Vision - Lens Development
|Embryology - 18 Nov 2017 Expand to Translate|
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The lens or crystalline lens or aquula (Latin, aquula = a little stream) has a key role in focussing light (with the cornea) upon the neural retina. The lens embryonic origin is from surface ectoderm of the sensory placodes that form in the head region (More? Placodes).
The lens focusses by refracting light as it passes through the biconvex lens, which can be altered in shape (accommodation) by surrounding ciliary muscles. These ciliary muscles are activated (contracted) by parasympathetic innervation from the ciliary ganglion itself innervated by the oculomotor nerve (Cranial Nerve III).
The lens has recently been shown in the chicken model to not be required for specification of the iris and ciliary body.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Megan R Silas, Sarah M Hilkert, James J Reidy, Asim V Farooq Posterior keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol: 2017; PubMed 29122822
Luisa Sanchez-Arrones, África Sandonís, Marcos Julián Cardozo, Paola Bovolenta Adenohypophysis placodal precursors exhibit distinctive features within the rostral preplacodal ectoderm. Development: 2017, 144(19);3521-3532 PubMed 28974641
Georgi As Georgiev, Petar Eftimov, Norihiko Yokoi Structure-function relationship of tear film lipid layer: A contemporary perspective. Exp. Eye Res.: 2017, 163;17-28 PubMed 28950936
Jacob B Burnett, Floria I Lupu, Jonathan T Eggenschwiler Proper ciliary assembly is critical for restricting Hedgehog signaling during early eye development in mice. Dev. Biol.: 2017; PubMed 28778798
Shivanand Chanabasu Bubanale, Santosh B Kurbet, Linda Maria Genoveva De Piedade Sequeira A rare case of cleft number nine associated with atypical cleft number two. Indian J Ophthalmol: 2017, 65(7);610-612 PubMed 28724820
surface ectoderm -> lens placode -> lens pit -> lens vesicle -> lens fibres -> lens capsule and embryonic/fetal nucleus.
Human Embryo Carnegie stage 11 optic pit
The images below link to virtual slides of the human developing eye at Carnegie stage 22. Click on the image to open or select specific regions from the regions of interest links.
Virtual Slide - Regions of Interest
Wnt mediates lens repression by neural crest cells and Transforming growth factor-β (open image for full description)
- Links: Lens Development | Neural Crest Development | Wnt | Lens repression by neural crest cells | Proposed model how NCCs organize the eye | molecular model to explain TGF-β- and Wnt-mediated lens restriction
- Magnus R Dias da Silva, Nicola Tiffin, Tatsuo Mima, Takashi Mikawa, Jeanette Hyer FGF-mediated induction of ciliary body tissue in the chick eye. Dev. Biol.: 2007, 304(1);272-85 PubMed 17275804
- Aleš Cvekl, Ruth Ashery-Padan The cellular and molecular mechanisms of vertebrate lens development. Development: 2014, 141(23);4432-47 PubMed 25406393
- Claudio Cantù, Dario Zimmerli, George Hausmann, Tomas Valenta, Andreas Moor, Michel Aguet, Konrad Basler Pax6-dependent, but β-catenin-independent, function of Bcl9 proteins in mouse lens development. Genes Dev.: 2014, 28(17);1879-84 PubMed 25184676
- Robert C Augusteyn On the growth and internal structure of the human lens. Exp. Eye Res.: 2010, 90(6);643-54 PubMed 20171212
- Daniel Burgess, Yan Zhang, Ed Siefker, Ryan Vaca, Murali R Kuracha, Lixing Reneker, Paul A Overbeek, Venkatesh Govindarajan Activated Ras alters lens and corneal development through induction of distinct downstream targets. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2010, 10;13 PubMed 20105280
- Grocott T, Johnson S, Bailey AP, Streit A. Neural crest cells organize the eye via TGF-β and canonical Wnt signalling. Nat Commun. 2011 Apr;2:265. PMID21468017 | Nat Commun.
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|Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)|
Streeter GL. Developmental Horizons In Human Embryos Description Or Age Groups XIX, XX, XXI, XXII, And XXIII, Being The Fifth Issue Of A Survey Of The Carnegie Collection. (1957) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 611, Contrib. Embryol., 36: 167-196.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Vision - Lens Development. Retrieved November 18, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Vision_-_Lens_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G