|Embryology - 21 Aug 2018 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Taxon
- 4 Rabbit Reproductive Cycle
- 5 Developmental Timeline
- 6 Gonad Development
- 7 Historic Images
- 8 Rabbit Placentation
- 9 Neural Development
- 10 Ultrasound
- 11 Rabbit Immune Development
- 12 Postnatal Rabbit Growth
- 13 References
- 14 External Links
- 15 Glossary Links
As an embryological tool, the rabbit (Taxon- Oryctolagus cuniculus) along with human was a species which show birth defects with thalidomide (teratogenic effects not detected with prior testing on other species).
These animals are herbivores with a very high breeding rate and number of offspring produced. Rabbit ovulation is induced by mating allowing an accurate staging of embryonic age and pregnancy.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Sadi Memis, Celal Candirli, Gokcen Kerimoglu Short term histopathological effects of GaAlAs laser on experimentally induced TMJ osteoarthritis in rabbits. Braz Oral Res: 2018, 32;e90 PubMed 30110088
Tijana Drobnjak, Hamutal Meiri, Maurizio Mandalá, Berthold Huppertz, Sveinbjörn Gizurarson Pharmacokinetics of placental protein 13 after intravenous and subcutaneous administration in rabbits. Drug Des Devel Ther: 2018, 12;1977-1983 PubMed 30013317
Gloria Pelizzo, Maria Antonietta Avanzini, Antonia Icaro Cornaglia, Annalisa De Silvestri, Melissa Mantelli, Paola Travaglino, Stefania Croce, Piero Romano, Luigi Avolio, Giulio Iacob, Massimo Dominici, Valeria Calcaterra Extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal cells: perspective treatment for cutaneous wound healing in pediatrics. Regen Med: 2018, 13(4);385-394 PubMed 29985749
Adnan Gücük, Gizem Söyler, Uğur Üyetürk, Burak Yılmaz, İsmail Nalbant, Sebahat Gücük, Aysel Kükner, Ayhan Çetinkaya Does ureteral access sheat usage lead to permanent damage in the ureter? A placebo controlled trial in a rabbit model. Acta Cir Bras: 2018, 33(5);408-414 PubMed 29924211
John M DeSesso, Anthony R Scialli Bone development in laboratory mammals used in developmental toxicity studies. Birth Defects Res: 2018; PubMed 29921029
Taxonomy Id: 9986 Rank: species
Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 2 Other names: New Zealand rabbit[includes], rabbits[common name], European rabbit[common name], Japanese white rabbit[common name], domestic rabbit[common name], rabbit[common name], Lepus cuniculus[misnomer]
Lineage( abbreviated ): Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Mammalia; Eutheria; Lagomorpha; Leporidae; Oryctolagus
- The Oryctolagus cuniculus haploid genome is estimated to be 3500 Mb.
- The diploid genome is organized in 21 pairs of autosomes and two sex chromosomes.
- Rabbit gene sequences are more similar to human sequences than rodent ones.
- Links: Genome Project Report
Rabbit Reproductive Cycle
|Early growth of the rabbit morula and blastocyst.|
Early development data from an in vitro development study.
| Fertilization - penetration of most ova during the first hour after ovulation.
Timeline of rabbit gonad development.
Day post coïtum (dpc)
- 9 - first germ cells are detected in both sexes.
- 14 - gonad macroscopically evident, the mesonephros and gonads are still connected and interactions between tissues are probable.
- 16 - most germ cells already entered the genital ridges (crests).
- 16 to 25 - regression of the mesonephros.
- 23 - gonadal and mesonephric tissues are separated by connective tissue. Thought to prevent the migration of cells and other substances.
Days post partum (dpp)
- birth - XX gonads first signs of meiosis.
- 50 - XY gonads first signs of meiosis.
- 70 - blood-testis barrier is definitively complete.
(text modified from reference)
- Links: Genital System Development
The following plates are from Normal Plates of the Development of Vertebrates Vol. 5. 1905 Rabbit (Lepus cuniculus) by Charles S. Minot and Edwing Taylor.
Pincus G. and Enzmann EV. The Comparative Behavior of Mammalian Eggs in Vivo and in Vitro. (1935) J Exp Med. 62(5):665-75. PMID 19870440
The following drawings were compiled in the textbooks: Bailey, F.R. and Miller, A.M. (1921). Text-Book of Embryology. New York: William Wood and Co; Foster, M., Balfour, F. M., Sedgwick, A., & Heape, W. (1883). The Elements of Embryology. (2nd ed.). London: Macmillan and Co.
|Limb Vasculature (veins)|
|Rabbit embryo of 14 days (11 mm), modified from Lewis.||Rabbit embryo of 14 days and 18 hours (14.5 mm), modified from Lewis.||Rabbit embryo of 17 days (21 mm), modified from Lewis.|
Rabbit implantation and placentation is a centric (or fusion) type, where the blastocyst adheres only to the epithelial cells (apical region) by trophectoderm forming projections.
- 6 - 8 somite stage - the flat neural plate transforms into a V-shaped neural groove (beginning at rhombo-cervical level)
- 8 and 9 somite stage - multiple closure sites occur simultaneously at three levels
- incipient pros-mesencephalic transition
- incipient mes-rhombencephalic transition
- level of the first pairs of somites
results in four transient neuropores
- 9-11 somite stages - anterior and rhombencephalic neuropores close
- mesencephalic neuropore is very briefly present
- largest and remains open longest
- 9-10 somite stages - tapered (cranial) portion closes fast within
- wide (caudal) portion closes up to a narrow slit
- further closure slows
- 22 somite stage - full closure occurs
compared with chick and mouse - sequence of multiple site closure resembles that of the mouse embryo, but other important aspects of neurulation resemble those of the chick embryo. In contrast to mouse and chick, no time lag between closure at the three closure sites in the rabbit was seen
|Ultrasound of a 16 day rabbit embryo.|
Rabbit Immune Development
Rabbits generate their antibody repertoire in three stages.
