Neural - Rhinencephalon Development

From Embryology
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Introduction

Rhinencephalon

The rhinencephalon comprises the olfactory lobe, the uncus, the subcallosal and supracallosal gyri, the fascia dentata hippocampi, the septum pellucidum, the fornix, and the hippocampus.

Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.

The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects).

Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.

  • Neural development beginnings quite early, therefore also look at notes covering Week 3- neural tube and Week 4-early nervous system.
  • Development of the neural crest and sensory systems (hearing/vision/smell) are only introduced in these notes and are covered in other notes sections.


Neural Links: Introduction | Ventricular System | Stage 22 | Gliogenesis | Fetal | Medicine Lecture - Neural | Lecture - Ectoderm | Lecture - Neural Crest | Lab - Early Neural | Neural Crest | Sensory | Abnormalities | Folic Acid | Iodine Deficiency | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | Postnatal | Postnatal - Neural Examination | Histology | Historic Neural | Category:Neural
| Sensory - Smell Development | Hippocampus Development

Some Recent Findings

  • Early expression of odorant receptors distorts the olfactory circuitry[1] "hus, we show that initiation of transgenic odorant receptor (OR) expression early in the development of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), rather than just the extent of transgene expression, determines its effectiveness at modifying olfactory bulb (OB) anatomy and function. Together, these data imply that OR-expression timing needs to be very tightly controlled to achieve the precise wiring and function of the mammalian olfactory system."

Development Overview

Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.

Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest


Neural Tube Primary Vesicles Secondary Vesicles Adult Structures
week 3 week 4 week 5 adult
neural plate
neural groove
neural tube

Brain
Prosencephalon Telencephalon Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cerebrum (Cortex), Hypothalamus, Pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles
Diencephalon Epithalamus, Thalamus, Subthalamus, Pineal, third ventricle
Mesencephalon Mesencephalon Tectum, Cerebral peduncle, Pretectum, cerebral aqueduct
Rhombencephalon Metencephalon Pons, Cerebellum
Myelencephalon Medulla Oblongata
Spinal Cord

Early Brain Vesicles

Primary Vesicles

CNS primary vesicles.jpg

Secondary Vesicles

CNS secondary vesicles.jpg

References

  1. Minh Q Nguyen, Carolyn A Marks, Leonardo Belluscio, Nicholas J P Ryba Early expression of odorant receptors distorts the olfactory circuitry. J. Neurosci.: 2010, 30(27);9271-9 PubMed 20610762

Reviews

Takeshi Shimizu, Masahiko Hibi Formation and patterning of the forebrain and olfactory system by zinc-finger genes Fezf1 and Fezf2. Dev. Growth Differ.: 2009, 51(3);221-31 PubMed 19222525

K E Whitlock Developing a sense of scents: plasticity in olfactory placode formation. Brain Res. Bull.: 2008, 75(2-4);340-7 PubMed 18331896

Serena Bovetti, Paolo Peretto, Aldo Fasolo, Silvia De Marchis Spatio-temporal specification of olfactory bulb interneurons. J. Mol. Histol.: 2007, 38(6);563-9 PubMed 17588153

Timothy R Henion, Gerald A Schwarting Patterning the developing and regenerating olfactory system. J. Cell. Physiol.: 2007, 210(2);290-7 PubMed 17111357

Curtis W Balmer, Anthony-Samuel LaMantia Noses and neurons: induction, morphogenesis, and neuronal differentiation in the peripheral olfactory pathway. Dev. Dyn.: 2005, 234(3);464-81 PubMed 16193510


Articles


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Neural - Rhinencephalon Development. Retrieved October 24, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Rhinencephalon_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G