Neural - Thalamus Development
|Embryology - 11 Dec 2018 Expand to Translate|
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Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.
The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects).
Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.
- Neural development beginnings quite early, therefore also look at notes covering Week 3- neural tube and Week 4-early nervous system.
- Development of the neural crest and sensory systems (hearing/vision/smell) are only introduced in these notes and are covered in other notes sections.
- Neural Parts: neural | prosencephalon | telencephalon cerebrum | amygdala | hippocampus | basal ganglia | lateral ventricles | diencephalon | Epithalamus | thalamus | hypothalamus | pituitary | pineal | third ventricle | mesencephalon | tectum | cerebral aqueduct | rhombencephalon | metencephalon | pons | cerebellum | myelencephalon | medulla oblongata | spinal cord | neural vascular | meninges | Category:Neural
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Ferenc Mátyás, Gergely Komlósi, Ákos Babiczky, Kinga Kocsis, Péter Barthó, Boglárka Barsy, Csaba Dávid, Vivien Kanti, Cesar Porrero, Aletta Magyar, Iván Szűcs, Francisco Clasca, László Acsády A highly collateralized thalamic cell type with arousal-predicting activity serves as a key hub for graded state transitions in the forebrain. Nat. Neurosci.: 2018; PubMed 30349105
Magnus Sandberg, Leila Taher, Jianxin Hu, Brian L Black, Alex S Nord, John L R Rubenstein Genomic analysis of transcriptional networks directing progression of cell states during MGE development. Neural Dev: 2018, 13(1);21 PubMed 30217225
Bea R H van den Bergh, Robert Dahnke, Maarten Mennes Prenatal stress and the developing brain: Risks for neurodevelopmental disorders. Dev. Psychopathol.: 2018, 30(3);743-762 PubMed 30068407
Sarah Xinwei Luo, Ju Huang, Qin Li, Hasan Mohammad, Chun-Yao Lee, Kumar Krishna, Alison Maun-Yeng Kok, Yu Lin Tan, Joy Yi Lim, Hongyu Li, Ling Yun Yeow, Jingjing Sun, Miao He, Joanes Grandjean, Sreedharan Sajikumar, Weiping Han, Yu Fu Regulation of feeding by somatostatin neurons in the tuberal nucleus. Science: 2018, 361(6397);76-81 PubMed 29976824
Arpad Dobolyi, Melinda Cservenák, Larry J Young Thalamic integration of social stimuli regulating parental behavior and the oxytocin system. Front Neuroendocrinol: 2018; PubMed 29842887
Human Stage 22 brain.
The basal part of the telencephalon forms the basal ganglia, a solid mass. Posteromedially these basal ganglia are in contact with the diencephalon. The large masses in either side of the diencephalon form the thalami.
Brain lateral view 13, 15, and 19 weeks the developing thalamus is shown in yellow.
Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.
- Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest
|Neural Tube||Primary Vesicles||Secondary Vesicles||Adult Structures|
|week 3||week 4||week 5||adult|
|Prosencephalon||Telencephalon||Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cerebrum (Cortex), Hypothalamus, Pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles|
|Diencephalon||Epithalamus, Thalamus, Subthalamus, Pineal, third ventricle|
|Mesencephalon||Mesencephalon||Tectum, Cerebral peduncle, Pretectum, cerebral aqueduct|
Early Brain Vesicles
- Murata Y & Colonnese MT. (2018). Thalamus Controls Development and Expression of Arousal States in Visual Cortex. J. Neurosci. , 38, 8772-8786. PMID: 30150360 DOI.
- Mattes B, Weber S, Peres J, Chen Q, Davidson G, Houart C & Scholpp S. (2012). Wnt3 and Wnt3a are required for induction of the mid-diencephalic organizer in the caudal forebrain. Neural Dev , 7, 12. PMID: 22475147 DOI.
- Pyrgaki C, Trainor P, Hadjantonakis AK & Niswander L. (2010). Dynamic imaging of mammalian neural tube closure. Dev. Biol. , 344, 941-7. PMID: 20558153 DOI.
- Huang H, Xue R, Zhang J, Ren T, Richards LJ, Yarowsky P, Miller MI & Mori S. (2009). Anatomical characterization of human fetal brain development with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. J. Neurosci. , 29, 4263-73. PMID: 19339620 DOI.
Saitsu H & Shiota K. (2008). Involvement of the axially condensed tail bud mesenchyme in normal and abnormal human posterior neural tube development. Congenit Anom (Kyoto) , 48, 1-6. PMID: 18230116 DOI.
|"Wnt4 expression in the thalamus is repressed by Shh from the ZLI we reveal an additional level of interaction between these two pathways and provide an example for the cross-regulation between patterning centres during forebrain regionalisation."|
Bailey FR. and Miller AM. Text-Book of Embryology (1921) New York: William Wood and Co.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 11) Embryology Neural - Thalamus Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Thalamus_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G