Neural - Pons Development
|Embryology - 13 Dec 2018 Expand to Translate|
|Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)|
العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)
(Latin, pons = "bridge") A brain stem region within the central nervous system, anatomically lying above the medulla before the nervous system becomes the spinal cord.
Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.
The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects).
Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.
- Neural development beginnings quite early, therefore also look at notes covering Week 3 neural tube and Week 4 early nervous system.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Reinhard Altmann, Christian Specht, Iris Scharnreitner, Caroline Schertler, Richard Mayer, Wolfgang Arzt, Matthias Scheier Reference Ranges for Transvaginal Examined Fossa Posterior Structures in Fetuses from 45 to 84 mm Crown-Rump Length. Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.: 2018;1-6 PubMed 29870989
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Manuel Narváez, Patrizia Ambrogini, Luca Ferraro, Ismel Brito, Wilber Romero-Fernandez, Yuniesky Andrade-Talavera, Antonio Flores-Burgess, Carmelo Millon, Belen Gago, Jose Angel Narvaez, Yuji Odagaki, Miklos Palkovits, Zaida Diaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe Receptor⁻Receptor Interactions in Multiple 5-HT1A Heteroreceptor Complexes in Raphe-Hippocampal 5-HT Transmission and Their Relevance for Depression and Its Treatment. Molecules: 2018, 23(6); PubMed 29865267
Jingwei Li, Zeng Gao, Xinglong Zhi, Jianxin Du, Hongqi Zhang, Feng Ling Clipping of a pediatric pial arteriovenous fistula located at basilar artery tip using a hybrid trapping-evacuation technique. World Neurosurg: 2018; PubMed 29803571
Blanca Torroba, Antonio Herrera, Anghara Menendez, Sebastian Pons PI3K regulates intraepithelial cell positioning through Rho GTP-ases in the developing neural tube. Dev. Biol.: 2018; PubMed 29470955
Tereza Kubíková, Petra Kochová, Petr Tomášek, Kirsti Witter, Zbyněk Tonar Numerical and length densities of microvessels in the human brain: Correlation with preferential orientation of microvessels in the cerebral cortex, subcortical grey matter and white matter, pons and cerebellum. J. Chem. Neuroanat.: 2017; PubMed 29113946
Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.
- Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest
|Neural Tube||Primary Vesicles||Secondary Vesicles||Adult Structures|
|week 3||week 4||week 5||adult|
|Prosencephalon||Telencephalon||Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cerebrum (Cortex), Hypothalamus, Pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles|
|Diencephalon||Epithalamus, Thalamus, Subthalamus, Pineal, third ventricle|
|Mesencephalon||Mesencephalon||Tectum, Cerebral peduncle, Pretectum, cerebral aqueduct|
Early Brain Vesicles
- 130 -140 mm CRL - first myelinated fibers in each motor root of the trigeminal, abducent, and facial nerves.
Adult Pons MRI
- Kratochwil CF, Maheshwari U & Rijli FM. (2017). The Long Journey of Pontine Nuclei Neurons: From Rhombic Lip to Cortico-Ponto-Cerebellar Circuitry. Front Neural Circuits , 11, 33. PMID: 28567005 DOI.
- Tate MC, Lindquist RA, Nguyen T, Sanai N, Barkovich AJ, Huang EJ, Rowitch DH & Alvarez-Buylla A. (2015). Postnatal growth of the human pons: a morphometric and immunohistochemical analysis. J. Comp. Neurol. , 523, 449-62. PMID: 25307966 DOI.
- Hatta T, Satow F, Hatta J, Hashimoto R, Udagawa J, Matsumoto A & