Octopus Development

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Introduction

The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) is a marine predator and an interesting model of neural structure for learning and memory.


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  • Historically the development of the squid genus (Loligo) was widely studied.
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Some Recent Findings

  • A Practical Staging Atlas to Study Embryonic Development of Octopus Vulgaris Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions[1] "Octopus vulgaris has been an iconic cephalopod species for neurobiology research as well as for cephalopod aquaculture. It is one of the most intelligent and well-studied invertebrates, possessing both long- and short-term memory and the striking ability to perform complex cognitive tasks. Nevertheless, how the common octopus developed these uncommon features remains enigmatic. O. vulgaris females spawn thousands of small eggs and remain with their clutch during their entire development, cleaning, venting and protecting the eggs. In fact, eggs incubated without females usually do not develop normally, mainly due to biological contamination (fungi, bacteria, etc.). This high level of parental care might have hampered laboratory research on the embryonic development of this intriguing cephalopod."
More recent papers  
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Search term: Octopus Embryology | Octopus Development

Older papers  
These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.

Overview

Octopus bimaculatus embryonic development[2]

Octopus bimaculatus embryonic development timeline.jpg


Taxon

Common name: common octopus

NCBI BLAST name: cephalopods

Rank: species

Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 5 (Invertebrate Mitochondrial)

Lineage (full)

cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Protostomia; Spiralia; Lophotrochozoa; Mollusca; Cephalopoda; Coleoidea; Neocoleoidea; Octopodiformes; Octopoda; Incirrata; Octopodidae; Octopus


Taxonomy ID: 6645

Embryonic Stages

Limb Development

Neural Development

Historic Images

Abnormalities

References

  1. Deryckere A, Styfhals R, Vidal EAG, Almansa E & Seuntjens E. (2020). A practical staging atlas to study embryonic development of Octopus vulgaris under controlled laboratory conditions. BMC Dev. Biol. , 20, 7. PMID: 32299349 DOI.
  2. López-Peraza DJ, Hernández-Rodríguez M & Barón-Sevilla B. (2014). Ontogeny of the digestive system of the Octopus bimaculatus paralarvae (Verril, 1883). Springerplus , 3, 22. PMID: 24683531 DOI.

Reviews

Di Cosmo A, Maselli V & Polese G. (2018). Octopus vulgaris: An Alternative in Evolution. Results Probl Cell Differ , 65, 585-598. PMID: 30083937 DOI.

Articles

Zarrella I, Herten K, Maes GE, Tai S, Yang M, Seuntjens E, Ritschard EA, Zach M, Styfhals R, Sanges R, Simakov O, Ponte G & Fiorito G. (2019). The survey and reference assisted assembly of the Octopus vulgaris genome. Sci Data , 6, 13. PMID: 30931949 DOI.

Albertin CB, Simakov O, Mitros T, Wang ZY, Pungor JR, Edsinger-Gonzales E, Brenner S, Ragsdale CW & Rokhsar DS. (2015). The octopus genome and the evolution of cephalopod neural and morphological novelties. Nature , 524, 220-4. PMID: 26268193 DOI.

López-Peraza DJ, Hernández-Rodríguez M & Barón-Sevilla B. (2014). Ontogeny of the digestive system of the Octopus bimaculatus paralarvae (Verril, 1883). Springerplus , 3, 22. PMID: 24683531 DOI.

Search Pubmed: octopus development

Historic

P. J. van Beneden. " Recherches sur 1'Embryogenie des Sepioles." Nouv. Mini. Acad. Roy. de Bruxelles, Vol. xiv. 1841.

N. Bobretzky. Observation on the development of the Cephalopoda (Russian). Nachrichten d. kaiserlichen Gesell. d. Freunde der Naturwiss. Anthropolog. Ethnogr. bei d. Universitdt Moskau.

H. Grenacher. " Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte d. Cephalopoden." Zeit. A. wiss. Zool., Bd. xxiv. 1874.

