From Embryology

Lab Attendance

--Z3460352 (talk) 13:45, 7 August 2015 (AEST)

--Z3460352 (talk) 12:22, 14 August 2015 (AEST)

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--Z3460352 (talk) 12:44, 28 August 2015 (AEST)

--Z3460352 (talk) 12:04, 11 September 2015 (AEST)

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--Z3460352 (talk) 14:03, 25 September 2015 (AEST)

--Z3460352 (talk) 12:18, 9 October 2015 (AEDT)

--Z3460352 (talk) 12:05, 16 October 2015 (AEDT)

--Z3460352 (talk) 12:01, 23 October 2015 (AEDT)

-- I attended the last lab, 30 October 2015 (Group Presentations), but I forgot to sign in.

Week 1 Lab Assessment

Chromosomal Development in relation to Blastocyst Morphology

Figueira, Setti, Braga, Laconelli and Borges aimed to decipher the link between embryo morphology and chromosomal development in the early days of fertilisation. Specifically, the study focused on the structure of chromosomes within the embryo at day three of development.

For the purpose of the experiment, Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) cycles were run 106 times, before a genetic screening test was completed (PGS, Pre-Implantation Genetic aneuploidy Screening). This presented 596 embryos for use. Embryonic growth was monitored closely and the genetic composition of each cell was analysed. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridisation (FISH) was used to analyse the complementary sequences of DNA within the embryos; 200 of the 564 tagged had developed into blastocysts.

Approximately 59% of the blastocysts were euploid (having an even set of chromosomes), whereas a lesser proportion of embryos that had not become blastocysts were euploid (41.2%). Furthermore, abnormalities in blastocyst development were observed, finding that if an embryo was an euploid, it would most likely have a normal inner cell mass (ICM). In contrast, aneuploid embryos (those with an abnormal set of chromosomes, generally 45 or 47) were found to be those with abnormal ICMs. A similar conclusion was found in the observation of trophectoderm morphology in that euploid embryos had a ‘normal’ cell distribution, whereas aneuploids did not.

Based on these findings, the study concluded that embryo development is not hindered by genetic abnormalities in the early stages of development. However, ICM morphology presents a stronger link to chromosomal abnormalities as the majority of aneuploidy embryos had irregular ICMs. Although this study presented clear links between embryonic development and genetic abnormalities, further studies could be conducted to strengthen these connections.

PMID 26246880

Reference [1]

In Vitro Fertilisation in women with, and without Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

This study, completed by Siristatidis, Sergentanis, Vogiatzi, Kanavidis, Chrelias, Papantonious and Psaltopoulou, was aimed at evaluating the outcomes of In Vitro Maturation (IVM) in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) versus women without PCOS, undergoing In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF). Past studies were utilised by the researchers for comparison, and were kept strictly to human experiments (not animals). Possible IVF outcomes across these studies were compared, including implantation, clinical pregnancy, cycle cancellation, oocyte maturation, oocyte fertilisation, live birth or miscarriage, in both PCOS and non-PCOS individuals. A large emphasis was placed on the number of successful births per patient, per cycle.

Due to the fact that the sources collected in this study were qualitative in nature, the researchers employed the Newcastle Ottawa Quality scale. This is a nine item scale used to analyse the experiments of interest, and to organise them into order of reliability. Additionally, confidence interval and statistical analysis schemes (using 95% confidence intervals and STATA Software, respectively) were developed to further evaluate the pattern of live births and clinical pregnancies. A total of eleven studies were examined; 268 PCOS (328 cyles), 100 PCO (110 cycles) and 440 control (480) women were involved.

It was found that when PCOS patients were administered with both follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and hCG, a higher rate of clinical pregnancies was observed. In the absence of hCG, the birth rates did not differ across the three groups. The experiments were organised into two groups; a cycle study and a women's study. In the cycle study, live birth rates did not differ greatly between the PCOS and non-PCOS groups, whereas in the women’s experiment, the birth rate for PCOS patients was slightly higher. When comparing the cycle and women’s experiment, once again PCOS patients presented greater birth and implantation rates. PCOS patients only presented lower rates than non-PCOS individuals in the fertilisation and cancellation studies. In terms of miscarriages, the rates were consistent across all three groups.

This study is significant in that drew upon the work of numerous researchers from various years, comparing their reliability and conclusions. Generally, it was found that more recent studies were of greater reliability, and therefore presented a higher score on the Newcastle Ottawa Quality scale. Siristatidis et al. came to the conclusion that IVM has a positive impact on the birth rate of PCOS women, in comparison to non-PCOS patients.

PMID 26241855

Reference [2]


  1. <pubmed>26241855</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>26246880</pubmed>

--Mark Hill (talk) 19:21, 27 August 2015 (AEST) these are good summaries of these papers. You could try and format the pubmed reference correctly by having ll on the same line. (5/5)

Week 2 Lab Assessment

Uploading Images in 5 Easy Steps  
First Read the help page Images and Copyright Tutorial.
Hint - This exercise is best done by using separate tabs on your browser so that you can keep all the relevant pages easily available. You can also use your own discussion page to copy and paste links, text. PMIDs etc that you will need in this process.
  1. Find an image .
    1. Search PubMed using an appropriate search term. Note that there is a special library of complete (full online) article and review texts called PubMed Central (PMC). Be very careful, while some of these PMC papers allow reuse, not all do and to add the reference link to your image you will still need to use the PMID.
    2. You can also make your own search term. In this link example PMC is searched for images related to "embryo+implantation" simply replace "embryo+implantation" with your own search term, but remember not everything in PMC can be reused, you will still need to find the "copyright notice" on the full paper, no notice, no reuse.
    3. Where else can I look? BioMed Central is a separate online database of journals that allow reuse of article content. Also look at the local page Journals that provides additional resources.
    4. You have found an image, go to step 2.
  2. Check the Copyright. I cannot emphasise enough the importance of this second step.
    1. The rule is unless there is an obvious copyright statement that clearly allows reuse (there are several different kinds of copyright, some do not) located in the article or on the article page, move on and find another resource. Not complying with this is a serious academic infringement equivalent to plagiarism."Plagiarism at UNSW is defined as using the words or ideas of others and passing them off as your own." (extract from UNSW statement on Academic Honesty and Plagiarism)
    2. You have found the statement and it allows reuse, go to step 3.
  3. Downloading your image.
    1. Download the image to your own computer. Either use the download image on the page or right click the image.
    2. To find the downloaded image you may have to look in your computer downloads folder, or the default location for downloaded files.
    3. The image file will have its own original name, that you will not be using on the wiki. You can rename it now (see renaming below), but you should also make a note of the original name.
    4. Make sure you have everything ready then for the
    5. You have the image file on your computer, go to step 4.
  4. Uploading your image.
    1. First make sure you have all the information you want to use with the file readily available. There is also a detailed description below.
    2. Towards the bottom of the lefthand menuunder “Toolbox” click Upload file. This will open a new window.
    3. In the top window "Source file", click "Choose file" and then navigate to find the file on the computer. and select the image.
    4. If you have done this correctly the upload window will now have your image file shown in choose file and also in the lower window "File description" in "Destination filename:" DO NOT CLICK UPLOAD FILE YET.
    5. Rename your file in "Destination filename:" this should be a brief filename that describes the image. Not any of the following - the original file name, image, file, my image, your ZID, etc. Many of the common embryology names may have already been used, but you can add a number (01, 02, 03, etc) or the PMID number to the filename to make it unique.
    6. If the filename or image has already been used or exists it will be shown on the upload page. If another student has already uploaded that image you will have to find another file. Duplicated images will not receive a mark, so check before you upload as you cannot delete images.
    7. In the "Summary" window for now just paste the PMID. You will come back and edit this information.
    8. Now click "Upload image" at the bottom of the window, go to step 4.
  5. Edit and Add to your page.
    1. Edit - Open the image with the "Edit" tab at the top of its page. You should see the PMID you had pasted earlier in the new edit window. Add the following information to the summary box.
      1. Image Title as a sub-heading. Under this title add the original figure legend or your own description of the image.
      2. Image Reference sub-sub-heading. Use the PMID link method shown in Lab 1 and you can also have a direct link to the original Journal article.
      3. Image Copyright sub-sub-heading. Add the copyright information under this sub-sub-heading exactly as shown in the original paper.
      4. Student Image template, as shown here {{Template:Student Image}} to show that it is a student uploaded image.
    2. Add - Now add your image to your own page under a subheading for Lab 2 Assessment including a description and a reference link. If still stuck with this last step, look at the example on the Test Student page.
    3. Done!

