Neural - Thalamus Development

From Embryology
Embryology - 11 Dec 2018    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)

العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt    These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)

Stage10 sem6.jpg

Introduction

Adult diencephalon

Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.

The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects).

Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.

  • Neural development beginnings quite early, therefore also look at notes covering Week 3- neural tube and Week 4-early nervous system.
  • Development of the neural crest and sensory systems (hearing/vision/smell) are only introduced in these notes and are covered in other notes sections.


Neural Links: neural | ventricular | ectoderm | Stage 22 | gliogenesis | neural fetal | Medicine Lecture - Neural | Lecture - Ectoderm | Lecture - Neural Crest | Lab - Early Neural | neural crest | Sensory | neural abnormalities | folic acid | iodine deficiency | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | Postnatal | Postnatal - Neural Examination | Histology | Historic Neural | Category:Neural
Neural Parts: neural | prosencephalon | telencephalon cerebrum | amygdala | hippocampus | basal ganglia | lateral ventricles | diencephalon | Epithalamus | thalamus | hypothalamus‎ | pituitary | pineal | third ventricle | mesencephalon | tectum | cerebral aqueduct | rhombencephalon | metencephalon | pons | cerebellum | myelencephalon | medulla oblongata | spinal cord | neural vascular | meninges | Category:Neural

Some Recent Findings

Human Fetal Brain (3 months)
  • Thalamus Controls Development and Expression of Arousal States in Visual Cortex[1] "Two major checkpoints of development in cerebral cortex are the acquisition of continuous spontaneous activity and the modulation of this activity by behavioral state. Despite the critical importance of these functions, the circuit mechanisms of their development remain unknown. Here we use the rodent visual system as a model to test the hypothesis that the locus of circuit change responsible for the developmental acquisition of continuity and state dependence measured in sensory cortex is relay thalamus, rather than the local cortical circuitry or the interconnectivity of the two structures. We conducted simultaneous recordings in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and primary visual cortex (VC) of awake, head-fixed male and female rats using linear multielectrode arrays throughout early development. We find that activity in dLGN becomes continuous and positively correlated with movement (a measure of state dependence) on P13, the same day as VC, and that these properties are not dependent on VC activity. By contrast, silencing dLGN after P13 causes activity in VC to become discontinuous and movement to suppress, rather than augment, cortical firing, effectively reversing development. Thalamic bursting, a core characteristic of non-aroused states, emerged later, on P16, suggesting these processes are developmentally independent. Together our results indicate that cellular or circuit changes in relay thalamus are critical drivers for the maturation of background activity, which occurs around term in humans.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The developing brain acquires two crucial features, continuous spontaneous activity and its modulation by arousal state, around term in humans and before the onset of sensory experience in rodents. This developmental transition in cortical activity, as measured by electroencephalogram (EEG), is an important milestone for normal brain development and indicates a good prognosis for babies born preterm and/or suffering brain damage such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy."
  • Wnt3 and Wnt3a are required for induction of the mid-diencephalic organizer in the caudal forebrain[2] "The thalamus is located in the caudal diencephalon and is the central relay station between the sense organs and higher brain areas. The mid-diencephalic organizer (MDO) orchestrates the development of the thalamus by releasing secreted signaling molecules such as Shh. Here we show that canonical Wnt signaling in the caudal forebrain is required for the formation of the Shh-secreting MD organizer in zebrafish. "
  • Dynamic imaging of mammalian neural tube closure[3]
More recent papers  
Mark Hill.jpg
PubMed logo.gif

This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Thalamus Embryology

Ferenc Mátyás, Gergely Komlósi, Ákos Babiczky, Kinga Kocsis, Péter Barthó, Boglárka Barsy, Csaba Dávid, Vivien Kanti, Cesar Porrero, Aletta Magyar, Iván Szűcs, Francisco Clasca, László Acsády A highly collateralized thalamic cell type with arousal-predicting activity serves as a key hub for graded state transitions in the forebrain. Nat. Neurosci.: 2018; PubMed 30349105

Magnus Sandberg, Leila Taher, Jianxin Hu, Brian L Black, Alex S Nord, John L R Rubenstein Genomic analysis of transcriptional networks directing progression of cell states during MGE development. Neural Dev: 2018, 13(1);21 PubMed 30217225

Bea R H van den Bergh, Robert Dahnke, Maarten Mennes Prenatal stress and the developing brain: Risks for neurodevelopmental disorders. Dev. Psychopathol.: 2018, 30(3);743-762 PubMed 30068407

