Sensory - Taste Development

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Introduction

Tongue taste map[1]
Gustatory system neuroanatomy[2]

These notes introduce the development of the sense of taste which can divided into five basic tastes: bitter, salty, sweet, umami (savoury) and sour. Current research appears to have displaced the historic concept of a tongue "map".


A study in rat suggests that neonatal changes in circumvallate papillae may result in postnatal changes in "taste".[3]


In frogs, a large taste disc (TD) is the largest vertebrate gustatory organ. Postnatally, the sense of taste is also closely related to the sense of smell.


Taste Links: Introduction | Student project | Tongue Development | Category:Taste
Senses Links: Introduction | Placodes | Hearing and Balance | Vision | Smell | Taste | Touch | Stage 22 | Category:Senses

Some Recent Findings

  • Review - Developing and regenerating a sense of taste[4] "In this review, we highlight new findings in the field of taste development, including how taste buds are patterned and how taste cell fate is regulated. We discuss whether a specialized taste bud stem cell population exists and how extrinsic signals can define which cell lineages are generated. We also address the question of whether molecular regulation of taste cell renewal is analogous to that of taste bud development."
  • Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium[5] "Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. ... As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation."
  • CALHM1 ion channel mediates purinergic neurotransmission of sweet, bitter and umami tastes[6] "Recognition of sweet, bitter and umami tastes requires the non-vesicular release from taste bud cells of ATP, which acts as a neurotransmitter to activate afferent neural gustatory pathways. However, how ATP is released to fulfil this function is not fully understood. Here we show that calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1), a voltage-gated ion channel, is indispensable for taste-stimuli-evoked ATP release from sweet-, bitter- and umami-sensing taste bud cells."
  • Developing a sense of taste[7] "Taste buds are found in a distributed array on the tongue surface, and are innervated by cranial nerves that convey taste information to the brain. For nearly a century, taste buds were thought to be induced by nerves late in embryonic development. However, this view has shifted dramatically. A host of studies now indicate that taste bud development is initiated and proceeds via processes that are nerve-independent, occur long before birth, and governed by cellular and molecular mechanisms intrinsic to the developing tongue. Here we review the state of our understanding of the molecular and cellular regulation of taste bud development, incorporating important new data obtained through the use of two powerful genetic systems, mouse and zebrafish."
  • FGF Signaling Regulates the Number of Posterior Taste Papillae by Controlling Progenitor Field Size[8] "The sense of taste is fundamental to our ability to ingest nutritious substances and to detect and avoid potentially toxic ones. Sensory taste buds are housed in papillae that develop from epithelial placodes. Three distinct types of gustatory papillae reside on the rodent tongue: small fungiform papillae are found in the anterior tongue, whereas the posterior tongue contains the larger foliate papillae and a single midline circumvallate papilla (CVP). ...Here, we report that a balance between Sprouty (Spry) genes and Fgf10, which respectively antagonize and activate receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, regulates the number of CVPs."
  • Fate mapping of mammalian embryonic taste bud progenitors[9]"Mammalian taste buds have properties of both epithelial and neuronal cells, and are thus developmentally intriguing. Taste buds differentiate at birth within epithelial appendages, termed taste papillae, which arise at mid-gestation as epithelial thickenings or placodes. ...we demonstrate that Shh-expressing embryonic taste placodes are taste bud progenitors, which give rise to at least two different adult taste cell types, but do not contribute to taste papillae. Strikingly, placodally descendant taste cells disappear early in adult life."
More recent papers
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Taste Development

Francjan J van Spronsen, Margreet van Rijn, Uta Meyer, Anibh M Das Dietary Considerations in Tyrosinemia Type I. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.: 2017, 959;197-204 PubMed 28755197

Jessica E Armstrong, David G Laing, Anthony L Jinks Taste-Elicited Activity in Facial Muscle Regions in 5-8-Week-Old Infants. Chem. Senses: 2017, 42(5);443-453 PubMed 28531312

Dengyong Liu, Shengjie Li, Nan Wang, Yajun Deng, Lei Sha, Shengmei Gai, Huan Liu, Xinglian Xu Evolution of Taste Compounds of Dezhou-Braised Chicken During Cooking Evaluated by Chemical Analysis and an Electronic Tongue System. J. Food Sci.: 2017; PubMed 28407240

Erin Sundseth Ross Flavor and Taste Development in the First Years of Life. Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser: 2017, 87;49-58 PubMed 28315887

Barbara Singldinger, Andreas Dunkel, Thomas Hofmann The Cyclic Diarylheptanoid Asadanin as the Main Contributor to the Bitter Off-Taste in Hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.). J. Agric. Food Chem.: 2017; PubMed 28166631

Development Timing

These are human embryonic timings[10], not clinical which is based on last menstral period +2 weeks GA.