Students cannot delete images once uploaded. You will need to email me with the full image name and request deletion, that I am happy to do with no penalty if done before I assess.

Non-Table version of this page

Stress Relief....

Sex Determination Across Species.jpeg

<pubmed>24983465</pubmed>|PLoS Biol.

--Mark Hill (talk) 19:21, 27 August 2015 (AEST) Image uploaded correctly with all required information. Note when added to your own page you require <ref></ref> tags outside the PubMed ref to have it appear correctly. You had also left the 2 off the PMID, I have added it here, so the correct reference now appears, check the reference matches and number next time. (5/5)

Week 3 Lab Assessment

--Mark Hill (talk) 19:21, 27 August 2015 (AEST) These references relate to your group project. (5/5)

                                           TREATMENT OF FEMALE INFERTILITY (Group 3)

The Effect of a Complex Multi-modality Ayurvedic Treatment in a Case of Unknown Female Infertility

This article documented a 38 year old woman's journey to giving birth, after she was advised that she was infertile (of unknown cause). The researchers detail the various modern day medical treatments she underwent to become pregnant, all of which were unsuccessful. She then decided to try holistic medicine in the form of Ayurvedic treatment, which consisted of meditation, a controlled diet and yoga. To the researchers' surprise, she became pregnant soon after, and gave birth to a healthy baby boy in 2012. The study comes to the conclusion that Ayurvedic medicine and successful birth rates do not show a strong correlation, and thus should not be favoured over standard medical treatments. However, they did state that holistic medicine could improve the overall wellbeing of the mother (in terms of stress and diet), which in turn increases the chances of becoming pregnant.


                                                              * * *

Pregnancy Rate after Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation and Intrauterine Insemination for the Treatment of Endometriosis following Surgery

This study investigated various treatments available for women with endometriosis, and the rate of successful pregnancies and births in patients following their treatment. The researchers came to the conclusion that a woman's chances of becoming pregnant increased following laparoscopic surgery, particularly in the first six months following the procedure. If pregnancy does not occur, controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intrauterine insemination (COH-IU) should be the next option, due to its success rates.


                                                              * * *

Time-limited Hydrotubation Combined with Clomiphene Citrate Treatment for Unexplained Infertility

In this experiment, 80 random patients with "unexplained inferility" were selected and treated with hydotrubation and clomiphene citrate (CC). Of the 80 patients, 15 became pregnant, with the researchers concluding that combined hydrotubation and CC treatment increased a woman's chance of becoming pregnant to a greater degree than just CC alone. Further tests need to be completed to strengthen the correlation between the treatment and outcome.


                                                              * * *

Frequency and Outcome of Treatment in Polycystic Ovaries Related Infertility

This study examined treatments available to women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). It came to the conclusion that in overweight women with PCOS, weight loss, exercise and better lifestyle choices are the best treatments as they significantly increases pregnancy rates. Furthermore, clomiphene citrate (CC) and metformine combined treatments are highly effective in PCOS women, and should be one of the first options offered to a patient.


Week 4 Lab Assessment - Quiz


Select the statement that is MOST CORRECT with regards to grastrulation.

