Neural - Telencephalon Development
|Embryology - 20 Feb 2018 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Development Overview
- 4 Early Brain Vesicles
- 5 Insular Cortex
- 6 Molecular Development
- 7 References
- 8 Glossary Links
Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.
The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects).
Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.
- Neural development beginnings quite early, therefore also look at notes covering Week 3- neural tube and Week 4-early nervous system.
- Development of the neural crest and sensory systems (hearing/vision/smell) are only introduced in these notes and are covered in other notes sections.
- Neural Parts: Introduction | Prosencephalon | Telencephalon | Amygdala | Hippocampus | Basal Ganglia | lateral ventricles | Diencephalon | Epithalamus | Thalamus | Hypothalamus | Pituitary | Pineal | third ventricle | Mesencephalon | Mesencephalon | Tectum | cerebral aqueduct | Rhombencephalon | Metencephalon | Pons | Cerebellum | Myelencephalon | Medulla Oblongata | Spinal Cord | Vascular | Meninges | Category:Neural
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Dragica Selakovic, Jovana Joksimovic, Ivan Zaletel, Nela Puskas, Milovan Matovic, Gvozden Rosic The opposite effects of nandrolone decanoate and exercise on anxiety levels in rats may involve alterations in hippocampal parvalbumin-positive interneurons. PLoS ONE: 2017, 12(12);e0189595 PubMed 29232412
Istvan Adorjan, Bashir Ahmed, Virginia Feher, Mario Torso, Kristine Krug, Margaret Esiri, Steven A Chance, Francis G Szele Calretinin interneuron density in the caudate nucleus is lower in autism spectrum disorder. Brain: 2017, 140(7);2028-2040 PubMed 29177493
Chrystelle Aillaud, Christophe Bosc, Leticia Peris, Anouk Bosson, Pierre Heemeryck, Juliette Van Dijk, Julien Le Friec, Benoit Boulan, Frédérique Vossier, Laura E Sanman, Salahuddin Syed, Neri Amara, Yohann Couté, Laurence Lafanechère, Eric Denarier, Christian Delphin, Laurent Pelletier, Sandrine Humbert, Matthew Bogyo, Annie Andrieux, Krzysztof Rogowski, Marie-Jo Moutin Vasohibins/SVBP are tubulin carboxypeptidases (TCPs) that regulate neuron differentiation. Science: 2017, 358(6369);1448-1453 PubMed 29146868
V Cunha, P Rodrigues, M M Santos, P Moradas-Ferreira, M Ferreira Fluoxetine modulates the transcription of genes involved in serotonin, dopamine and adrenergic signalling in zebrafish embryos. Chemosphere: 2017, 191;954-961 PubMed 29145140
Andre M Goffinet The evolution of cortical development: the synapsid-diapsid divergence. Development: 2017, 144(22);4061-4077 PubMed 29138289
Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.
- Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest
|Neural Tube||Primary Vesicles||Secondary Vesicles||Adult Structures|
|week 3||week 4||week 5||adult|
|Prosencephalon||Telencephalon||Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cerebrum (Cortex), Hypothalamus, Pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles|
|Diencephalon||Epithalamus, Thalamus, Subthalamus, Pineal, third ventricle|
|Mesencephalon||Mesencephalon||Tectum, Cerebral peduncle, Pretectum, cerebral aqueduct|
Adult Cerebral Cortex
Each lobe below is further divided into regions.
- Frontal lobe
- Parietal lobe
- Occipital lobe
- Temporal lobe
- Limbic lobe
- Insular cortex
- Interlobar sulci/fissures
Early Brain Vesicles
(insula, insulary cortex, insular lobe) Region from the telencephalon forming part of the cerebral cortex located deep within the lateral fissure (Sylvian fissure) between the temporal lobe and the frontal lobe. Adult roles in consciousness, emotion, sensory and homeostasis, see review.
- less than 2% of total cortical surface area
- receives afferents from some sensory thalamic nuclei
- connected with amygdala and many limbic and association cortical areas
Algorithm-based gene regulatory network structure for dorsal and ventral telencephalon development.