Week 6 - gustatory papilla, caudal midline near the foramen caecum

Week 6-7 - nerve fibers approach the lingual epithelium

Week 8 - nerves penetrate epitheilai basal lamina and synapse with undifferentiated, elongated, epithelial cells (taste bud progenitor cell)

Week 10 - shallow grooves above the taste bud primordium

Week 12 - first differentiated epithelial cells (Type II and III)

Week 12 -13 - maximum synapses between cells and afferent nerve fibers

Week 14 - 15 - taste pores develop, mucous

Week 18 - substance P detected in dermal papillae, not in taste bud primordia

3rd Trimester -


Links: Timeline human development

Tongue Development

Neonatal rat tongue

Taste Buds

Circumvallate papilla are tongue surface specialisation of large size, varying in number (8-12) forming an inverted letter V shape on the dorsum of the tongue immediately in front of the foramen cecum and sulcus terminals. Numerous "taste buds" are located on the sides of these circumvallate papilla (vallate papilla)as well as with fungiform papilla. The three types of tongue papillae from numerous to few are: filiform, fungiform and circumvallate.

Other adult locations include the fimbriæ linguæ, under surface of the soft palate, and on the posterior surface of the epiglottis.


Tongue histology 05.jpg Tongue histology 04.jpg

Tongue histology 06.jpg


Links: Histology HE | Histology VG | Drawing - circumvallate papillae | Tongue Development

Gustatory Cranial Sensory Neurons

(CN VII, N. Facials)

Cranial nerves VII, IX and X have dual embryonic origins and provide both gustatory (taste) and non-gustatory (touch, pain, temperature) sensory innervation to the oral cavity of vertebrates.

Gustatory Neurons

  • originate from epibranchial placodes
  • innervate taste buds
  • project centrally to the rostral nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS)

General Epithelial Innervation of the oral cavity

  • originate from cranial neural crest
  • innervation to the oropharynx
  • project to non-gustatory hindbrain regions (spinal trigeminal nucleus)

(text based on: Embryonic origin of gustatory cranial sensory neurons.[11])

Stage 22

Stage 22 image 060.jpg

Section (B4) through head showing tongue and head structures.


Mouse

Mouse Tongue Pax9 Expression in Different Taste Papillae
Mouse tongue Pax9 expression 03.jpg E13.5 Mouse Tongue Pax9 Expression in Different Taste Papillae
  • A. Drawing showing the localization of the circumvallate papilla (CVP), foliate papillae (FOP), and fungiform papillae (FUP) in the mouse tongue.
  • B. Whole mount X-Gal staining of a Pax9+/LacZ mouse tongue at embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5).

Note that expression is also seen in the mesenchyme adjacent to the developing FOP (arrowheads) and that the color reaction was stopped before epithelial staining began to obscure the mesenchymal expression domain.

B Scale bar 200 µm.

Mouse tongue Pax9 expression 02.jpg E13.5 -E18.5 Mouse Tongue Pax9 Expression in Different Taste Papillae

Pax9 immunostaining of taste papillae during development on cross sections (C–F; K–N) and horizontal sections of the tongue (G–J).

  • C–F Pax9 is expressed in the epithelium during CVP morphogenesis and is down-regulated in some regions of the trenches at E18.5 (arrowhead in F).
  • G–J In addition to the epithelium, Pax9 is also expressed in the mesenchyme during FOP development, while reduced Pax9 levels were observed in the trenches at E18.5 (arrowhead in J).
  • K–N In the anterior part of the tongue Pax9 is expressed in the FUP epithelium and in filiform papillae (FIP). Note that the expression is very weak or absent in the taste placodes (arrowheads).