The ectoderm and mesoderm are both epithelial layers, with the endoderm contributing connective tissue.
The columnar epithelial layer of the ectoderm later forms blood vessel and muscle tissue.
The mesoderm and endoderm both contribute to the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts.
A layer of connective tissue (mesoderm) is sandwiched between a columnar epithelial layer (endoderm) and a cuboidal epithelial layer (ectoderm).


Select the incorrect statement regarding embryonic vascular development.

Embryonic red blood cells are often nucleated.
Fetal haemoglobin takes the same form as adult haemoglobin due to a high demand for oxygen during development.
During heart looping, the ventricles begin at the top of the tube before the atria begin to ascend.
The heart originates from the mesoderm at the cranial end of the neural tube.


In the maternal placenta, fibrin-type fibrinoid is said to replace which of the following types of cells?

Degenerative syncytiotrophoblasts
Extravillous trophoblasts
Epithelial cells

--Mark Hill (talk) 19:32, 20 October 2015 (AEST) Q2 incorrect statement questions are not well designed tests of knowledge. The other questions are better designed. (8/10)

Week 5 Lab Assessment

                               What is the difference between gastroschisis and omphalocele?

Gastroschisis is a defect characterised by an extra-umbilical herniation of the bowel, with the absence of a sac covering anteriorly. The condition is due to amniotic damage that may arise from exposure to a particular toxin or from poor vascular supply to the abdominal wall (on the right). Conversely, mesenteric injury can also give rise to the condition, which appears once in every 600 births.

In contrast, omphalocele occurs much less frequently; 1 in every 3,000-10,000 births. The condition results from an umbilical ring defect ventrally, causing abdominal viscera herniation. Herniation is persistent in the midgut, causing umbilical vessels to insert onto the sac and circle it. Characteristics of omphalocele include the absence of skin, fascia and abdominal muscles because of the incorrect fusion of parts of the abdominal wall.

Gastroschisis can occur at the 6-7 week point of development, whereas omphalocele arises at the 9 week mark. The former can be treated surgically, with normal bowel motility being restored once the child is born. Conversely, endoscopy and pH monitoring are the primary forms of treatment used for omphalocele, with constant medical check ups if the condition persists.



--Mark Hill (talk) 19:28, 20 October 2015 (AEST) Good summary (5/5)

Week 6 Lab Assessment

Group Work

Week 7 Lab Assessment

1. Identify and write a brief description of the findings of a recent research paper on development of one of the endocrine organs covered in today's practical.

Two tissues give rise to the pituitary gland; ectoderm and neuroectoderm. The former lines the stomodeum, which grows into the primary oral cavity and becomes completely lined with ectoderm (containing features of neural origin). The prosencephalon is located superior to the stomodeum, extensions of Meckel’s cartilage laterally and protuberances of the cardiogenic area inferiorly. In the oral-pharyngeal ectoderm in front of the buccopharyngeal membrane, Rathke’s pouch begins to form. Some pituitary cells also grow in this region, with contributions from the neural plate. The pouch continues to grow in a dorsal direction and will eventually join the infundibulum. This fusion causes the development of pouch epithelium, pars intermedia and the pars distalis. The remainder of the pouch will become the anterior pituitary.

At this point in development, various transcription factors intervene. They induce cell proliferation and apoptosis, as well as gene activation, which further induce neural cell development. The excretion of growth hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone commence, which are vital in the remaining development of the embryo (in terms of metabolism, growth and homeostasis).

<pubmed>25858531</pubmed> PMID 25858531

2. Identify the embryonic layers and tissues that contribute to the developing teeth.

  • Ectoderm of pharangeal arch 1
  • Neural crest:
 --> Ectomesenchymal cells
 --> Odontoblasts (a type of mesenchymal cell) differentiate into predentins, and then calcify into dentins.
 --> Ameloblasts produce enamel and hold tooth to bone socket. 

<pubmed>19266065</pubmed> PMID 19266065

--Mark Hill (talk) 19:35, 20 October 2015 (AEST)

PMID 25858531 this paper is a (good) review article not a research. Teeth origins are correct. (4/5)

Week 8 Lab Assessment

Group Project

Week 9 Lab Assessment - Peer Reviews


Your group’s topic looks very interesting! You have addressed the key points of your topic, and the placement of the video gives the reader a great overview of your project.


• Information has been organised well most of the time. Good use of bullet points and subheadings.

• The table under “Prohibitions” is a great way of summarising information, and it was easy to read.

• I like the addition of a glossary, however, more terms could be added here as a lot of jargon has been used in your text.

• Cytoplasmic transfer images were great as they aided the text well. These images could be re-sized as some of the text is blurry.


• Be mindful of spelling and capitalisation, e.g. “Hereditary Mitochondrial Disease” rather than “Hereditory mitochndrial Disease.”

• In terms of formatting, more spacing between major headings will make reading the page easier and will allow your information to flow.

• I recommend adopting a set formatting scheme for each section: i.e. make sure that the subheadings are all the same size, that they are in bold/italic (if that is what you intended).

• Some references and PMIDs are placed throughout the page. These should all be under your References heading at the end of the page.

• Information is missing under certain headings, e.g. “Mitochondria Linked Infertility.” I’m assuming that information from the two links provided will be summarised for the final submission.

• Hand drawn image is absent – maybe you could hand draw one of your timelines? (Seeing that both of them currently take the same format/structure).

Great job so far!

                                                          * * *


I found your topic very intriguing! It appears as though you have put a lot of time into researching your area and ensuring that your have addressed the main concepts.


• Fantastic introduction! It gave me a clear overview of what your group’s topic is, and it was easy to understand.

• Great overview of the symptoms. Your table added some colour to the page and the information was succinct.

• You are to be commended on your hand drawn image - very clear and neat. Good job!

• Clear reference list and good in text citations.


• A map in the Epidemiology section would put your text into perspective for the reader.

• Some words have been typed in bold (particularly in the Diagnosis section). The selected words seem to be a bit random. Maybe you could highlight phrases rather than words, or organise the information under subheadings.

• More images would break up the information and aid the reader’s understanding of the given concepts. Subheadings would also help organise the information to place ease on reading and comprehension.

• Your page features large chunks of text for the most part. I would recommend reading through your text and removing excessive bits of information; try and be a bit more succinct. You could use more tables and diagrams to communicate certain concepts as well (e.g. Treatment and Diagnosis).

• Information is absent under “Animal Models” and “Effect on the Newborn.”

With this said, your group has covered all the key concepts and it is evident that you have done a lot of in depth research. You are definitely on the right track.

                                                          * * *


Probably the most enjoyable page to read, thus far.


• Great introduction; straight to the point and easy to understand.

• Your information is organised under appropriate subheadings, making your page easy to read and follow.

• Your “Types of Male Infertility” table is great! You have provided clear definitions of each condition and the use of colour makes the information stand out.

• Appropriate referencing throughout.

• Great audio-visual sources, especially the video.

• Your page looks even better than a Wikipedia page! A lot of time and effort has gone into it.


• A glossary at the end of the page would be great, even though you have explained a lot of the concepts in your text. This way the reader does not have to skim through your page to find a term and they can go straight to the glossary.

• Information under IVF and IUI is absent in “Male Infertility Treatments.” I am not sure if these were meant to be deleted or text will be added later.

It is evident that you have worked fantastically as a team and you have done a lot of research. Each topic is covered comprehensively and aided by a table, image or diagram, making the topic more appealing to the reader. Well done!

                                                          * * *



• The short video was a good visual aid that helped me understand your topic.

• The use of tables and a few images were good additions to your page.

• Good referencing throughout.

• Your “Oncofertility Timeline” was great; straight to the point and well organised. Maybe place it at the beginning of your page as a part of your introduction?


• Make sure your proofread your work; I saw a few very long sentences that could be broken up into smaller sentences. This will make your page easier to read and understand.

