Neural - Prosencephalon Development
|Embryology - 11 Dec 2018 Expand to Translate|
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Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.
The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects).
Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.
- Neural development beginnings quite early, therefore also look at notes covering Week 3- neural tube and Week 4-early nervous system.
- Development of the neural crest and sensory systems (hearing/vision/smell) are only introduced in these notes and are covered in other notes sections.
- Neural Parts: neural | prosencephalon | telencephalon cerebrum | amygdala | hippocampus | basal ganglia | lateral ventricles | diencephalon | Epithalamus | thalamus | hypothalamus | pituitary | pineal | third ventricle | mesencephalon | tectum | cerebral aqueduct | rhombencephalon | metencephalon | pons | cerebellum | myelencephalon | medulla oblongata | spinal cord | neural vascular | meninges | Category:Neural
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.
- Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest
|Neural Tube||Primary Vesicles||Secondary Vesicles||Adult Structures|
|week 3||week 4||week 5||adult|
|Prosencephalon||Telencephalon||Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cerebrum (Cortex), Hypothalamus, Pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles|
|Diencephalon||Epithalamus, Thalamus, Subthalamus, Pineal, third ventricle|
|Mesencephalon||Mesencephalon||Tectum, Cerebral peduncle, Pretectum, cerebral aqueduct|
|Human Embryology And Morphology (1921)|
| Keith, A. Human Embryology And Morphology (1921) Longmans, Green & Co.:New York.
Nicolas Bertrand, Nadia Dahmane Sonic hedgehog signaling in forebrain development and its interactions with pathways that modify its effects. Trends Cell Biol.: 2006, 16(11);597-605 PubMed 17030124
Muriel Rhinn, Alexander Picker, Michael Brand Global and local mechanisms of forebrain and midbrain patterning. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol.: 2006, 16(1);5-12 PubMed 16418000
Oscar Marín, John L R Rubenstein Cell migration in the forebrain. Annu. Rev. Neurosci.: 2003, 26;441-83 PubMed 12626695
Murielle Rallu, Joshua G Corbin, Gord Fishell Parsing the prosencephalon. Nat. Rev. Neurosci.: 2002, 3(12);943-51 PubMed 12461551
Matías Hidalgo-Sánchez, Rosa-Magda Alvarado-Mallart Temporal sequence of gene expression leading caudal prosencephalon to develop a midbrain/hindbrain phenotype. Dev. Dyn.: 2002, 223(1);141-7 PubMed 11803577
P H Crossley, S Martinez, Y Ohkubo, J L Rubenstein Coordinate expression of Fgf8, Otx2, Bmp4, and Shh in the rostral prosencephalon during development of the telencephalic and optic vesicles. Neuroscience: 2001, 108(2);183-206 PubMed 11734354
N Ulfig, F Neudörfer, J Bohl Distribution patterns of vimentin-immunoreactive structures in the human prosencephalon during the second half of gestation. J. Anat.: 1999, 195 ( Pt 1);87-100 PubMed 10473296
M Hidalgo-Sánchez, A Simeone, R M Alvarado-Mallart Fgf8 and Gbx2 induction concomitant with Otx2 repression is correlated with midbrain-hindbrain fate of caudal prosencephalon. Development: 1999, 126(14);3191-203 PubMed 10375509
L Sztriha, E Várady, J Hertecant, M Nork Mediobasal and mantle defect of the prosencephalon: lobar holoprosencephaly, schizencephaly and diabetes insipidus. Neuropediatrics: 1998, 29(5);272-5 PubMed 9810564
H Nakamura, K A Matsui, S Takagi, H Fujisawa Projection of the retinal ganglion cells to the tectum differentiated from the prosencephalon. Neurosci. Res.: 1991, 11(3);189-97 PubMed 1661870
G F Couly, N M Le Douarin Mapping of the early neural primordium in quail-chick chimeras. I. Developmental relationships between placodes, facial ectoderm, and prosencephalon. Dev. Biol.: 1985, 110(2);422-39 PubMed 4018406
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 11) Embryology Neural - Prosencephalon Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Prosencephalon_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G