Scale bars 50 µm.

Images and data.[12]

Links: Mouse Development | Pax

References

  1. Jayaram Chandrashekar, Mark A Hoon, Nicholas J P Ryba, Charles S Zuker The receptors and cells for mammalian taste. Nature: 2006, 444(7117);288-94 PubMed 17108952
  2. Robin F Krimm Factors that regulate embryonic gustatory development. BMC Neurosci: 2007, 8 Suppl 3;S4 PubMed 17903280
  3. A Sbarbati, C Crescimanno, F Merigo, D Benati, P Bernardi, M Bertini, F Osculati A brief survey of the modifications in sensory-secretory organs of the neonatal rat tongue. Biol. Neonate: 2001, 80(1);1-6 PubMed 11474141
  4. Linda A Barlow, Ophir D Klein Developing and regenerating a sense of taste. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol.: 2015, 111;401-19 PubMed 25662267
  5. David Castillo, Kerstin Seidel, Ernesto Salcedo, Christina Ahn, Frederic J de Sauvage, Ophir D Klein, Linda A Barlow Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium. Development: 2014, 141(15);2993-3002 PubMed 24993944
  6. Akiyuki Taruno, Valérie Vingtdeux, Makoto Ohmoto, Zhongming Ma, Gennady Dvoryanchikov, Ang Li, Leslie Adrien, Haitian Zhao, Sze Leung, Maria Abernethy, Jeremy Koppel, Peter Davies, Mortimer M Civan, Nirupa Chaudhari, Ichiro Matsumoto, Göran Hellekant, Michael G Tordoff, Philippe Marambaud, J Kevin Foskett CALHM1 ion channel mediates purinergic neurotransmission of sweet, bitter and umami tastes. Nature: 2013, 495(7440);223-6 PubMed 23467090 | Nature
  7. Marika Kapsimali, Linda A Barlow Developing a sense of taste. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol.: 2013, 24(3);200-9 PubMed 23182899
  8. Camille I Petersen, Andrew H Jheon, Pasha Mostowfi, Cyril Charles, Saunders Ching, Shoba Thirumangalathu, Linda A Barlow, Ophir D Klein FGF signaling regulates the number of posterior taste papillae by controlling progenitor field size. PLoS Genet.: 2011, 7(6);e1002098 PubMed 21655085 | PMC3107195 | http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1002098 PLoS Genetics]
  9. Shoba Thirumangalathu, Danielle E Harlow, Amanda L Driskell, Robin F Krimm, Linda A Barlow Fate mapping of mammalian embryonic taste bud progenitors. Development: 2009, 136(9);1519-28 PubMed 19363153
  10. M Witt, K Reutter Embryonic and early fetal development of human taste buds: a transmission electron microscopical study. Anat. Rec.: 1996, 246(4);507-23 PubMed 8955790
  11. Danielle E Harlow, Linda A Barlow Embryonic origin of gustatory cranial sensory neurons. Dev. Biol.: 2007, 310(2);317-28 PubMed 17826760
  12. Ralf Kist, Michelle Watson, Moira Crosier, Max Robinson, Jennifer Fuchs, Julia Reichelt, Heiko Peters The formation of endoderm-derived taste sensory organs requires a pax9-dependent expansion of embryonic taste bud progenitor cells. PLoS Genet.: 2014, 10(10);e1004709 PubMed 25299669 | PLoS Genet.


Reviews

Paloma Rohlfs Domínguez The study of postnatal and later development of the taste and olfactory systems using the human brain mapping approach: an update. Brain Res. Bull.: 2011, 84(2);118-24 PubMed 21184814

Nirupa Chaudhari, Stephen D Roper The cell biology of taste. J. Cell Biol.: 2010, 190(3);285-96 PubMed 20696704

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Additional Images


Tongue Images: Tongue Sk Muscle | Salivary gland sk muscle HE | Unlabeled Salivary gland sk muscle HE | Filiform papillae HE | circumvallate papilla VG | circumvallate papilla HE | Taste buds VG



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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Sensory - Taste Development. Retrieved September 25, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Sensory_-_Taste_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G