Cat Development

From Embryology
Embryology - 24 May 2016 Facebook linkTwitter linkPinterest link Translate 

Arabic | Chinese (simplified) | French | German | Hebrew | Hindi | Indonesian | Italian | Japanese | Korean | Portuguese | Romanian | Russian | Spanish | Yiddish
These external translations are automated and may not be accurate.

Introduction

Cat with 6 toes
Cat Ovary

Cats (Felis catus) are seasonally polyestrous animals that have multiple estrous cycles only during certain periods of the year.

The cat genome was initially sequenced in 2007[1] and has been recently annotated in August 2014.[2]


Links: Estrous Cycle | Toxoplasmosis | Category:Cat

Animal Development: Axolotl | Bat | Cat | Chicken | Cow | Dog | Dolphin | Echidna | Fly | Frog | Grasshopper | Guinea Pig | Hamster | Kangaroo | Koala | Lizard | Medaka | Mouse | Pig | Platypus | Rabbit | Rat | Sea Squirt | Sea Urchin | Sheep | Worm | Zebrafish | Life Cycles | Development Timetable | K12
Historic Embryology
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer

Some Recent Findings

  • Follicular growth monitoring in the female cat during estrus[3] "This study was designed to describe follicular dynamics by transabdominal ultrasonography. Secondly, the stage of follicular growth was associated to behavioral and vaginal changes. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed during nine anovulatory and 12 ovulatory cycles. Forty-eight follicles were followed during anovulatory cycles: on the first day of estrus behavior, 4.8 ± 0.2 follicles (2 to 7 per female) of 2.3 ± 0.01 mm mean diameter were present. Follicular growth continued at a rate of 0.2 ± 0.04 mm per day. At least one follicle in the cohort reached a diameter greater than 3.0 mm."
  • Development of external genitalia in fetal and neonatal domestic cats[4] "The female urogenital folds budded from each side of the genital tubercle and, gradually extended to the tip of the genital tubercle by the 6.8 cm stage in crown-rump length. Then, the well-developed urogenital folds ensheathed completely the genital tubercle to form the prepuce of clitoris and the labia, flanking the external opening of vagina as the folds of skin which were equivalent to the labia minora in humans. The genital swellings known to become the labia majora in humans were clearly recognized in the caudolateral region of the genital tubercle during the fetal stage. These swellings became flat and obscure after birth. Thus, in cats the genital swellings did not join to the formation of the labia in the same way as in humans. The sex difference in the external genitalia was first observed at the 3.2-3.3 cm stages. In the male, the anogenital raphe appeared and the caudal portion of the genital swellings moved and fused each other at the caudal region of the genital tubercle. In the female, both features were not easy to observe."
More recent papers
Mark Hill.jpg
PubMed logo.gif

This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Cat Embryology

Gehan El-Akabawy, Neveen M El-Sherif Protective role of garlic oil against oxidative damage induced by furan exposure from weaning through adulthood in adult rat testis. Acta Histochem.: 2016; PubMed 27130490

Hai Song, Lincheng Xu, Rongping Zhang, Zhenzhen Cao, Huan Zhang, Li Yang, Zeyun Guo, Yongqiang Qu, Jianyun Yu Rosemary Extract Improves Cognitive Deficits in a Rats Model of Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Associated with Reduction of Astrocytosis and Neuronal Degeneration in Hippocampus. Neurosci. Lett.: 2016; PubMed 27113205

Funda Yıldırım Baş, Dilek Bayram, Bahriye Arslan, Ilkay Armağan, Şükriye Yeşilot, Emine Çiçek, Emre Yorgancıgil Effect of alpha lipoic acid on smoking-induced skin damage. Cutan Ocul Toxicol: 2016;1-7 PubMed 27055391

Murat Ersel, Yigit Uyanikgil, Funda Karbek Akarca, Enver Ozcete, Yusuf Ali Altunci, Fatih Karabey, Turker Cavucoglu, Ayfer Meral, Gurkan Yigitturk, Emel Oyku Cetin Effects of Silk Sericin on Incision Wound Healing in a Dorsal Skin Flap Wound Healing Rat Model. Med. Sci. Monit.: 2016, 22;1064-1078 PubMed 27032876

Emine Colak, Mehmet Cengiz Ustuner, Neslihan Tekin, Ertugrul Colak, Dilek Burukoglu, Irfan Degirmenci, Hasan Veysi Gunes The hepatocurative effects of Cynara scolymus L. leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injury in rats. Springerplus: 2016, 5;216 PubMed 27026910

Developmental Timeline

Cat oocyte calcium concentration[5]

Twenty-two stages have been described for the prenatal development of the domestic cat.[6]


The following data on early development is based upon the time after copulation[7]

oviduct embryo development

  • 64 hours - 1 to 4 cells (17 of 20; 85.0%)
  • 76 hours - 5 to 8 cells (18 of 28; 64.3% )
  • 100 hours - 9 to 16 cells (14 of 24; 58.3%)
  • 124 hours - morulae (15 of 21; 71.4% )

uterine embryo development

  • 148 hours - compact morulae or early blastocysts
  • days 12-14 - implantation occurs

Oocyte and Spermatozoa

The following scanning electron micrographs are from a recent paper on fresh and frozen cat oocytes.[8] Scale bar is 10 microns.

Cat oocyte zona pellucida 01.jpg Cat oocyte zona pellucida 02.jpg

Cat spermatozoa bound to oocyte zona pellucida.jpg

Genetics

Lineage: Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Coelomata; Deuterostomia; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Gnathostomata; Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Carnivora; Feliformia; Felidae; Felinae; Felis; Felis catus

The cat genome was initially sequenced in 2007[1] and has been recently annotated in August 2014.[2]


  • Mitochondria - entire mitochondrial genome 17,009 bp has been sequenced.