• Furthermore, some words are capitalised that don’t need to be; e.g. “Oncofertility” in your introduction and “Chemotherapy” in the Infertility section.

• Your page would benefit from the use of subheadings. There are large chunks of information under your headings, making it a bit difficult to follow at times (particularly in your Radiation section).

• I recommend reading through your information and removing details that may be excessive. By making your information more concise, your page will flow better and will encourage the audience to keep reading. Some of the information is a bit repetitive across your sections.

• I liked the use of a table in “Fertility Preservation in Men,” however, I feel as though you could add more details to it. I found the concepts presented in this table difficult to understand; maybe link it a bit better to the information below? Or just organise all of the information into a table?

Very well researched topic, with all key points being addressed. Condensing all of your research and being a little more selective about what you include will be the key to a great final page.

                                                          * * *



• Good reference list and in text citations throughout.

• Great table of advantages and disadvantages under “Biopsy Methods” (good comparison of the techniques). However, the ‘Blastomere’ row is missing information.

• All key points have been addressed, and it is evident that you have done a lot of research!


• A short definition at the beginning of your page would help the reader understand what your topic is about. I was a bit unsure as to what ART was when I first began reading.

• Your information could be organised under more subheadings, particularly in your “Polar Body Analysis” section; the information here is quite dense.

• More pictures or animations would be great; make sure you reference your pictures properly as well (the image under FISH is missing a reference).

• More tables – a lot of your information involves advantages and disadvantages. You could create more tables to make the information easier to read/follow. It would also allow you to cut down on details that are repeated, or those that you do not need.

• A self drawn diagram is also missing – maybe this could take the form of a world map and you could label the various countries featured under your “Laws & Legal Status” heading with their respective laws.

It is evident that you have put in a lot of effort into your page. Try and condense the information you have, and add more titles and images to create a more succinct end product. Good job so far!

--Mark Hill (talk) 9:35, 7 November 2015 (AEST) (17/20)

Week 10 Lab Assessment: The Tongue

Permalink: Tongue

All Pharyngeal Arches contribute to the development of the tongue:

  • Arch 1: Anterior 2/3 (oral surface)
  • Arch 2: its surface contribution is lost.
  • Arch 3: Posterior 1/3 (pharyngeal)
  • Arch 4: epiglottis and surrounding tissue.

Muscle development is not complete at birth. They originate from the following:

  • Tongue muscles originate from somites.
  • Muscles of mastication come from unsegmented somitomeres.

Dorsally, the tongue's epithelium is stratified squamous. This area is covered in papillae with taste buds. Featured in a V-shape at the back of the tongue are 8-12 circumvallate papillae.

Embryonic Link Tongue Development

--Mark Hill (talk) 9:40, 7 November 2015 (AEST) (5)

Week 11 Lab Assessment

Group Stem Cell Presentation

--Mark Hill (talk) 9:40, 7 November 2015 (AEST) (17/20) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Please do not use your real name on this website, use only your student number.

2015 Course: Week 2 Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lab 1 | Week 3 Lecture 3 Lecture 4 Lab 2 | Week 4 Lecture 5 Lecture 6 Lab 3 | Week 5 Lecture 7 Lecture 8 Lab 4 | Week 6 Lecture 9 Lecture 10 Lab 5 | Week 7 Lecture 11 Lecture 12 Lab 6 | Week 8 Lecture 13 Lecture 14 Lab 7 | Week 9 Lecture 15 Lecture 16 Lab 8 | Week 10 Lecture 17 Lecture 18 Lab 9 | Week 11 Lecture 19 Lecture 20 Lab 10 | Week 12 Lecture 21 Lecture 22 Lab 11 | Week 13 Lecture 23 Lecture 24 Lab 12 | 2015 Projects: Three Person Embryos | Ovarian Hyper-stimulation Syndrome | Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome | Male Infertility | Oncofertility | Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis | Students | Student Designed Quiz Questions | Moodle page

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link