Sarah Xinwei Luo, Ju Huang, Qin Li, Hasan Mohammad, Chun-Yao Lee, Kumar Krishna, Alison Maun-Yeng Kok, Yu Lin Tan, Joy Yi Lim, Hongyu Li, Ling Yun Yeow, Jingjing Sun, Miao He, Joanes Grandjean, Sreedharan Sajikumar, Weiping Han, Yu Fu Regulation of feeding by somatostatin neurons in the tuberal nucleus. Science: 2018, 361(6397);76-81 PubMed 29976824

Arpad Dobolyi, Melinda Cservenák, Larry J Young Thalamic integration of social stimuli regulating parental behavior and the oxytocin system. Front Neuroendocrinol: 2018; PubMed 29842887

Embryonic Thalamus

Week 8

Stage 22 image 322.jpg

Stage 22 image 205.jpg

Human Stage 22 brain.

The basal part of the telencephalon forms the basal ganglia, a solid mass. Posteromedially these basal ganglia are in contact with the diencephalon. The large masses in either side of the diencephalon form the thalami.

Fetal Thalamus

Brain tract development 06.jpg

Brain lateral view 13, 15, and 19 weeks the developing thalamus is shown in yellow.[4]

Brain ventricles and ganglia development 01.jpg

MRI three-dimensional reconstruction of the whole fetal brain (lower row; yellow - thalamus)


Development Overview

Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.

Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest


Neural Tube Primary Vesicles Secondary Vesicles Adult Structures
week 3 week 4 week 5 adult
neural plate
neural groove
neural tube

Brain
Prosencephalon Telencephalon Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cerebrum (Cortex), Hypothalamus, Pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles
Diencephalon Epithalamus, Thalamus, Subthalamus, Pineal, third ventricle
Mesencephalon Mesencephalon Tectum, Cerebral peduncle, Pretectum, cerebral aqueduct
Rhombencephalon Metencephalon Pons, Cerebellum
Myelencephalon Medulla Oblongata
Spinal Cord

Early Brain Vesicles

Primary Vesicles

CNS primary vesicles.jpg

Secondary Vesicles

CNS secondary vesicles.jpg

References

  1. Murata Y & Colonnese MT. (2018). Thalamus Controls Development and Expression of Arousal States in Visual Cortex. J. Neurosci. , 38, 8772-8786. PMID: 30150360 DOI.
  2. Mattes B, Weber S, Peres J, Chen Q, Davidson G, Houart C & Scholpp S. (2012). Wnt3 and Wnt3a are required for induction of the mid-diencephalic organizer in the caudal forebrain. Neural Dev , 7, 12. PMID: 22475147 DOI.
  3. Pyrgaki C, Trainor P, Hadjantonakis AK & Niswander L. (2010). Dynamic imaging of mammalian neural tube closure. Dev. Biol. , 344, 941-7. PMID: 20558153 DOI.
  4. Huang H, Xue R, Zhang J, Ren T, Richards LJ, Yarowsky P, Miller MI & Mori S. (2009). Anatomical characterization of human fetal brain development with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. J. Neurosci. , 29, 4263-73. PMID: 19339620 DOI.

Reviews

Greene ND & Copp AJ. (2009). Development of the vertebrate central nervous system: formation of the neural tube. Prenat. Diagn. , 29, 303-11. PMID: 19206138 DOI.

Articles

Saitsu H & Shiota K. (2008). Involvement of the axially condensed tail bud mesenchyme in normal and abnormal human posterior neural tube development. Congenit Anom (Kyoto) , 48, 1-6. PMID: 18230116 DOI.

Search PubMed

Search Pubmed: Thalamus Embryology | Thalamus Development

Additional Images

Quinlan R, Graf M, Mason I, Lumsden A & Kiecker C. (2009). Complex and dynamic patterns of Wnt pathway gene expression in the developing chick forebrain. Neural Dev , 4, 35. PMID: 19732418 DOI.

Chicken- neural Wnt expression.jpg "Wnt4 expression in the thalamus is repressed by Shh from the ZLI we reveal an additional level of interaction between these two pathways and provide an example for the cross-regulation between patterning centres during forebrain regionalisation."

Historic Images

Bailey FR. and Miller AM. Text-Book of Embryology (1921) New York: William Wood and Co.


Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 11) Embryology Neural - Thalamus Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Thalamus_Development

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G