A. Kolliker. Entwicklungsgeschichte d. Cephalopoden. Zurich, 1844.

E. R. Lank ester. "Observations on the development of the Cephalopoda." Quart. J. of Micr. Science, Vol. xv. 1875.

E. Metschnikoff. * Le developpement des Sepioles." Archiv d. Sc. phys, et nat.y Vol. XXX. Genfcve, 1867.

Richards A Outline of Comparative Embryology. (1931)

Book - Outline of Comparative Embryology 1-7 Chapter VII Endoderm Formation

C. Cephalopods

The cephalopod eggs are unusually rich in yolk and consequently they are considerably larger than are the eggs of other molluscs. There is a considerable difference in egg size throughout the group, but the yolk takes up by far the most of the egg. The entire egg is covered with a thin layer of protoplasm, which becomes thicker to form a disc at the upper or future animal pole. The germ disc thus formed is sharply marked off from the yolk mass.

The cephalopod egg is bilateral even before cleavage sets in. At the part of the germ disc which is to become the anterior end of the embryo, the disc extends farther down toward the equator. Since the cleavage furrows pass into the thin layer of protoplasm surrounding the yolk, the first cleavage cells and later the outer cells of the disc, the blastocones, are not cut off from the peripheral protoplasm. The germ disc spreads out and increases in size, at first chiefly at the expense of the formative yolk with which the blastocones are connected. The germ disc, one cell in thickness and covering only a small part of the egg, becomes thickened at the periphery as it spreads. When the cleavage cells have increased to a considerable number the peripheral blastocones become detached from the germ disc. These cells, according to Vialleton, wander beneath the germ disc and become arranged into a layer which spreads over the food yolk, forming a yolk epithelium. The exact origin of the yolk epithelium seems still to be in doubt. Some say it originates from the nuclei within the yolk, others from cells of the germ disc itself. The origin of the layer need not be of very special concern to us at this time, for the yolk epithelium, though it surrounds the yolk mass, does not become the endoderm.

While the yolk epithelium is forming and the edge of the germ disc is becoming thickened, the outer cells of the disc increase rapidly (fig. 44). This outer layer extends gradually over the whole egg (and thus covers the growing yolk epithelium) and forms the ectoderm. These two layers, the ectoderm and the yolk epithelium, are soon followed by a third or middle layer, which also covers the yolk. There are thus two definite regions in the egg at this time, the germ disc which forms the embryonic rudiment, and the yolk sac composed of three layers.

The function of the yolk epithelium is to form an envelope for the yolk and to make it available to the embryo. In later stages this envelope surrounds the yolk as in the earlier development. There gradually forms an outer yolk sac of part of the yolk not covered by the developing embryo, and an inner yolk sac of that part which is embraced by the embryo’s body; the latter remains always connected to the outer yolk sac, but the connection becomes restricted to a narrow duct. The external yolk sac evidently passes on its contents to the internal sac and then the nutritive material is conducted to the embryo from the inner yolk sac by aid of the yolk epithelium. This seems the most logical method of absorption, for there are no known vessels in the external sac.

The extension of the germ disc over the yolk varies greatly in different cephalopods. In Sepia the germ disc is very small and the yolk sac very large. In forms like Loligo and Octopus the external yolk sac is more reduced and the embryo contains the greater part of the yolk. Grenacher studied a form in which there was scarcely any external yolk sac and at an early stage the small yolk mass was enclosed by the embryonic rudiment.

We have seen how the yolk sac and germ disc are formed and how their outer layers become ectodermal. We have still to describe the method of formation of the endoderm. About the time when the first rudiments of organs appear externally in the embryo, there may be seen, next to the yolk, an epithelial plate of only a few cells. It is the first indication of the enteron. It soon increases in size and becomes sac like, finally separating from the yolk. The yolk epithelium, previously lacking at this point, now grows under the enteron. The origin of the endodermal plate thus described is probably from the thickened peripheral mass at the edge of the germ disc which evidently represents meso-endoderm. The whole process is thus to be regarded as a much modified invagination, and the edge of the germ disc is the blastopore filled by the large yolk plug, which also fills the whole enteric cavity.


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, March 4) Embryology Octopus Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Octopus_Development

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