Neural - Amygdala Development

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Stage10 sem6.jpg

Introduction

Neural groove closing to neural tube, early week 4
(Stage 10)

Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.

The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects).

Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.

  • Neural development beginnings quite early, therefore also look at notes covering Week 3- neural tube and Week 4-early nervous system.
  • Development of the neural crest and sensory systems (hearing/vision/smell) are only introduced in these notes and are covered in other notes sections.


Neural Links: neural | ventricular | ectoderm | Stage 22 | gliogenesis | neural fetal | Medicine Lecture - Neural | Lecture - Ectoderm | Lecture - Neural Crest | Lab - Early Neural | neural crest | Sensory | neural abnormalities | folic acid | iodine deficiency | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | Postnatal | Postnatal - Neural Examination | Histology | Historic Neural | Category:Neural
Neural Parts: neural | prosencephalon | telencephalon cerebrum | amygdala | hippocampus | basal ganglia | lateral ventricles | diencephalon | Epithalamus | thalamus | hypothalamus‎ | pituitary | pineal | third ventricle | mesencephalon | tectum | cerebral aqueduct | rhombencephalon | metencephalon | pons | cerebellum | myelencephalon | medulla oblongata | spinal cord | neural vascular | meninges | Category:Neural

Some Recent Findings

  • A neuronal migratory pathway crossing from diencephalon to telencephalon populates amygdala nuclei[1] "Neurons usually migrate and differentiate in one particular encephalic vesicle. We identified a murine population of diencephalic neurons that colonized the telencephalic amygdaloid complex, migrating along a tangential route that crosses a boundary between developing brain vesicles. The diencephalic transcription factor OTP was necessary for this migratory behavior."

Development Overview

Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.

Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest


Neural Tube Primary Vesicles Secondary Vesicles Adult Structures
week 3 week 4 week 5 adult
neural plate
neural groove
neural tube

Brain
Prosencephalon Telencephalon Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cerebrum (Cortex), Hypothalamus, Pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles
Diencephalon Epithalamus, Thalamus, Subthalamus, Pineal, third ventricle
Mesencephalon Mesencephalon Tectum, Cerebral peduncle, Pretectum, cerebral aqueduct
Rhombencephalon Metencephalon Pons, Cerebellum
Myelencephalon Medulla Oblongata
Spinal Cord

Early Brain Vesicles

Primary Vesicles

CNS primary vesicles.jpg

Secondary Vesicles

CNS secondary vesicles.jpg

References

  1. Fernando García-Moreno, María Pedraza, Luca G Di Giovannantonio, Michela Di Salvio, Laura López-Mascaraque, Antonio Simeone, Juan A De Carlos A neuronal migratory pathway crossing from diencephalon to telencephalon populates amygdala nuclei. Nat. Neurosci.: 2010, 13(6);680-9 PubMed 20495559

Reviews

Nicholas D E Greene, Andrew J Copp Development of the vertebrate central nervous system: formation of the neural tube. Prenat. Diagn.: 2009, 29(4);303-11 PubMed 19206138


Articles

Hirotomo Saitsu, Kohei Shiota Involvement of the axially condensed tail bud mesenchyme in normal and abnormal human posterior neural tube development. Congenit Anom (Kyoto): 2008, 48(1);1-6 PubMed 18230116

Ryan Remedios, Lakshmi Subramanian, Shubha Tole LIM genes parcellate the embryonic amygdala and regulate its development. J. Neurosci.: 2004, 24(31);6986-90 PubMed 15295034

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Search Pubmed: Amygdala Embryology | Amygdala Development


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 11) Embryology Neural - Amygdala Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Amygdala_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G