Neural - Rhombencephalon Development

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Introduction

Stage10 sem6.jpg

Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.

The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects).

Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.

  • Neural development beginnings quite early, therefore also look at notes covering Week 3- neural tube and Week 4-early nervous system.
  • Development of the neural crest and sensory systems (hearing/vision/smell) are only introduced in these notes and are covered in other notes sections.


Neural Links: ectoderm | neural | neural crest | ventricular | sensory | Stage 22 | gliogenesis | neural fetal | Medicine Lecture - Neural | Lecture - Ectoderm | Lecture - Neural Crest | Lab - Early Neural | neural abnormalities | folic acid | iodine deficiency | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | neural postnatal | neural examination | Histology | Historic Neural | Category:Neural
Neural Parts: neural | prosencephalon | telencephalon cerebrum | amygdala | hippocampus | basal ganglia | lateral ventricles | diencephalon | Epithalamus | thalamus | hypothalamus‎ | pituitary | pineal | third ventricle | mesencephalon | tectum | cerebral aqueduct | rhombencephalon | metencephalon | pons | cerebellum | myelencephalon | medulla oblongata | spinal cord | neural vascular | meninges | Category:Neural

Some Recent Findings

Mouse - rhombomere boundaries[1]
  • Clonal analysis in mice underlines the importance of rhombomeric boundaries in cell movement restriction during hindbrain segmentation[1] "Our results show that the compartment border coincides with the morphological boundary in the mouse hindbrain. The restriction of the cells to cross rhombomeric boundaries seen in chick is also observed in mouse. We show that the rhombomeric boundaries themselves are involved in cell movement restriction, although an underlying pre-pattern during early embryonic development might influence the way that cell populations organize."
More recent papers  
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Search term: Rhombencephalon Embryology

<pubmed limit=5>Rhombencephalon Embryology</pubmed>

Development Overview

Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.

Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest


Neural Tube Development
Neural Tube Primary Vesicles Secondary Vesicles Adult Structures
week 3 week 4 week 5 adult
neural plate
neural groove
neural tube

Brain
prosencephalon telencephalon Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cerebrum (Cortex), Hypothalamus, Pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles
Diencephalon Epithalamus, Thalamus, Subthalamus, Pineal, third ventricle
mesencephalon mesencephalon Tectum, Cerebral peduncle, Pretectum, cerebral aqueduct
rhombencephalon metencephalon pons, cerebellum
myelencephalon medulla oblongata
spinal cord

Primary Vesicles

Brain primary vesicle development (Carnegie stage 13)

CNS primary vesicles.jpg


Rhombomere Boundaries

Chicken- rhombomere boundary FGF3 expression.jpg

Chicken expression of fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3) at rhombomere boundaries at different somite stages.[2]

Flat-mounted hindbrains from different-staged embryos in situ hybridized with FGF3 probe.


Mouse - rhombomere boundaries.jpg

Mouse - rhombomere boundaries[1]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Jimenez-Guri E, Udina F, Colas JF, Sharpe J, Padrón-Barthe L, Torres M & Pujades C. (2010). Clonal analysis in mice underlines the importance of rhombomeric boundaries in cell movement restriction during hindbrain segmentation. PLoS ONE , 5, e10112. PMID: 20404937 DOI. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "PMID20404937" defined multiple times with different content
  2. <pubmed>19232109</pubmed>| PMC2656489 | BMC Dev Biol.

Reviews

<pubmed>19206138</pubmed>


Articles

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Search Pubmed: Rhombencephalon Embryology | Rhombencephalon Development |


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, December 9) Embryology Neural - Rhombencephalon Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Rhombencephalon_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G