Neural - Prosencephalon Development

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A personal message from Dr Mark Hill (May 2020)  
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I have decided to take early retirement in September 2020. During the many years online I have received wonderful feedback from many readers, researchers and students interested in human embryology. I especially thank my research collaborators and contributors to the site. The good news is Embryology will remain online and I will continue my association with UNSW Australia. I look forward to updating and including the many exciting new discoveries in Embryology!

Introduction

Stage10 sem6.jpg

Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.

The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects).

Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.

  • Neural development beginnings quite early, therefore also look at notes covering Week 3- neural tube and Week 4-early nervous system.
  • Development of the neural crest and sensory systems (hearing/vision/smell) are only introduced in these notes and are covered in other notes sections.


Neural Links: ectoderm | neural | neural crest | ventricular | sensory | Stage 22 | gliogenesis | neural fetal | Medicine Lecture - Neural | Lecture - Ectoderm | Lecture - Neural Crest | Lab - Early Neural | neural abnormalities | folic acid | iodine deficiency | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | neural postnatal | neural examination | Histology | Historic Neural | Category:Neural
Neural Parts: neural | prosencephalon | telencephalon cerebrum | amygdala | hippocampus | basal ganglia | diencephalon | epithalamus | thalamus | hypothalamus‎ | pituitary | pineal | mesencephalon | tectum | rhombencephalon | metencephalon | pons | cerebellum | myelencephalon | medulla oblongata | spinal cord | neural vascular | ventricular | lateral ventricles | third ventricle | cerebral aqueduct | fourth ventricle | central canal | meninges | Category:Ventricular System | Category:Neural

Some Recent Findings

Developing mouse forebrain Robo3 expression[1]
  • The genetic architecture of the human cerebral cortex[2] "The cerebral cortex underlies our complex cognitive capabilities, yet little is known about the specific genetic loci that influence human cortical structure. To identify genetic variants that affect cortical structure, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 51,665 individuals. We analyzed the surface area and average thickness of the whole cortex and 34 regions with known functional specializations. We identified 199 significant loci and found significant enrichment for loci influencing total surface area within regulatory elements that are active during prenatal cortical development, supporting the radial unit hypothesis. Loci that affect regional surface area cluster near genes in Wnt signaling pathways, which influence progenitor expansion and areal identity. Variation in cortical structure is genetically correlated with cognitive function, Parkinson's disease, insomnia, depression, neuroticism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder."
  • Development of laminar organization of the fetal cerebrum[3] "Heads of 131 fetal specimens of 14-40 weeks gestational age (GA) were scanned by 3.0T MRI. Eleven fetal specimens of 14-27 weeks GA were scanned by 7.0T MRI. On T(1)-weighted 3.0T MRI, layers could be visualized at 14 weeks GA and appeared clearer after 18 weeks GA. On 7.0T MRI, four zones could be recognized at 14 weeks GA. During 15-22 weeks GA, when laminar organization appeared typical, seven layers including the periventricular zone and external capsule fibers could be differentiated, which corresponded to seven zones in histological stained sections. At 23-28 weeks GA, laminar organization appeared less typical, and borderlines among them appeared obscured. After 30 weeks GA, it disappeared and turned into mature-like structures. The developing lamination appeared the most distinguishable at the parieto-occipital part of brain and peripheral regions of the hippocampus. The migrating thalamocortical afferents were probably delineated as a high signal layer located at the lower, middle, and upper part of the subplate zone at 16-28 weeks GA on T(1)-weighted 3.0T MRI."
More recent papers  
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This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.

  • This search now requires a manual link as the original PubMed extension has been disabled.
  • The displayed list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References also appear on this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.


References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

More? References | Discussion Page | Journal Searches | 2019 References | 2020 References

Search term: Prosencephalon Development | Prosencephalon Embryology | Prosencephalon

Older papers  
These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.

Development Overview

Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.

Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest


Neural Tube Development
Neural Tube Primary Vesicles Secondary Vesicles Adult Structures
week 3 week 4 week 5 adult
neural plate
neural groove
neural tube

Brain
prosencephalon (forebrain) telencephalon Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, hippocampus, cerebrum (cortex), hypothalamus‎, pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles
diencephalon epithalamus, thalamus, Subthalamus, pineal, posterior commissure, pretectum, third ventricle
mesencephalon (midbrain) mesencephalon tectum, Cerebral peduncle, cerebral aqueduct, pons
rhombencephalon (hindbrain) metencephalon cerebellum
myelencephalon medulla oblongata, isthmus
spinal cord, pyramidal decussation, central canal

Primary Vesicles

Brain primary vesicle development (Carnegie stage 13)

CNS primary vesicles.jpg


Additional Images

Historic

Human Embryology And Morphology (1921)
Keith, A. Human Embryology And Morphology (1921) Longmans, Green & Co.:New York.

