Lab Assessment 1
This article was written in aims to evaluate a prospectively implemented clinical algorithm which served in the early identifications of Ectopic pregnancy (EP) and Heterotopic pregnancy (HP) after use of assisted reproductive technologies (In-vitro fertilization). The data used in this research were patients who all received in-vitro fertilization or other methods of Assisted reproductive technology from between January 1995 to June 2013.
The early pregnancy stage was monitored using clinical algorithms where all pregnancies were screened using Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels and any reported symptoms during pregnancy as well as use of ultrasound evaluations where hCG levels were abnormal or patient reported any pains.
The research found that within the 3904 pregnancies included in the data, the incidence of Ectopic and Heterotopic pregnancies were 0.77% and 0.46% respectively. The clinical algorithm managed to detect and select 96.7% of the 0.77% diagnosed with EP as well as 83.3% of the 0.46% diagnosed with HP leading to earlier treatment and resolution of the problem. These results showed the effectiveness of the developed clinical algorithm in the early identification and prompt intervention of EP and HP bypassing the catastrophic morbidity associated with delayed diagnosis
The article researched the effects of different levels of progesterone on the day of human gonadotropin administration in the live birth delivery rates during in-vitro fertilization. Previous researches have shown that the presence of late follicular phase progesterone is essential for follicular development, ovulation and endometrial receptivity. Studies were carried out on 2723 cycles performed in patients aged between 19 ~35 years of age and undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation.
The patients underwent ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist for pituitary down-regulation and then final oocyte maturation was triggered using hCG 36h before oocyte retrieval. On the day of hCG administration, progesterone evaluation was performed and live birth delivery rates were compared at regular progesterone intervals.
The study found that live birth rates were significantly lower in patients with bow low (<0.5 ng/ml) and high (>1.5 ng/ml) late follicular progesterone levels.
Lab Assessment 2
Biopsy of a Morula Stage Embryo
Lab Assessment 3
--Mark Hill (talk) 11:11, 4 September 2015 (AEST) These 3 references relate to your project topic. It would have been good to include even just a single sentence explaining why you selected these 3. (4/5)
Lab Assessment 4 - Quiz
Lab Assessment 5
What is the difference between Gastroschisis and Omphalocele?
Omphalocele is fetal defect (occurring 1 in every 4000 births) which is defined as the herniation of the abdominal viscera into the umbilical cord. In this abdominal wall defect, internal abdominal organs such as the intestines, liver protrude outside of the belly via the belly button where the organs are covered by a thin, opaque sac which separates the internal organs with the fluids in the amniotic sac during pregnancy. The occurrence of Omphalocele is due to the incorrect or incomplete development of the muscles of the abdominal wall.
Gastroschisis is a defect which is thought to have been caused due to the interruption of blood supply to the developing abdominal wall from the omphalomesenteric duct artery in the 8th week of gestation. Unlike Omphalocele occurring from the belly button, it is characterized by an extra-umbilical herniation of internal abdominal organs at the junction of umbilicus and normal skin (beside the belly button) and not enclosed in visceral peritoneum.
Omphalocele develops in the 9th week of development when the intestines do not re-enter the body cavity whereas Gastroschisis arises within the 6th ~ 7th week of development when the abdominal wall muscles of the baby do not develop properly
<pubmed>2932813</pubmed> <pubmed>12130917</pubmed> <pubmed>15305094</pubmed>
Lab Assessment 7
1. Identify and write a brief description of the findings of a recent research paper on development of one of the endocrine organs covered in today's practical.
2. Identify the embryonic layers and tissues that contribute to the developing teeth.
Tooth development (Odontogenesis) begins in the 6th week of embryonic development and is made up of ectoderm, mesoderm and neural crest ectomesenchyme
- Ameloblasts: derived from the epithelium of ectoderm cells from the 1st pharyngeal arch which produces the enamel. Enamel covers the crown of the tooth and are only found to be present during the process of odontogenesis
- Odontoblasts: ectomesenchymal cells derived from the neural crest. These cells begin by forming the predentin which later hardens to become dentin
<pubmed>26244658</pubmed> Look at this aye 
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