam C Poirier Mitochondrial compromise in 3-year old patas monkeys exposed in utero to human-equivalent antiretroviral therapies. Environ. Mol. Mutagen.: 2016; PubMed 27452341

M Kubota, Y B Shui, M Liu, F Bai, A J Huang, N Ma, D C Beebe, C J Siegfried Mitochondrial Oxygen Metabolism in Primary Human Lens Epithelial Cells: Association with Age, Diabetes and Glaucoma. Free Radic. Biol. Med.: 2016; PubMed 27445101

Sheena Shah-Simpson, Camila F A Pereira, Peter C Dumoulin, Kacey L Caradonna, Barbara A Burleigh Bioenergetic profiling of Trypanosoma cruzi life stages using Seahorse extracellular flux technology. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.: 2016; PubMed 27392747

Qiang Lin, Wei Luo, Shiming Wan, Zexia Gao De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Two Seahorse Species (Hippocampus erectus and H. mohnikei) and the Development of Molecular Markers for Population Genetics. PLoS ONE: 2016, 11(4);e0154096 PubMed 27128031


Pipefish Development

Masahito Tsuboi, Jun Shoji, Atsushi Sogabe, Ingrid Ahnesjö, Niclas Kolm Within species support for the expensive tissue hypothesis: a negative association between brain size and visceral fat storage in females of the Pacific seaweed pipefish. Ecol Evol: 2016, 6(3);647-55 PubMed 26865955

Camilla M Whittington, Oliver W Griffith, Weihong Qi, Michael B Thompson, Anthony B Wilson Seahorse brood pouch transcriptome reveals common genes associated with vertebrate pregnancy. Mol. Biol. Evol.: 2015; PubMed 26330546

Ines Braga Goncalves, Ingrid Ahnesjö, Charlotta Kvarnemo The evolutionary puzzle of egg size, oxygenation and parental care in aquatic environments. Proc. Biol. Sci.: 2015, 282(1813);20150690 PubMed 26290070

Ines Braga Goncalves, Ingrid Ahnesjö, Charlotta Kvarnemo Embryo oxygenation in pipefish brood pouches: novel insights. J. Exp. Biol.: 2015, 218(Pt 11);1639-46 PubMed 26041030

Kimberly A Paczolt, Adam G Jones The effects of food limitation on life history tradeoffs in pregnant male gulf pipefish. PLoS ONE: 2015, 10(5);e0124147 PubMed 25970284


Seadragon Development


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2016) Embryology Seahorse Development. Retrieved September 26, 2016, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Seahorse_Development

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