9 Fore-Brain and 10 Fore-Brain Cerebral Vesicles

References

  1. Barber M, Di Meglio T, Andrews WD, Hernández-Miranda LR, Murakami F, Chédotal A & Parnavelas JG. (2009). The role of Robo3 in the development of cortical interneurons. Cereb. Cortex , 19 Suppl 1, i22-31. PMID: 19366869 DOI.
  2. Grasby KL, Jahanshad N, Painter JN, Colodro-Conde L, Bralten J, Hibar DP, Lind PA, Pizzagalli F, Ching CRK, McMahon MAB, Shatokhina N, Zsembik LCP, Thomopoulos SI, Zhu AH, Strike LT, Agartz I, Alhusaini S, Almeida MAA, Alnæs D, Amlien IK, Andersson M, Ard T, Armstrong NJ, Ashley-Koch A, Atkins JR, Bernard M, Brouwer RM, Buimer EEL, Bülow R, Bürger C, Cannon DM, Chakravarty M, Chen Q, Cheung JW, Couvy-Duchesne B, Dale AM, Dalvie S, de Araujo TK, de Zubicaray GI, de Zwarte SMC, den Braber A, Doan NT, Dohm K, Ehrlich S, Engelbrecht HR, Erk S, Fan CC, Fedko IO, Foley SF, Ford JM, Fukunaga M, Garrett ME, Ge T, Giddaluru S, Goldman AL, Green MJ, Groenewold NA, Grotegerd D, Gurholt TP, Gutman BA, Hansell NK, Harris MA, Harrison MB, Haswell CC, Hauser M, Herms S, Heslenfeld DJ, Ho NF, Hoehn D, Hoffmann P, Holleran L, Hoogman M, Hottenga JJ, Ikeda M, Janowitz D, Jansen IE, Jia T, Jockwitz C, Kanai R, Karama S, Kasperaviciute D, Kaufmann T, Kelly S, Kikuchi M, Klein M, Knapp M, Knodt AR, Krämer B, Lam M, Lancaster TM, Lee PH, Lett TA, Lewis LB, Lopes-Cendes I, Luciano M, Macciardi F, Marquand AF, Mathias SR, Melzer TR, Milaneschi Y, Mirza-Schreiber N, Moreira JCV, Mühleisen TW, Müller-Myhsok B, Najt P, Nakahara S, Nho K, Olde Loohuis LM, Orfanos DP, Pearson JF, Pitcher TL, Pütz B, Quidé Y, Ragothaman A, Rashid FM, Reay WR, Redlich R, Reinbold CS, Repple J, Richard G, Riedel BC, Risacher SL, Rocha CS, Mota NR, Salminen L, Saremi A, Saykin AJ, Schlag F, Schmaal L, Schofield PR, Secolin R, Shapland CY, Shen L, Shin J, Shumskaya E, Sønderby IE, Sprooten E, Tansey KE, Teumer A, Thalamuthu A, Tordesillas-Gutiérrez D, Turner JA, Uhlmann A, Vallerga CL, van der Meer D, van Donkelaar MMJ, van Eijk L, van Erp TGM, van Haren NEM, van Rooij D, van Tol MJ, Veldink JH, Verhoef E, Walton E, Wang M, Wang Y, Wardlaw JM, Wen W, Westlye LT, Whelan CD, Witt SH, Wittfeld K, Wolf C, Wolfers T, Wu JQ, Yasuda CL, Zaremba D, Zhang Z, Zwiers MP, Artiges E, Assareh AA, Ayesa-Arriola R, Belger A, Brandt CL, Brown GG, Cichon S, Curran JE, Davies GE, Degenhardt F, Dennis MF, Dietsche B, Djurovic S, Doherty CP, Espiritu R, Garijo D, Gil Y, Gowland PA, Green RC, Häusler AN, Heindel W, Ho BC, Hoffmann WU, Holsboer F, Homuth G, Hosten N, Jack CR, Jang M, Jansen A, Kimbrel NA, Kolskår K, Koops S, Krug A, Lim KO, Luykx JJ, Mathalon DH, Mather KA, Mattay VS, Matthews S, Mayoral Van Son J, McEwen SC, Melle I, Morris DW, Mueller BA, Nauck M, Nordvik JE, Nöthen MM, O'Leary DS, Opel N, Martinot MP, Pike GB, Preda A, Quinlan EB, Rasser PE, Ratnakar V, Reppermund S, Steen VM, Tooney PA, Torres FR, Veltman DJ, Voyvodic JT, Whelan R, White T, Yamamori H, Adams HHH, Bis JC, Debette S, Decarli C, Fornage M, Gudnason V, Hofer E, Ikram MA, Launer L, Longstreth WT, Lopez OL, Mazoyer B, Mosley TH, Roshchupkin GV, Satizabal CL, Schmidt R, Seshadri S, Yang Q, Alvim MKM, Ames D, Anderson TJ, Andreassen OA, Arias-Vasquez A, Bastin ME, Baune BT, Beckham JC, Blangero J, Boomsma DI, Brodaty H, Brunner HG, Buckner RL, Buitelaar JK, Bustillo JR, Cahn W, Cairns MJ, Calhoun V, Carr VJ, Caseras X, Caspers S, Cavalleri GL, Cendes F, Corvin A, Crespo-Facorro B, Dalrymple-Alford JC, Dannlowski U, de Geus EJC, Deary IJ, Delanty N, Depondt C, Desrivières S, Donohoe G, Espeseth T, Fernández G, Fisher SE, Flor H, Forstner AJ, Francks C, Franke B, Glahn DC, Gollub RL, Grabe HJ, Gruber O, Håberg AK, Hariri AR, Hartman CA, Hashimoto R, Heinz A, Henskens FA, Hillegers MHJ, Hoekstra PJ, Holmes AJ, Hong LE, Hopkins WD, Hulshoff Pol HE, Jernigan TL, Jönsson EG, Kahn RS, Kennedy MA, Kircher TTJ, Kochunov P, Kwok JBJ, Le Hellard S, Loughland CM, Martin NG, Martinot JL, McDonald C, McMahon KL, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Michie PT, Morey RA, Mowry B, Nyberg L, Oosterlaan J, Ophoff RA, Pantelis C, Paus T, Pausova Z, Penninx BWJH, Polderman TJC, Posthuma D, Rietschel M, Roffman JL, Rowland LM, Sachdev PS, Sämann PG, Schall U, Schumann G, Scott RJ, Sim K, Sisodiya SM, Smoller JW, Sommer IE, St Pourcain B, Stein DJ, Toga AW, Trollor JN, Van der Wee NJA, van 't Ent D, Völzke H, Walter H, Weber B, Weinberger DR, Wright MJ, Zhou J, Stein JL, Thompson PM & Medland SE. (2020). The genetic architecture of the human cerebral cortex. Science , 367, . PMID: 32193296 DOI.
  3. Zhang Z, Liu S, Lin X, Teng G, Yu T, Fang F & Zang F. (2011). Development of laminar organization of the fetal cerebrum at 3.0T and 7.0T: a postmortem MRI study. Neuroradiology , 53, 177-84. PMID: 20981415 DOI.