- Neonatal repertoire is generated by B lymphopoiesis in fetal liver and bone marrow (limited by preferential V(H) gene segment usage).
- Between 4 and 8 weeks after birth gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) a complex primary antibody repertoire.
- The primary antibody repertoire is subsequently modified during antigen-dependent immune responses (the secondary repertoire).
Rabbits uniquely develop a primary antibody repertoire through somatic diversification of Ig genes (dependent on intestinal microbial flora).
The esacculus rotundus is located at the ileocaecal junction as an enlargement of the large intestine and contains lymphoid tissue.
Postnatal Rabbit Growth
Postnatal growth data from 2 to 34 weeks of age at biweekly intervals for New Zealand white rabbit.
- 17 male and 12 female rabbits, with the data tabulated separately.
- Skeletal growth was complete at 28 weeks, with the 34 week values mature adult lengths.
Mean body weight
- 2 weeks of age was 6% that at 34 weeks
- 16 weeks was 72% of the weight at 34 weeks
- weight continued to increase in the adult.
Mean body length
- 2 weeks was 40% that at 34 weeks
- 16 weeks was 91% of mature adult
Mean femoral length
- 2 weeks was 38% of adult
- 16 weeks was 95% of adult
Mean tibial length
- 2 weeks was 38% of adult
- 16 weeks was 94% of adult
Nathalie Daniel-Carlier, Erwana Harscoët, Dominique Thépot, Aurélie Auguste, Eric Pailhoux, Geneviève Jolivet Gonad differentiation in the rabbit: evidence of species-specific features. PLoS ONE: 2013, 8(4);e60451 PubMed 23593221
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- Yoshinori Kawamura, Kiyoshi Matsumoto, Keiichiro Sato Stability of the reproductive variables and fetal malformations from control animals and animals treated with thalidomide in Kbl:JW rabbits over two decades. Congenit Anom (Kyoto): 2012, 52(4);191-202 PubMed 23181494
- Valerie A Marshall, Edward W Carney Rabbit whole embryo culture. Methods Mol. Biol.: 2012, 889;239-52 PubMed 22669668
- Kathleen Roellig, Frank Goeritz, Thomas B Hildebrandt Ultrasonographic characterisation of prenatal development in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus PALLAS, 1778): an evolutionary approach. Reprod. Fertil. Dev.: 2010, 22(2);448-58 PubMed 20047730
- Julianna Kobolak, Katalin Kiss, Zsuzsanna Polgar, Solomon Mamo, Claire Rogel-Gaillard, Zsuzsanna Tancos, Istvan Bock, Arpad G Baji, Krisztina Tar, Melinda K Pirity, Andras Dinnyes Promoter analysis of the rabbit POU5F1 gene and its expression in preimplantation stage embryos. BMC Mol. Biol.: 2009, 10;88 PubMed 19732419
- S M Warner, F V Conlon, M T Kane Inositol transport in preimplantation rabbit embryos: effects of embryo stage, sodium, osmolality and metabolic inhibitors. Reproduction: 2003, 125(4);479-93 PubMed 12683919
- Fowzia Sultana, Masanori Hatori, Nobuhiro Shimozawa, Takashi Ebisawa, Tadashi Sankai Continuous observation of rabbit preimplantation embryos in vitro by using a culture device connected to a microscope. J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci.: 2009, 48(1);52-6 PubMed 19245751
- Kevin Y Lee, Francesco J DeMayo Animal models of implantation. Reproduction: 2004, 128(6);679-95 PubMed 15579585
- M C Peeters, C Viebahn, J W Hekking, H W van Straaten Neurulation in the rabbit embryo. Anat. Embryol.: 1998, 197(3);167-75 PubMed 9543335
- D Lanning, X Zhu, S K Zhai, K L Knight Development of the antibody repertoire in rabbit: gut-associated lymphoid tissue, microbes, and selection. Immunol. Rev.: 2000, 175;214-28 PubMed 10933605
- I Masoud, F Shapiro, R Kent, A Moses A longitudinal study of the growth of the New Zealand white rabbit: cumulative and biweekly incremental growth rates for body length, body weight, femoral length, and tibial length. J. Orthop. Res.: 1986, 4(2);221-31 PubMed 3712130
Bernd Fischer, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer, Christoph Viebahn, Anne Navarrete Santos, Veronique Duranthon Rabbit as a reproductive model for human health. Reproduction: 2012, 144(1);1-10 PubMed 22580370
| Reproduction Bernd Püschel, Eva Bitzer, Martin Blum, Christoph Viebahn Mounting, embedding, and sectioning of early rabbit embryos. Cold Spring Harb Protoc: 2010, 2010(1);pdb.prot5356 PubMed 20150115
Bernd Püschel, Nathalie Daniel, Eva Bitzer, Martin Blum, Jean-Paul Renard, Christoph Viebahn The rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus): a model for mammalian reproduction and early embryology. Cold Spring Harb Protoc: 2010, 2010(1);pdb.emo139 PubMed 20150104
Romia Hassoun, Peter Schwartz, Detlef Rath, Christoph Viebahn, Jörg Männer Germ layer differentiation during early hindgut and cloaca formation in rabbit and pig embryos. J. Anat.: 2010, 217(6);665-78 PubMed 20874819
Jan Idkowiak, Gunnar Weisheit, Christoph Viebahn Polarity in the rabbit embryo. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol.: 2004, 15(5);607-17 PubMed 15271306
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations The Rabbit - Husbandry, Health and Production (1997)