Neural - Telencephalon Development
|Embryology - 22 Jun 2018 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Development Overview
- 4 Early Brain Vesicles
- 5 Insular Cortex
- 6 Molecular Development
- 7 References
- 8 Glossary Links
Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.
The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects).
Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.
- Neural development beginnings quite early, therefore also look at notes covering Week 3- neural tube and Week 4-early nervous system.
- Development of the neural crest and sensory systems (hearing/vision/smell) are only introduced in these notes and are covered in other notes sections.
- Neural Parts: neural | prosencephalon | telencephalon | amygdala | hippocampus | basal ganglia | lateral ventricles | diencephalon | Epithalamus | thalamus | hypothalamus | pituitary | pineal | third ventricle | mesencephalon | Tectum | cerebral aqueduct | rhombencephalon | metencephalon | Pons | cerebellum | myelencephalon | medulla oblongata | spinal cord | neural vascular | meninges | Category:Neural
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Boya Zhang, Yangzhige He, Yanpeng Xu, Fan Mo, Tingwei Mi, Qing Sunny Shen, Chunfeng Li, Yali Li, Jing Liu, Yihui Wu, Guilai Chen, Wenliang Zhu, Chengfeng Qin, Baoyang Hu, Guomin Zhou Differential antiviral immunity to Japanese encephalitis virus in developing cortical organoids. Cell Death Dis: 2018, 9(7);719 PubMed 29915260
Nadin Hoffmann, Stefan C Weise, Federica Marinaro, Tanja Vogel, Davide De Pietri Tonelli DGCR8 Promotes Neural Progenitor Expansion and Represses Neurogenesis in the Mouse Embryonic Neocortex. Front Neurosci: 2018, 12;281 PubMed 29760646
Bai Hui Chen, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Joon Ha Park, Minah Song, Hyunjung Kim, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jae Chul Lee, Young-Myeong Kim, In Koo Hwang, Dae Won Kim, Choong-Hyun Lee, Bing Chun Yan, Il Jun Kang, Moo-Ho Won Rufinamide, an antiepileptic drug, improves cognition and increases neurogenesis in the aged gerbil hippocampal dentate gyrus via increasing expressions of IGF-1, IGF-1R and p-CREB. Chem. Biol. Interact.: 2018; PubMed 29548728
Raluca Pascalau, Roxana Popa Stănilă, Silviu Sfrângeu, Bianca Szabo Anatomy of the limbic white matter tracts as revealed by fiber dissection and tractography. World Neurosurg: 2018; PubMed 29501514
Bai Hui Chen, Joon Ha Park, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Minah Song, Hyunjung Kim, Jae Chul Lee, Young-Myeong Kim, Choong-Hyun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Il Jun Kang, Bing Chun Yan, Moo-Ho Won, Ji Hyeon Ahn Melatonin attenuates scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment via protecting against demyelination through BDNF-TrkB signaling in the mouse dentate gyrus. Chem. Biol. Interact.: 2018; PubMed 29476728
Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.
- Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest
|Neural Tube||Primary Vesicles||Secondary Vesicles||Adult Structures|
|week 3||week 4||week 5||adult|
|Prosencephalon||Telencephalon||Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cerebrum (Cortex), Hypothalamus, Pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles|
|Diencephalon||Epithalamus, Thalamus, Subthalamus, Pineal, third ventricle|
|Mesencephalon||Mesencephalon||Tectum, Cerebral peduncle, Pretectum, cerebral aqueduct|
Adult Cerebral Cortex
Each lobe below is further divided into regions.
- Frontal lobe
- Parietal lobe
- Occipital lobe
- Temporal lobe
- Limbic lobe
- Insular cortex
- Interlobar sulci/fissures
Early Brain Vesicles
(insula, insulary cortex, insular lobe) Region from the telencephalon forming part of the cerebral cortex located deep within the lateral fissure (Sylvian fissure) between the temporal lobe and the frontal lobe. Adult roles in consciousness, emotion, sensory and homeostasis, see review.
- less than 2% of total cortical surface area
- receives afferents from some sensory thalamic nuclei
- connected with amygdala and many limbic and association cortical areas
Algorithm-based gene regulatory network structure for dorsal and ventral telencephalon development.
To highlight the key regulators, the nodes representing genes predicted to be the parent of at least nine other genes are largest in size (Sox9, Mef2a, Elavl4 and Pou6f1), whereas those that are predicted to regulate at least five other genes are medium in size (Ngn2, Centg3, Tef, Tcf4, Wnt7b, Pou2f1, Yy1, Dll1, E2f1, Arx, and Creb).
|Model of the Role of Netrin-1 Signaling in the Topography of Thalamocortical Projections in the Ventral Telencephalon
- Konno D, Iwashita M, Satoh Y, Momiyama A, Abe T, Kiyonari H & Matsuzaki F. (2012). The mammalian DM domain transcription factor Dmrta2 is required for early embryonic development of the cerebral cortex. PLoS ONE , 7, e46577. PMID: 23056351 DOI.
- . (). . , , . PMID: 221418559
- Judaš M, Sedmak G, Pletikos M & Jovanov-Milošević N. (2010). Populations of subplate and interstitial neurons in fetal and adult human telencephalon. J. Anat. , 217, 381-99. PMID: 20979586 DOI.
- Rudolph J, Zimmer G, Steinecke A, Barchmann S & Bolz J. (2010). Ephrins guide migrating cortical interneurons in the basal telencephalon. Cell Adh Migr , 4, 400-8. PMID: 20473036
- Roth M, Bonev B, Lindsay J, Lea R, Panagiotaki N, Houart C & Papalopulu N. (2010). FoxG1 and TLE2 act cooperatively to regulate ventral telencephalon formation. Development , 137, 1553-62. PMID: 20356955 DOI.
- Nieuwenhuys R. (2012). The insular cortex: a review. Prog. Brain Res. , 195, 123-63. PMID: 22230626 DOI.
- Rose M. Die Inselrinde des Menschen und der Tiere. (1928) Journal fuer Psychologie und Neurologie, 37: 467–624
- Mesulam MM. and Mufson EJ. The insula of Reil in man and monkey. (1985) A. Peters, E.G. Jones (Eds.), Association and auditory cortices, Plenum, New York, pp. 179–226
- Gohlke JM, Armant O, Parham FM, Smith MV, Zimmer C, Castro DS, Nguyen L, Parker JS, Gradwohl G, Portier CJ & Guillemot F. (2008). Characterization of the proneural gene regulatory network during mouse telencephalon development. BMC Biol. , 6, 15. PMID: 18377642 DOI.
- Powell AW, Sassa T, Wu Y, Tessier-Lavigne M & Polleux F. (2008). Topography of thalamic projections requires attractive and repulsive functions of Netrin-1 in the ventral telencephalon. PLoS Biol. , 6, e116. PMID: 18479186 DOI.
- Dufour A, Seibt J, Passante L, Depaepe V, Ciossek T, Frisén J, Kullander K, Flanagan JG, Polleux F & Vanderhaeghen P. (2003). Area specificity and topography of thalamocortical projections are controlled by ephrin/Eph genes. Neuron , 39, 453-65. PMID: 12895420
Nomura T, Hattori M & Osumi N. (2009). Reelin, radial fibers and cortical evolution: insights from comparative analysis of the mammalian and avian telencephalon. Dev. Growth Differ. , 51, 287-97. PMID: 19210541 DOI.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, June 22) Embryology Neural - Telencephalon Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Telencephalon_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G