Neural - Rhinencephalon Development
The rhinencephalon comprises the olfactory lobe, the uncus, the subcallosal and supracallosal gyri, the fascia dentata hippocampi, the septum pellucidum, the fornix, and the hippocampus.
Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.
The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects).
Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.
- Neural development beginnings quite early, therefore also look at notes covering Week 3- neural tube and Week 4-early nervous system.
- Development of the neural crest and sensory systems (hearing/vision/smell) are only introduced in these notes and are covered in other notes sections.
Some Recent Findings
Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.
- Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest
|Neural Tube||Primary Vesicles||Secondary Vesicles||Adult Structures|
|week 3||week 4||week 5||adult|
|Prosencephalon||Telencephalon||Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cerebrum (Cortex), Hypothalamus, Pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles|
|Diencephalon||Epithalamus, Thalamus, Subthalamus, Pineal, third ventricle|
|Mesencephalon||Mesencephalon||Tectum, Cerebral peduncle, Pretectum, cerebral aqueduct|
Early Brain Vesicles
- Minh Q Nguyen, Carolyn A Marks, Leonardo Belluscio, Nicholas J P Ryba Early expression of odorant receptors distorts the olfactory circuitry. J. Neurosci.: 2010, 30(27);9271-9 PubMed 20610762
Takeshi Shimizu, Masahiko Hibi Formation and patterning of the forebrain and olfactory system by zinc-finger genes Fezf1 and Fezf2. Dev. Growth Differ.: 2009, 51(3);221-31 PubMed 19222525
K E Whitlock Developing a sense of scents: plasticity in olfactory placode formation. Brain Res. Bull.: 2008, 75(2-4);340-7 PubMed 18331896
Serena Bovetti, Paolo Peretto, Aldo Fasolo, Silvia De Marchis Spatio-temporal specification of olfactory bulb interneurons. J. Mol. Histol.: 2007, 38(6);563-9 PubMed 17588153
Timothy R Henion, Gerald A Schwarting Patterning the developing and regenerating olfactory system. J. Cell. Physiol.: 2007, 210(2);290-7 PubMed 17111357
Curtis W Balmer, Anthony-Samuel LaMantia Noses and neurons: induction, morphogenesis, and neuronal differentiation in the peripheral olfactory pathway. Dev. Dyn.: 2005, 234(3);464-81 PubMed 16193510
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2018 Embryology Neural - Rhinencephalon Development. Retrieved January 16, 2018, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Rhinencephalon_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G