Some Recent Findings
- Development of urinary organs in domestic cat during the embryonic and fetal periods "The embryonic origin of the urogenital system came from the intermediate mesoderm. Kidney development involves three successive renal systems with a fast chronological overlap: the pronephro, the mesonephro, and the metanephro. Due to the lack of specific knowledge about this system in cats the present work aimed to describe their urinary organs development, focusing on the structures seen in pronephro, mesonephro, and metanephro during the embryonic and fetal stages of development. The techniques used in this study were: light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. For that, embryos and fetuses from 12 pregnant mixed-breed domestic cats in different gestational stages were used to describe the proposed organs. The pronephro is present at early stages of embryonary development in embryos from 15 to 19 days with the presence of pronephro's corpuscles, ducts and tubules. The mesonephro is found, in general, between days 17 and 37, and contains mesonephric ducts, mesonephric tubules, and glomeruli. The metanephro is seen since 21 days of pregnancy with the presence of glomeruli, proximal and distal contorted tubules and at day 37, the cortex-medullary region is already differentiated. The evaluation of these structures enhances the knowledge about embryology of the urinary system in cats, aiding a better anatomical understanding of the system in the specie allowing the correlation with other species." renal
- Assisted Reproduction in the Female Cat "Assisted reproduction in the queen can range from simple ovulation induction to more advanced techniques such as in vitro fertilization. This article describes techniques available and the success associated with each." ART
- Lipid Droplet Phase Transition in Freezing Cat Embryos and Oocytes Probed by Raman Spectroscopy "Embryo and oocyte cryopreservation is a widely used technology for cryopreservation of genetic resources. One limitation of cryopreservation is the low tolerance to freezing observed for oocytes and embryos rich in lipid droplets. We apply Raman spectroscopy to investigate freezing of lipid droplets inside cumulus-oocyte complexes, mature oocytes, and early embryos of a domestic cat. Raman spectroscopy allows one to characterize the degree of lipid unsaturation, the lipid phase transition from the liquid-like disordered to solid-like ordered state, and the triglyceride polymorphic state. ...Raman spectroscopy is proved to be a promising tool for in situ monitoring of the lipid phase state in a single embryo/oocyte during its freezing." (Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique used to provide information on molecular vibrations and crystal structures.)
- Follicular growth monitoring in the female cat during estrus "This study was designed to describe follicular dynamics by transabdominal ultrasonography. Secondly, the stage of follicular growth was associated to behavioral and vaginal changes. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed during nine anovulatory and 12 ovulatory cycles. Forty-eight follicles were followed during anovulatory cycles: on the first day of estrus behavior, 4.8 ± 0.2 follicles (2 to 7 per female) of 2.3 ± 0.01 mm mean diameter were present. Follicular growth continued at a rate of 0.2 ± 0.04 mm per day. At least one follicle in the cohort reached a diameter greater than 3.0 mm."
| More recent papers
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
- Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
- References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
- Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches
Search term: Cat Embryology
Yilmaz Bilgic, Sami Akbulut, Zeynep Aksungur, Mehmet Erman Erdemli, Onural Ozhan, Hakan Parlakpinar, Nigar Vardi, Yusuf Turkoz Protective effect of dexpanthenol against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. Exp Ther Med: 2018, 16(5);4049-4057 PubMed 30402149
Fatma Rahmouni, Salima Daoud, Tarek Rebai Teucrium polium attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity in the male reproductive system of rats. Andrologia: 2018;e13182 PubMed 30353557
Lara C Mario, Maiara P Morais, Jessica Borghesi, Phelipe O Favaron, Franceliusa D Oliveira, Adriana R A Anunciação, Rafael G Agopian, Samirah A Gomes, Maria A Miglino Development of urinary organs in domestic cat during the embryonic and fetal periods. Microsc. Res. Tech.: 2018; PubMed 30341968
Cagdas Elsurer, Merih Onal, Nebil Selimoglu, Omer Erdur, Mustafa Yilmaz, Ender Erdogan, Oznur Kal, Jale Bengi Celik, Ozkan Onal Postconditioning Ozone Alleviates Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Enhances Flap Endurance in Rats. J Invest Surg: 2018;1-10 PubMed 30339503
Dimka Hinova-Palova, Alexandar Iliev, Lawrence Edelstein, Boycho Landzhov, Georgi Kotov, Adrian Paloff Electron microscopic study of Golgi-impregnated and gold-toned neurons and fibers in the claustrum of the cat. J. Mol. Histol.: 2018; PubMed 30306356
| Older papers
| These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.
