Neural - Rhombencephalon Development

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Notice - Mark Hill
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Stage10 sem6.jpg

Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.

The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects).

Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.

  • Neural development beginnings quite early, therefore also look at notes covering Week 3- neural tube and Week 4-early nervous system.
  • Development of the neural crest and sensory systems (hearing/vision/smell) are only introduced in these notes and are covered in other notes sections.

Neural Links: neural | ventricular | ectoderm | Stage 22 | gliogenesis | neural fetal | Medicine Lecture - Neural | Lecture - Ectoderm | Lecture - Neural Crest | Lab - Early Neural | neural crest | Sensory | neural abnormalities | folic acid | iodine deficiency | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | Postnatal | Postnatal - Neural Examination | Histology | Historic Neural | Category:Neural
Neural Parts: neural | prosencephalon | telencephalon cerebrum | amygdala | hippocampus | basal ganglia | lateral ventricles | diencephalon | Epithalamus | thalamus | hypothalamus‎ | pituitary | pineal | third ventricle | mesencephalon | tectum | cerebral aqueduct | rhombencephalon | metencephalon | pons | cerebellum | myelencephalon | medulla oblongata | spinal cord | neural vascular | meninges | Category:Neural

Some Recent Findings

Mouse - rhombomere boundaries[1]
  • Clonal analysis in mice underlines the importance of rhombomeric boundaries in cell movement restriction during hindbrain segmentation[1] "Our results show that the compartment border coincides with the morphological boundary in the mouse hindbrain. The restriction of the cells to cross rhombomeric boundaries seen in chick is also observed in mouse. We show that the rhombomeric boundaries themselves are involved in cell movement restriction, although an underlying pre-pattern during early embryonic development might influence the way that cell populations organize."
More recent papers  
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches

Search term: Rhombencephalon Embryology

Luciana Nakaghi Ganeco-Kirschnik, Irene Bastos Franceschini-Vicentini, Maria do Carmo Faria Paes, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi Embryonic development of teleost Brycon orbignyanus. Zygote: 2018;1-7 PubMed 30223908

César Augusto Pinheiro Ferreira Alves, Diego Cardoso Fragoso, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Victor Hugo Marussi, Lázaro Luís Faria do Amaral Cerebellar Ataxia in Children: A Clinical and MRI Approach to the Differential Diagnosis. Top Magn Reson Imaging: 2018, 27(4);275-302 PubMed 30086112

Bea R H van den Bergh, Robert Dahnke, Maarten Mennes Prenatal stress and the developing brain: Risks for neurodevelopmental disorders. Dev. Psychopathol.: 2018, 30(3);743-762 PubMed 30068407

Zeferino Junior Demartini, Tatiana von Hertwig de Oliveira, Ricardo Munhoz da Rocha Guimarães, Alfredo Löhr, Gelson Luis Koppe, Luana A Maranha Gatto Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Origin over the C2 Posterior Arch. Pediatr Neurosurg: 2018, 53(5);364-366 PubMed 30048991

Menno R Germans, Zsolt Kulcsar, Luca Regli, Oliver Bozinov Clipping of Ruptured Aneurysm of Lateral Spinal Artery Associated with Anastomosis to Distal Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery: A Case Report. World Neurosurg: 2018, 117;186-189 PubMed 29935320

Development Overview

Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.

Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest

Neural Tube Primary Vesicles Secondary Vesicles Adult Structures
week 3 week 4 week 5 adult
neural plate
neural groove
neural tube

Prosencephalon Telencephalon Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cerebrum (Cortex), Hypothalamus, Pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles
Diencephalon Epithalamus, Thalamus, Subthalamus, Pineal, third ventricle
Mesencephalon Mesencephalon Tectum, Cerebral peduncle, Pretectum, cerebral aqueduct
Rhombencephalon Metencephalon Pons, Cerebellum
Myelencephalon Medulla Oblongata
Spinal Cord

Primary Vesicles

Brain primary vesicle development (Carnegie stage 13)

CNS primary vesicles.jpg

Rhombomere Boundaries

Chicken- rhombomere boundary FGF3 expression.jpg

Chicken expression of fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3) at rhombomere boundaries at different somite stages.[2]

Flat-mounted hindbrains from different-staged embryos in situ hybridized with FGF3 probe.

Mouse - rhombomere boundaries.jpg

Mouse - rhombomere boundaries[1]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Jimenez-Guri E, Udina F, Colas JF, Sharpe J, Padrón-Barthe L, Torres M & Pujades C. (2010). Clonal analysis in mice underlines the importance of rhombomeric boundaries in cell movement restriction during hindbrain segmentation. PLoS ONE , 5, e10112. PMID: 20404937 DOI. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "PMID20404937" defined multiple times with different content
  2. Dalit Sela-Donenfeld, Galya Kayam, David G Wilkinson Boundary cells regulate a switch in the expression of FGF3 in hindbrain rhombomeres. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2009, 9;16 PubMed 19232109 | PMC2656489 | BMC Dev Biol.


Nicholas D E Greene, Andrew J Copp Development of the vertebrate central nervous system: formation of the neural tube. Prenat. Diagn.: 2009, 29(4);303-11 PubMed 19206138


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Search Pubmed: Rhombencephalon Embryology | Rhombencephalon Development |

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 11) Embryology Neural - Rhombencephalon Development. Retrieved from

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© Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G