To highlight the key regulators, the nodes representing genes predicted to be the parent of at least nine other genes are largest in size (Sox9, Mef2a, Elavl4 and Pou6f1), whereas those that are predicted to regulate at least five other genes are medium in size (Ngn2, Centg3, Tef, Tcf4, Wnt7b, Pou2f1, Yy1, Dll1, E2f1, Arx, and Creb).
|Model of the Role of Netrin-1 Signaling in the Topography of Thalamocortical Projections in the Ventral Telencephalon
- Daijiro Konno, Misato Iwashita, Yoshiaki Satoh, Asuka Momiyama, Takaya Abe, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Fumio Matsuzaki The mammalian DM domain transcription factor Dmrta2 is required for early embryonic development of the cerebral cortex. PLoS ONE: 2012, 7(10);e46577 PubMed 23056351 | Plos One.
- | 21418559
- Judith Rudolph, Geraldine Zimmer, André Steinecke, Sandra Barchmann, Jürgen Bolz Ephrins guide migrating cortical interneurons in the basal telencephalon. Cell Adh Migr: 2010, 4(3);400-8 PubMed 20473036
- Martin Roth, Boyan Bonev, Jennefer Lindsay, Robert Lea, Niki Panagiotaki, Corinne Houart, Nancy Papalopulu FoxG1 and TLE2 act cooperatively to regulate ventral telencephalon formation. Development: 2010, 137(9);1553-62 PubMed 20356955
- Rudolf Nieuwenhuys The insular cortex: a review. Prog. Brain Res.: 2012, 195;123-63 PubMed 22230626
- Rose M. Die Inselrinde des Menschen und der Tiere. (1928) Journal fuer Psychologie und Neurologie, 37: 467–624
- Mesulam MM. and Mufson EJ. The insula of Reil in man and monkey. (1985) A. Peters, E.G. Jones (Eds.), Association and auditory cortices, Plenum, New York, pp. 179–226
- Julia M Gohlke, Olivier Armant, Frederick M Parham, Marjolein V Smith, Celine Zimmer, Diogo S Castro, Laurent Nguyen, Joel S Parker, Gerard Gradwohl, Christopher J Portier, François Guillemot Characterization of the proneural gene regulatory network during mouse telencephalon development. BMC Biol.: 2008, 6;15 PubMed 18377642 | BMC Biol.
- Ashton W Powell, Takayuki Sassa, Yongqin Wu, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Franck Polleux Topography of thalamic projections requires attractive and repulsive functions of Netrin-1 in the ventral telencephalon. PLoS Biol.: 2008, 6(5);e116 PubMed 18479186 | PMC2584572 | PLoS Biol.
- Audrey Dufour, Julie Seibt, Lara Passante, Vanessa Depaepe, Thomas Ciossek, Jonas Frisén, Klas Kullander, John G Flanagan, Franck Polleux, Pierre Vanderhaeghen Area specificity and topography of thalamocortical projections are controlled by ephrin/Eph genes. Neuron: 2003, 39(3);453-65 PubMed 12895420
Tadashi Nomura, Mitsuharu Hattori, Noriko Osumi Reelin, radial fibers and cortical evolution: insights from comparative analysis of the mammalian and avian telencephalon. Dev. Growth Differ.: 2009, 51(3);287-97 PubMed 19210541
Jean M Hébert, Gord Fishell The genetics of early telencephalon patterning: some assembly required. Nat. Rev. Neurosci.: 2008, 9(9);678-85 PubMed 19143049
Weiying Yu, Yiwei Wang, Kristen McDonnell, Daniel Stephen, C Brian Bai Patterning of ventral telencephalon requires positive function of Gli transcription factors. Dev. Biol.: 2009, 334(1);264-75 PubMed 19632216
Alexandra A Gulacsi, Stewart A Anderson Beta-catenin-mediated Wnt signaling regulates neurogenesis in the ventral telencephalon. Nat. Neurosci.: 2008, 11(12);1383-91 PubMed 18997789
Brian G Rash, Elizabeth A Grove Patterning the dorsal telencephalon: a role for sonic hedgehog? J. Neurosci.: 2007, 27(43);11595-603 PubMed 17959802
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, February 20) Embryology Neural - Telencephalon Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Telencephalon_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G