See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.
- Development of external genitalia in fetal and neonatal domestic cats "The female urogenital folds budded from each side of the genital tubercle and, gradually extended to the tip of the genital tubercle by the 6.8 cm stage in crown-rump length. Then, the well-developed urogenital folds ensheathed completely the genital tubercle to form the prepuce of clitoris and the labia, flanking the external opening of vagina as the folds of skin which were equivalent to the labia minora in humans. The genital swellings known to become the labia majora in humans were clearly recognized in the caudolateral region of the genital tubercle during the fetal stage. These swellings became flat and obscure after birth. Thus, in cats the genital swellings did not join to the formation of the labia in the same way as in humans. The sex difference in the external genitalia was first observed at the 3.2-3.3 cm stages. In the male, the anogenital raphe appeared and the caudal portion of the genital swellings moved and fused each other at the caudal region of the genital tubercle. In the female, both features were not easy to observe." genital
Cat oocyte calcium concentration
Twenty-two stages have been described for the prenatal development of the domestic cat.
The following data on early development is based upon the time after copulation
oviduct embryo development
- 64 hours - 1 to 4 cells (17 of 20; 85.0%)
- 76 hours - 5 to 8 cells (18 of 28; 64.3% )
- 100 hours - 9 to 16 cells (14 of 24; 58.3%)
- 124 hours - morulae (15 of 21; 71.4% )
uterine embryo development
- 148 hours - compact morulae or early blastocysts
- days 12-14 - implantation occurs
See also this historic paper on early cat development.
- 1924 Cat Development: ￼1. Ovum of the Cat | ￼2. Process of Cleavage | ￼3. Formation of the Blastocyst | ￼4. Discussion | ￼Plates | cat
Oocyte and Spermatozoa
The following scanning electron micrographs are from a recent paper on fresh and frozen cat oocytes. Scale bar is 10 microns.
Lineage: Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Coelomata; Deuterostomia; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Gnathostomata; Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Carnivora; Feliformia; Felidae; Felinae; Felis; Felis catus
The cat genome was initially sequenced in 2007 and has been recently annotated in August 2014.
- Mitochondria - entire mitochondrial genome 17,009 bp has been sequenced.
- Links: Genome Mitochondrial Genome
The time course data below is based on a recent cat study.
- 15 to 19 days - pronephros is present at early stages in embryos with the presence of pronephro's corpuscles, ducts and tubules.
- 17 and 37 days - mesonephros contains mesonephric ducts, mesonephric tubules, and glomeruli.
- 21 days - metanephros with the presence of glomeruli, proximal and distal contorted tubules
- 37 days - cortex-medullary region is differentiated.
- Links: renal
- zonary placenta without cotyledons
- relatively small marginal hematoma
- materno-fetal barrier is endothelial-chorial
- superficially invasive into the endometrium but not into the myometrium
- placental labryrinth has characteristic giant cells
- two pairs of vessels in the cord
- two arteries and two veins
- allantoic duct
- cord average length 2 to 3 cm and 0.3 to 0.5 cm in diameter
- inserts at the margin of the zonary organ
- no spirals, no vitelline duct, and no additional vessels or structures
- Links: Comparative Placentation - Cat
| Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages
| Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding. (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)
Fig. 210. Normal well-preserved cat fetus
Fig. 211. Normal poorly preserved cat fetus of approximately the same length
Plate 4. Cat Fetus and Placenta
Fig. 297. Transverse section through the thoracic region of a cat embryo of 25 mm
Fig. 331. Sections of a cat's ovary.
