Guinea Pig Development
|Embryology - 17 Dec 2017 Expand to Translate|
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Embryos from the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) have been used in various tetragenic studies, including the effects of elevated body temperature on embryonic development. Postnatally guinea pigs can become sexually mature as early as four weeks.
Historically, it was the Spanish conquistadors who approximately 400 years ago brought guinea pigs to Europe from South America, where they are native.
Nutritional research using guinea pigs showed that scurvy was due to a lack dietary vitamin C, and they have also been used for other dietary requirement studies.
The guinea pig middle ear ossicles, malleus and incus, are a single fused complex, compared to humans where they are two separate bones.
- Links: Maternal Hyperthermia
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Shanshan Wang, Mingxin Shi, Dongqing Zhu, Ranjiv Mathews, Zhengui Zheng External Genital Development, Urethra Formation and Hypospadias Induction in Guinea Pig: a Double Zipper Model for Human Urethral Development. Urology: 2017; PubMed 29155192
Chintan N Koyani, Ewald Kolesnik, Gerald Woelkart, Niroj Shrestha, Susanne Scheruebel, Christopher Trummer, Klaus Zorn-Pauly, Astrid Hammer, Petra Lang, Helga Reicher, Heinrich Maechler, Klaus Groschner, Bernd Mayer, Peter P Rainer, Harald Sourij, Wolfgang Sattler, Ernst Malle, Brigitte Pelzmann, Dirk von Lewinski Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 independent cardiac dysfunction links saxagliptin to heart failure. Biochem. Pharmacol.: 2017; PubMed 28859968
Haifeng Liu, Xiaohua Wang, Ruijie Han, Kuiyang Zuo, Xiaohuan Yuan, Yuting Li, Jinglin Zhou, Lei Yan, Yanhui Chu Isolation and molecular cloning of hepatocyte growth factor from guinea pig (gHGF), and expression of truncated variant of gHGF with improved anti-fibrotic activity in Escherichia coli. Int. J. Biol. Macromol.: 2017; PubMed 28837849
Jun Hatakeyama, Haruka Sato, Kenji Shimamura Developing guinea pig brain as a model for cortical folding. Dev. Growth Differ.: 2017; PubMed 28585227
Deniz Tuna Edizer, Ozgur Yigit, Zehra Cinar, Mehmet Gul, Eyyup Kara, Birgul Yigitcan, Duygu Hayır, Ahmet Atas Protective role of intratympanic nigella sativa oil against gentamicin induced hearing loss. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.: 2017, 97;83-88 PubMed 28483257
Taxonomy Id: 10141 Preferred common name: domestic guinea pig Rank: species
Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 2 Other names: Cavia cobaya[synonym], Cavia aperea porcellus[synonym], guinea pig[common name]
Lineage( abbreviated ): Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Mammalia; Eutheria; Rodentia; Hystricognathi; Caviidae; Cavia
Lifespan: (maximum) 12 years, (average) 5 years.
Sexual maturity: 4-6 weeks
Estrous cycle: 15-17 days
Gestation period: 67-69 days
Average litter size: 3 pups (range 1 - 4)
Weaning age: 3 weeks
- Links: Estrous Cycle
Hyperthermia and Development
Guinea pigs have been successfully used as a sensitive model system for the effects of maternal hyperthermia (high body temperature/fever) upon development. This is an excellent example of a maternal environmental effect on embryonic development and neurological effects have also been demonstrated in other rodent model systems. (More? Abnormal Development- Maternal Effects | Hyperthermia and Development)
Cawdell-Smith J, Upfold J, Edwards M, Smith M. Neural tube and other developmental anomalies in the guinea pig following maternal hyperthermia during early neural tube development. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen. 1992;12(1):1-9. "Guinea pigs were exposed to hyperthermia for 1 hr once or twice on day 11, 12, 13, or 14 (E11-E14) of pregnancy. The mean rectal temperatures were elevated by 3.4 degrees C-4.0 degrees C. This treatment resulted in a marked elevation of rates of resorption and developmental defects in embryos examined at day E23. The defects observed were those affecting the neural tube (NTD) (exencephaly, encephaloceles, and microphthalmia), kyphosis/scoliosis, branchial arch defects, and pericardial edema. Embryos with NTD and kyphosis/scoliosis have not been found among newborn guinea pigs to date following maternal heat exposure on days E12-E14. It appears that embryos with these defects are filtered out by resorption or abortion by days E30-E35." (More? see Marsh Edwards | Upfold etal., 1989)
Guinea Pig Research Characteristics
The following lists reasons why the guinea pig is an excellent model animal system for development studies.
- Long Gestation Period With Mature Central Nervous System at Birth - toxicology and teratology studies.
- Sensitivity of Respiratory System - asthma and environmental pollution studies.
- Anatomy of the Guinea Pig Ear - inner ear studies because it is easily dissected and exposed.
- Vitamin C Requirement - wound healing. bone, tooth and atherosclerosis studies.
- Guinea Pig serum - Possesses hemolytic complement with higher activity levels than other lab animals. Widely used as a source of complement for complement fixation test.
- Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases - sentinel animals because of their acute susceptibility to Coxiella burnetii., Mycobacterium sp. and Listeriosis.
- Similar lmmune System to Man - immune system possesses a similar antigen-macrophage interaction to man and delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction.
- High Dietary Requirements - folic acid, thiamine, arginine and potassium make guinea pigs useful in nutrition studies.
- Precocious Young - good for germ free raising.
- Quiet Calm Disposition - entomology studies, used to test repellents and insecticides, and as feeding source for biting insects.
- Text modified from Washington University - NetVet Guinea Pig Models and Uses in Research Notes
- Juliana Santos, Erika Fonseca, Juliano van Melis, Maria Angélica Miglino Morphometric analysis of fetal development of Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758) by ultrasonography--pilot study. Theriogenology: 2014, 81(7);896-900 PubMed 24560548
- LaShauna C Evans, Hongshan Liu, Loren P Thompson Differential effect of intrauterine hypoxia on caspase 3 and DNA fragmentation in fetal guinea pig hearts and brains. Reprod Sci: 2012, 19(3);298-305 PubMed 22383778
Search Pubmed: Guinea Pig Development
S A Bellinger, D Lucas, G A Kleven An ecologically relevant guinea pig model of fetal behavior. Behav. Brain Res.: 2015; PubMed 25655512
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- Washington University NetVet - General Notes on Guinea Pigs | Guinea Pig - Models and Uses in Research (Notes) | Biology and Care of Guinea Pigs (Notes) | Diseases of Guinea Pigs (Notes)
- LABORATORY RODENT AND RABBIT EMBRYOS/OVA - Conditions applicable to the maintenance of laboratory animal colonies
- Seagull's Guinea Pig Compendium
- Diseases of Guinea Pigs (AFIP-POLA)
- Elm Hill Breeding Labs
- M & B Breeding and Research Centre Ltd.
- Covance (HRP, Inc.)
- Cavy Spirit
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Guinea Pig Development. Retrieved December 17, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Guinea_Pig_Development