Neural - Pons Development

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Introduction

Fetal brain showing developing pons
Fetal Head showing developing Pons.
Right lateral view of adult brain showing Pons
Adult brain showing Pons.

(Latin, pons = "bridge") A brain stem region within the central nervous system, anatomically lying above the medulla before the nervous system becomes the spinal cord.


Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.


The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects).


Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.

  • Neural development beginnings quite early, therefore also look at notes covering Week 3 neural tube and Week 4 early nervous system.
Neural Links: neural | ventricular | ectoderm | Stage 22 | gliogenesis | neural fetal | Medicine Lecture - Neural | Lecture - Ectoderm | Lecture - Neural Crest | Lab - Early Neural | neural crest | Sensory | neural abnormalities | folic acid | iodine deficiency | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | Postnatal | Postnatal - Neural Examination | Histology | Historic Neural | Category:Neural

Some Recent Findings

Stage10 sem6.jpg
  • The Long Journey of Pontine Nuclei Neurons: From Rhombic Lip to Cortico-Ponto-Cerebellar Circuitry[1] "The pontine nuclei (PN) are the largest of the precerebellar nuclei, neuronal assemblies in the hindbrain providing principal input to the cerebellum. The PN are predominantly innervated by the cerebral cortex and project as mossy fibers to the cerebellar hemispheres. Here, we comprehensively review the development of the PN from specification to migration, nucleogenesis and circuit formation. PN neurons originate at the posterior rhombic lip and migrate tangentially crossing several rhombomere derived territories to reach their final position in ventral part of the pons. The developing PN provide a classical example of tangential neuronal migration and a study system for understanding its molecular underpinnings."
  • Postnatal growth of the human pons: a morphometric and immunohistochemical analysis[2] "In the present study, we first performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based morphometric analyses of the postnatal human pons (0-18 years; n = 6-14/timepoint). Pons volume increased 6-fold from birth to 5 years, followed by continued slower growth throughout childhood. The observed growth was primarily due to expansion of the basis pontis. T2-based MRI analysis suggests that this growth is linked to increased myelination, and histological analysis of myelin basic protein in human postmortem specimens confirmed a dramatic increase in myelination during infancy. ...Together, our data reveal remarkable postnatal growth in the ventral pons, particularly during infancy when cells are most proliferative and myelination increases."
  • Development of the pons in human fetuses[3] "Morphometric and histological studies of the pons were performed by light microscopy in 28 cases of externally normal human fetuses ranging from 90 to 246 mm in crown-rump length (CRL) and from 13 to 28 weeks of gestation."
  • Cerebellar haemorrhages and pons development in extremely low birth weight infants[4] "The anteroposterior diameter of the pons was measured manually on the midline sagittal T1 Magnetic Resonance Image ...Cerebellar haemorrhages seem to affect the development of the pons in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) with the youngest gestational age (GA)."
  • Development of the human fetal pons: in utero ultrasonographic study[5] "By using the transfontanel approach, evaluation of the fetal pons is feasible via the mid-sagittal plane. The nomograms developed and the ratio to fetal vermis provides reference data that may be helpful when evaluating anomalies of the brainstem."
More recent papers
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Pons Embryology

Reinhard Altmann, Christian Specht, Iris Scharnreitner, Caroline Schertler, Richard Mayer, Wolfgang Arzt, Matthias Scheier Reference Ranges for Transvaginal Examined Fossa Posterior Structures in Fetuses from 45 to 84 mm Crown-Rump Length. Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.: 2018;1-6 PubMed 29870989

Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Manuel Narváez, Patrizia Ambrogini, Luca Ferraro, Ismel Brito, Wilber Romero-Fernandez, Yuniesky Andrade-Talavera, Antonio Flores-Burgess, Carmelo Millon, Belen Gago, Jose Angel Narvaez, Yuji Odagaki, Miklos Palkovits, Zaida Diaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe Receptor⁻Receptor Interactions in Multiple 5-HT1A Heteroreceptor Complexes in Raphe-Hippocampal 5-HT Transmission and Their Relevance for Depression and Its Treatment. Molecules: 2018, 23(6); PubMed 29865267

Jingwei Li, Zeng Gao, Xinglong Zhi, Jianxin Du, Hongqi Zhang, Feng Ling Clipping of a pediatric pial arteriovenous fistula located at basilar artery tip using a hybrid trapping-evacuation technique. World Neurosurg: 2018; PubMed 29803571

Blanca Torroba, Antonio Herrera, Anghara Menendez, Sebastian Pons PI3K regulates intraepithelial cell positioning through Rho GTP-ases in the developing neural tube. Dev. Biol.: 2018; PubMed 29470955

Tereza Kubíková, Petra Kochová, Petr Tomášek, Kirsti Witter, Zbyněk Tonar Numerical and length densities of microvessels in the human brain: Correlation with preferential orientation of microvessels in the cerebral cortex, subcortical grey matter and white matter, pons and cerebellum. J. Chem. Neuroanat.: 2017; PubMed 29113946

Development Overview

Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.

Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest


Neural Tube Primary Vesicles Secondary Vesicles Adult Structures
week 3 week 4 week 5 adult
neural plate
neural groove
neural tube

Brain
Prosencephalon Telencephalon Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cerebrum (Cortex), Hypothalamus, Pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles
Diencephalon Epithalamus, Thalamus, Subthalamus, Pineal, third ventricle
Mesencephalon Mesencephalon Tectum, Cerebral peduncle, Pretectum, cerebral aqueduct
Rhombencephalon Metencephalon Pons, Cerebellum
Myelencephalon Medulla Oblongata
Spinal Cord

Early Brain Vesicles

Primary Vesicles

CNS primary vesicles.jpg

Secondary Vesicles

CNS secondary vesicles.jpg


Fetal Pons

  • 130 -140 mm CRL - first myelinated fibers in each motor root of the trigeminal, abducent, and facial nerves.[3]


Adult Pons MRI

Human- adult brain MRI.jpg

[6]

A T1-weighted sagittal MR image from a control subject, showing the midline structures of the posterior cranial fossa and the brainstem and the cerebellum.
  • d + e = length of clivus
  • S = sphenooccipital synchondrosis
  • d = length of basisphenoid between the top of the dorsum sellae and the sphenooccipital synchondrosis of the clivus
  • e = length of the basiocciput between the synchondrosis and the basion
  • b = length of the hindbrain between the midbrain-pons junction and the medullocervical junction
  • a = angle of the cerebellar tentorium to Twining's line
  • c = length of cerebellar hemisphere
  • DS = top of the dorsum sellae
  • IOP = internal occipital protuberance
  • OP = opisthion; IOP to OP = length of supraocciput
  • B = basion; TW = Twining's line
  • McR (B to OP) = McRae's line

References

  1. Kratochwil CF, Maheshwari U & Rijli FM. (2017). The Long Journey of Pontine Nuclei Neurons: From Rhombic Lip to Cortico-Ponto-Cerebellar Circuitry. Front Neural Circuits , 11, 33. PMID: 28567005 DOI.
  2. Tate MC, Lindquist RA, Nguyen T, Sanai N, Barkovich AJ, Huang EJ, Rowitch DH & Alvarez-Buylla A. (2015). Postnatal growth of the human pons: a morphometric and immunohistochemical analysis. J. Comp. Neurol. , 523, 449-62. PMID: 25307966 DOI.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Hatta T, Satow F, Hatta J, Hashimoto R, Udagawa J, Matsumoto A & Otani H. (2007). Development of the pons in human fetuses. Congenit Anom (Kyoto) , 47, 63-7. PMID: 17504389 DOI. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "PMID17504389" defined multiple times with different content
  4. Fumagalli M, Ramenghi LA, Righini A, Groppo M, Bassi L, De Carli A, Parazzini C, Triulzi F & Mosca F. (2009). Cerebellar haemorrhages and pons development in extremely low birth weight infants. Front Biosci (Elite Ed) , 1, 537-41. PMID: 19482668
  5. Achiron R, Kivilevitch Z, Lipitz S, Gamzu R, Almog B & Zalel Y. (2004). Development of the human fetal pons: in utero ultrasonographic study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol , 24, 506-10. PMID: 15459939 DOI.
  6. Sekula RF, Jannetta PJ, Casey KF, Marchan EM, Sekula LK & McCrady CS. (2005). Dimensions of the posterior fossa in patients symptomatic for Chiari I malformation but without cerebellar tonsillar descent. Cerebrospinal Fluid Res , 2, 11. PMID: 16359556 DOI.

Reviews

Angeles Fernández-Gil M, Palacios-Bote R, Leo-Barahona M & Mora-Encinas JP. (2010). Anatomy of the brainstem: a gaze into the stem of life. Semin. Ultrasound CT MR , 31, 196-219. PMID: 20483389 DOI.

Articles

Gesemann M, Litwack ED, Yee KT, Christen U & O'Leary DD. (2001). Identification of candidate genes for controlling development of the basilar pons by differential display PCR. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. , 18, 1-12. PMID: 11461149 DOI.

Ozawa H & Takashima S. (1998). Immunocytochemical development of transferrin and ferritin immunoreactivity in the human pons and cerebellum. J. Child Neurol. , 13, 59-63. PMID: 9512304 DOI.

Search PubMed

Search Pubmed: Pons Embryology | Pons Development

Additional Images

Historic Images


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 13) Embryology Neural - Pons Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Pons_Development

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