Deer Development

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A personal message from Dr Mark Hill (May 2020)  
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I have decided to take early retirement in September 2020. During the many years online I have received wonderful feedback from many readers, researchers and students interested in human embryology. I especially thank my research collaborators and contributors to the site. The good news is Embryology will remain online and I will continue my association with UNSW Australia. I look forward to updating and including the many exciting new discoveries in Embryology!

Introduction

The two main groups of deer are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the elk (wapiti), the fallow deer, and the chital; and the Capreolinae, including the reindeer (caribou), the roe deer, and the moose.

Deer are seasonally polyestrous animals that have multiple estrous cycles only during certain periods of the year, similar to horses, sheep, goats, and cats. A historic 1906 paper by Sakurai[1] characterised the prenatal development of the deer embryo (cervus capreolus). The average prenatal development period for deer (Mule) is 200 days.

Deer are typically a uniparental species, where the offspring (fawn) is only cared for by the mother (doe).


Animal Development Time 

Animal Average Days
Bear (Black) 210
Bison 270
Budgerigar 18
Camel 410
cat 65
cow 281
chicken 21
Chimpanzee 236
Chinchilla 111
Coyote 63
deer (Mule) 200
dog 63
Donkey 365
Duck 28
Duck (Muscovy) 35
elephant 660
Elk, Wapiti 255
Ferret 42
Finch 14
Fox 52
Giraffe 425
goat 150
Goose 28
Gorilla 270
Guinea fowl 28
guinea pig 68
Hare 36
Hippopotamus 240
horse 338
Human 274
Leopard 95
Lion 108
Llama 350
Marmoset 150
Mink (European) 41
monkey (Macaque) 180
Moose 240
mouse 20
Muskox 255
Muskrat 29
Nutria, Coypu 130
opossum 12
Otter 285
Panther 90
Parrot 26
Pheasant 24
Pig 114
Pigeon 18
Porcupine 210
Pronghorn 230
Quail 16
rabbit 31
Raccoon 63
rat 21
Reindeer 225
Rhinoceros (African) 480
Seal 330
sheep 150
Shrew 20
Skunk 63
Squirrel (Gray) 40
Swan 35
Tapir 390
Tarsier 182
Tiger 103
Turkey 28
Walrus 450
whale (Sperm) 450
Wolf 63
Woodchuck 31
Animal Notes and Table Data Sources
  • Each animal species has different variations +/- the average values shown in the table.
  • Gestation is the carrying of an animal embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. Except in the case of human gestational age GA.
  • Incubation is the laying of an egg (birds, reptiles, monotremes) with development occurring outside the female animal.


See also - Timeline Comparisons

Animal Development: axolotl | bat | cat | chicken | cow | dog | dolphin | echidna | fly | frog | goat | grasshopper | guinea pig | hamster | horse | kangaroo | koala | lizard | medaka | mouse | opossum | pig | platypus | rabbit | rat | sea squirt | sea urchin | sheep | worm | zebrafish | life cycles | development timetable | development models | K12
Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer


Additional Data Sources

  • Theiler K. The House Mouse: Atlas of Mouse Development (1972, 1989) Springer-Verlag, NY. Online
  • Witschi E. Rat Development. In: Growth Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. (1962) Altman PL. and Dittmer DS. ed. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington DC, pp. 304-314.
  • The Genetics of the Dog. E Ostrander, E. and Ruvinsky, A. ISBN: 9781845939403 (2012)
  • Merck Veterinary Manual. Aiello, S.E. and Moses, M.A. (ed) ISBN: 0911910506 (2013) Online
  • Witschi, E. (1962) Development: Rat. In: Growth Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. Altman, P. L. , and D. S. Dittmer, ed. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington DC, pp. 304-314.



Links: estrous cycle | Category:Deer


Animal Development: axolotl | bat | cat | chicken | cow | dog | dolphin | echidna | fly | frog | goat | grasshopper | guinea pig | hamster | horse | kangaroo | koala | lizard | medaka | mouse | opossum | pig | platypus | rabbit | rat | sea squirt | sea urchin | sheep | worm | zebrafish | life cycles | development timetable | development models | K12
Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer

Some Recent Findings

  • Comparative analysis of the merino sheep and Iberian red deer abomasum during prenatal development[2] "The aim of this study is to describe differences in the ontogenesis of the abomasum in sheep (domestic ruminant) and deer (wild ruminant). Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis were carried out on 50 embryos and fetuses of the sheep and 50 red deer from the first prenatal stages until birth. To compare similar periods of gestation in both species, we calculate the percentages of gestation. The appearance of the abomasum was earlier in the red deer (22% gestation) than in the sheep (25% gestation). Throughout development the epithelium happened sequentially, being of the types pseudostratified to simple cylindrical. This important modification was earlier in the red deer than the sheep. At 46% gestation in red deer and 50% in sheep, gastric pits were observed on the surface of abomasal folds. Our studies suggest a close link between the initial formation of these pseudoglandular structures and the clear separation of lamina propria and submucosa separated by de muscularis mucosae. At 54% gestation in red deer and at 60% in sheep, in the bottom of these pits the first outlines of glands were distinguishable. Finally, the presence of neuroendocrine and glial cells were detected in deer at earlier stages than in sheep."
More recent papers  
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This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.

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  • The displayed list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
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References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

More? References | Discussion Page | Journal Searches | 2019 References | 2020 References

Search term: Deer Embryology | Deer Development

Older papers  
These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.

Embryo Development

Keibel1906 plate01.jpg

Plate 1

Keibel1906 plate02.jpg

Plate 2

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Plate 3

References

  1. Sakurai T. Normal Plates of the Development of the Deer Embryo (cervus capreolus). (1906) Vol. 6 in series by Keibel F. Normal plates of the development of vertebrates (Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbelthiere) Fisher, Jena., Germany.
  2. Franco A, Masot J & Redondo E. (2017). Comparative analysis of the merino sheep and Iberian red deer abomasum during prenatal development. Anim. Sci. J. , 88, 1575-1587. PMID: 28422357 DOI.

Reviews

Articles

Yanagawa Y, Matsuura Y, Suzuki M, Saga S, Okuyama H, Fukui D, Bandou G, Katagiri S, Takahashi Y & Tsubota T. (2009). Fetal age estimation of Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) using ultrasonography during early pregnancy. J. Reprod. Dev. , 55, 143-8. PMID: 19106485 DOI.

Masot AJ, Franco AJ & Redondo E. (2007). Morphometric and immunohistochemical study of the abomasum of red deer during prenatal development. J. Anat. , 211, 376-86. PMID: 17645454 DOI.

Terms

  • abomasum - (maw, rennet-bag, reed tripe) is the fourth and final stomach compartment in ruminants that secretes rennet.
  • Hokkaido sika deer - (Cervus nippon yesoensis)



Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, September 19) Embryology Deer Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Deer_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2020, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G