Fig. 903. Cat cochlear duct and ganglia
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Pontius JU, Mullikin JC, Smith DR, Lindblad-Toh K, Gnerre S, Clamp M, Chang J, Stephens R, Neelam B, Volfovsky N, Schäffer AA, Agarwala R, Narfström K, Murphy WJ, Giger U, Roca AL, Antunes A, Menotti-Raymond M, Yuhki N, Pecon-Slattery J, Johnson WE, Bourque G, Tesler G & O'Brien SJ. (2007). Initial sequence and comparative analysis of the cat genome. Genome Res. , 17, 1675-89. PMID: 17975172 DOI.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Tamazian, G. etal., Annotated features of domestic cat - Felis cats genome. GigaScience 2014, 3:13
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Mario LC, Morais MP, Borghesi J, Favaron PO, Oliveira FD, Anunciação ARA, Agopian RG, Gomes SA & Miglino MA. (2018). Development of urinary organs in domestic cat during the embryonic and fetal periods. Microsc. Res. Tech. , , . PMID: 30341968 DOI.
- ↑ Johnson AK. (2018). Assisted Reproduction in the Female Cat. Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract. , 48, 523-531. PMID: 29656770 DOI.
- ↑ Okotrub KA, Mokrousova VI, Amstislavsky SY & Surovtsev NV. (2018). Lipid Droplet Phase Transition in Freezing Cat Embryos and Oocytes Probed by Raman Spectroscopy. Biophys. J. , 115, 577-587. PMID: 30099990 DOI.
- ↑ Malandain E, Rault D, Froment E, Baudon S, Desquilbet L, Begon D & Chastant-Maillard S. (2011). Follicular growth monitoring in the female cat during estrus. Theriogenology , 76, 1337-46. PMID: 21798582 DOI.
- ↑ Inomata T, Ariga M, Sakita K, Kashiwazaki N, Ito J, Yokoh K, Ichikawa M, Ninomiya H & Inoue S. (2009). Development of external genitalia in fetal and neonatal domestic cats. J. Vet. Med. Sci. , 71, 139-45. PMID: 19262023
- ↑ Wang C, Swanson WF, Herrick JR, Lee K & Machaty Z. (2009). Analysis of cat oocyte activation methods for the generation of feline disease models by nuclear transfer. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. , 7, 148. PMID: 20003339 DOI.
- ↑ Knospe C. (2002). Periods and stages of the prenatal development of the domestic cat. Anat Histol Embryol , 31, 37-51. PMID: 11841356
- ↑ Swanson WF, Roth TL & Wildt DE. (1994). In vivo embryogenesis, embryo migration, and embryonic mortality in the domestic cat. Biol. Reprod. , 51, 452-64. PMID: 7803616
- ↑ Hermansson U, Axnér E & Holst BS. (2007). Application of a zona pellucida binding assay (ZBA) in the domestic cat benefits from the use of in vitro matured oocytes. Acta Vet. Scand. , 49, 28. PMID: 17908298 DOI.
Inomata T, Ninomiya H, Sakita K, Kashiwazaki N, Ito J, Ariga M & Inoue S. (2009). Developmental changes of Müllerian and Wolffian ducts in domestic cat fetuses. Exp. Anim. , 58, 41-5. PMID: 19151510
Inomata T, Ariga M, Sakita K, Kashiwazaki N, Ito J, Yokoh K, Ichikawa M, Ninomiya H & Inoue S. (2009). Development of external genitalia in fetal and neonatal domestic cats. J. Vet. Med. Sci. , 71, 139-45. PMID: 19262023
Ciani F, Cocchia N, Rizzo M, Ponzio P, Tortora G, Avallone L & Lorizio R. (2008). Sex determining of cat embryo and some feline species. Zygote , 16, 169-77. PMID: 18405438 DOI.
França LR & Godinho CL. (2003). Testis morphometry, seminiferous epithelium cycle length, and daily sperm production in domestic cats (Felis catus). Biol. Reprod. , 68, 1554-61. PMID: 12606460 DOI.
Knospe C. (2002). Periods and stages of the prenatal development of the domestic cat. Anat Histol Embryol , 31, 37-51. PMID: 11841356
Hill JP. and Tribe M. The early development of the cat (Felis domestica). (1924) Quart. J. Microsc. Sci., 68: 513-602.
cat development | feline development