Links: Genome Mitochondrial Genome

Early Development

Hill and Tribe in 1924[9] wrote a detailed description of oocyte to blastocyst development in the cat.


Placenta

  • zonary placenta without cotyledons
  • relatively small marginal hematoma
  • materno-fetal barrier is endothelial-chorial
  • superficially invasive into the endometrium but not into the myometrium
  • placental labryrinth has characteristic giant cells

Placental cord

  • two pairs of vessels in the cord
    • two arteries and two veins
  • allantoic duct
  • cord average length 2 to 3 cm and 0.3 to 0.5 cm in diameter
  • inserts at the margin of the zonary organ
  • no spirals, no vitelline duct, and no additional vessels or structures
Links: Comparative Placentation - Cat

Additional Images

Historic Images

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Joan U Pontius, James C Mullikin, Douglas R Smith, Agencourt Sequencing Team, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Sante Gnerre, Michele Clamp, Jean Chang, Robert Stephens, Beena Neelam, Natalia Volfovsky, Alejandro A Schäffer, Richa Agarwala, Kristina Narfström, William J Murphy, Urs Giger, Alfred L Roca, Agostinho Antunes, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Naoya Yuhki, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Warren E Johnson, Guillaume Bourque, Glenn Tesler, NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Stephen J O'Brien Initial sequence and comparative analysis of the cat genome. Genome Res.: 2007, 17(11);1675-89 PubMed 17975172
  2. 2.0 2.1 Tamazian, G. etal., Annotated features of domestic cat - Felis cats genome. GigaScience 2014, 3:13
  3. E Malandain, D Rault, E Froment, S Baudon, L Desquilbet, D Begon, S Chastant-Maillard Follicular growth monitoring in the female cat during estrus. Theriogenology: 2011, 76(7);1337-46 PubMed 21798582
  4. Tomo Inomata, Makoto Ariga, Katsuyasu Sakita, Naomi Kashiwazaki, Junya Ito, Kiyofumi Yokoh, Masahiko Ichikawa, Hiroyoshi Ninomiya, Seiya Inoue Development of external genitalia in fetal and neonatal domestic cats. J. Vet. Med. Sci.: 2009, 71(2);139-45 PubMed 19262023
  5. Chunmin Wang, William F Swanson, Jason R Herrick, Kiho Lee, Zoltan Machaty Analysis of cat oocyte activation methods for the generation of feline disease models by nuclear transfer. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.: 2009, 7;148 PubMed 20003339 | Reprod Biol Endocrinol.
  6. C Knospe Periods and stages of the prenatal development of the domestic cat. Anat Histol Embryol: 2002, 31(1);37-51 PubMed 11841356
  7. W F Swanson, T L Roth, D E Wildt In vivo embryogenesis, embryo migration, and embryonic mortality in the domestic cat. Biol. Reprod.: 1994, 51(3);452-64 PubMed 7803616 | PDF
  8. Ulrika Hermansson, Eva Axnér, Bodil Ström Holst Application of a zona pellucida binding assay (ZBA) in the domestic cat benefits from the use of in vitro matured oocytes. Acta Vet. Scand.: 2007, 49;28 PubMed 17908298 | Acta Vet Scand.
  9. Hill, J. P., and Tribe, M. 1924. The early development of the cat (Felis domestica). Quart. J. Microsc. Sci, 68, 513-602.

Articles

Tomo Inomata, Hiroyoshi Ninomiya, Katsuyasu Sakita, Naomi Kashiwazaki, Junya Ito, Makoto Ariga, Seiya Inoue Developmental changes of Müllerian and Wolffian ducts in domestic cat fetuses. Exp. Anim.: 2009, 58(1);41-5 PubMed 19151510

Tomo Inomata, Makoto Ariga, Katsuyasu Sakita, Naomi Kashiwazaki, Junya Ito, Kiyofumi Yokoh, Masahiko Ichikawa, Hiroyoshi Ninomiya, Seiya Inoue Development of external genitalia in fetal and neonatal domestic cats. J. Vet. Med. Sci.: 2009, 71(2);139-45 PubMed 19262023

Francesca Ciani, Natascia Cocchia, Maria Rizzo, Patrizia Ponzio, Gennaro Tortora, Luigi Avallone, Roberto Lorizio Sex determining of cat embryo and some feline species. Zygote: 2008, 16(2);169-77 PubMed 18405438

Luiz R França, Christiane L Godinho Testis morphometry, seminiferous epithelium cycle length, and daily sperm production in domestic cats (Felis catus). Biol. Reprod.: 2003, 68(5);1554-61 PubMed 12606460

C Knospe Periods and stages of the prenatal development of the domestic cat. Anat Histol Embryol: 2002, 31(1);37-51 PubMed 11841356

Hill, J. P., and Tribe, M. 1924. The early development of the cat (Felis domestica). Quart. J. Microsc. Sci, 68, 513-602.

Search Pubmed

cat development | feline development


Animal Development: Axolotl | Bat | Cat | Chicken | Cow | Dog | Dolphin | Echidna | Fly | Frog | Grasshopper | Guinea Pig | Hamster | Kangaroo | Koala | Lizard | Medaka | Mouse | Pig | Platypus | Rabbit | Rat | Sea Squirt | Sea Urchin | Sheep | Worm | Zebrafish | Life Cycles | Development Timetable | K12
Historic Embryology
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer


Glossary Links

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols



Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2016) Embryology Cat Development. Retrieved May 24, 2016, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Cat_Development

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2016, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G