Embryology History - Julius Tandler

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Julius Tandler
Julius Tandler (1869 – 1936)

Julius Tandler (February 16, 1869 – August 25, 1936) was an Austrian anatomist and embryologist. He provided research articles in several areas of embryology including a chapter in the Keibel and Mall 1912 textbook Manual of Human Embryology on the development of the heart. He later (1920) became more involved with developing a comprehensive system of public health and social services to Vienna. Shown below is a book review of a biography published in 1944.

Julius Tandler anatomy lecture.jpg

Julius Tandler presenting an anatomy lecture at the University of Vienna.

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Julius Tandler - A Biography

By Alfred Goetzl and Ralph Arthur Reynolds. Privately printed, San Francisco, Calif., 1944. 63 pp. Price, $1.75.

Reviewed by C.-E. A. Winslow (American Journal Of Public Health Vol. 35: 73-74)

This little book is a valuable contribution to the history of public health, since it reviews the career of a pioneer whom we should recall with admiration and respect.

Prior to the first world war, Dr. Tandler was well known as a fruitful investigator and a brilliant teacher of anatomy; but in 1920 he abandoned the academic life to become City Welfare Councilor of Vienna. He was primarily responsible for the sound and brilliant developments of public health service in the Austrian capital; and we have still much to learn from the program be developed for child welfare and recreation and for the control of tuberculosis and venereal disease. The authors of this biography summarize Dr. Tandler’s attitude toward the role of the medical profession in modern life as follows: They point out that under our traditional practice, “The physician must necessarily be economically dependent on the patient under treatment; consequently the frequency of the physician's visits and the type of therapy will be dictated not only by the nature of the patient’s illness, but also by the physician’s own material interests. This constant conflict of conscience on the part of the physician cannot possibly l improve his morale. On the contrary, it may actually be damaged. The physician, consciously or unconsciously, is apt to degenerate into a mere wage earner, always dissatisfied with his small income and at the same time maintaining an attitude of false independence. Tandler’s point of view on this question explains more clearly why he was criticised so frequently and so violently by his colleagues.

“Opposing this. individualistic attitude on the part of practising physicians, Tandler maintained that the individual had a right to health. . . . If society may take steps to provide health for the individual as a protective measure in its own interest then each individual is likewise entitled to claim preservation of his health by society. Tandler had felt that if the philosophy expressed in this corollary had been put into practice during earlier days, there would today be fewer and less serious problems before the medical profession. He was of the opinion that the physician should occupy a similar position in the social structure to that of the judge, the teacher, and the priest. These latter groups are supported from funds provided by society as a whole.”

C.-E. A. Winslow

Gastrointestinal Tract Abnormalities

Julius Tandler(1900) having studied several human embryos first put forward by the "recanalization theory" where the gastrointestinal tract goes through a developmental sequence that involves a transient solid state (through proliferation) followed by a later recanalization to establish the mature lumen. (See Gastrointestinal Tract Growth Movie)

There are several recent animal models that suggest that this historic model does not adequately explain all congenital abnormalities of the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract.


Tandler J. Zur entwicklingsgeschichte des menschlichen duodenums im frühen embryonalstadium. (1900) Morphol. Jahrb. Bd. 29, 187–216.

Tandler J. Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Kopfarterien bei den Mammalia. (1902) Morphol. Jahrbuch, Bd. 30, S. 275-373, Taf. 3-5.

Tandler J. Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der menschlichen Darmarterien. (1903) Anat. Heft, Bd. XXIII.

Tandler J. Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der menschlichen Darmarterien. (1903) Anat. Hefte, Heft 71, S. 189-210.

Tandler J. Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der arteriellen Mundernetze. (1906) Anat. Hefte. Bd. 31.

Tandler J. The Development of the Heart. (1912) Sect. II, chapt. 18, vol. 2, in Keibel F. and Mall FP. Manual of Human Embryology II. (1912) J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia., pp. 534-570.

Tandler J. Entwickelungsgeschiehte und Anatomic der Menschlichen Genitalien (1913) part 1, sec. II, pp. 5-10. Wiesbaden.

Tandler J. Die biologischen Grundlagen der sekundären Geschlechtscharaktere (1913)

External Links

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, May 28) Embryology Embryology History - Julius Tandler. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Embryology_History_-_Julius_Tandler

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© Dr Mark Hill 2024, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G