Reviews

Hoch RV, Rubenstein JL & Pleasure S. (2009). Genes and signaling events that establish regional patterning of the mammalian forebrain. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. , 20, 378-86. PMID: 19560042 DOI.

Lindwall C, Fothergill T & Richards LJ. (2007). Commissure formation in the mammalian forebrain. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. , 17, 3-14. PMID: 17275286 DOI.

Bertrand N & Dahmane N. (2006). Sonic hedgehog signaling in forebrain development and its interactions with pathways that modify its effects. Trends Cell Biol. , 16, 597-605. PMID: 17030124 DOI.

Rhinn M, Picker A & Brand M. (2006). Global and local mechanisms of forebrain and midbrain patterning. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. , 16, 5-12. PMID: 16418000 DOI.

Marín O & Rubenstein JL. (2003). Cell migration in the forebrain. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. , 26, 441-83. PMID: 12626695 DOI.

Rallu M, Corbin JG & Fishell G. (2002). Parsing the prosencephalon. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. , 3, 943-51. PMID: 12461551 DOI.

Articles

Ohkubo Y, Chiang C & Rubenstein JL. (2002). Coordinate regulation and synergistic actions of BMP4, SHH and FGF8 in the rostral prosencephalon regulate morphogenesis of the telencephalic and optic vesicles. Neuroscience , 111, 1-17. PMID: 11955708

Hidalgo-Sánchez M & Alvarado-Mallart RM. (2002). Temporal sequence of gene expression leading caudal prosencephalon to develop a midbrain/hindbrain phenotype. Dev. Dyn. , 223, 141-7. PMID: 11803577 DOI.

Crossley PH, Martinez S, Ohkubo Y & Rubenstein JL. (2001). Coordinate expression of Fgf8, Otx2, Bmp4, and Shh in the rostral prosencephalon during development of the telencephalic and optic vesicles. Neuroscience , 108, 183-206. PMID: 11734354

Ulfig N, Neudörfer F & Bohl J. (1999). Distribution patterns of vimentin-immunoreactive structures in the human prosencephalon during the second half of gestation. J. Anat. , 195 ( Pt 1), 87-100. PMID: 10473296

Hidalgo-Sánchez M, Simeone A & Alvarado-Mallart RM. (1999). Fgf8 and Gbx2 induction concomitant with Otx2 repression is correlated with midbrain-hindbrain fate of caudal prosencephalon. Development , 126, 3191-203. PMID: 10375509

Sztriha L, Várady E, Hertecant J & Nork M. (1998). Mediobasal and mantle defect of the prosencephalon: lobar holoprosencephaly, schizencephaly and diabetes insipidus. Neuropediatrics , 29, 272-5. PMID: 9810564 DOI.

Nakamura H, Matsui KA, Takagi S & Fujisawa H. (1991). Projection of the retinal ganglion cells to the tectum differentiated from the prosencephalon. Neurosci. Res. , 11, 189-97. PMID: 1661870

Couly GF & Le Douarin NM. (1985). Mapping of the early neural primordium in quail-chick chimeras. I. Developmental relationships between placodes, facial ectoderm, and prosencephalon. Dev. Biol. , 110, 422-39. PMID: 4018406

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, July 4) Embryology Neural - Prosencephalon Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Prosencephalon_Development

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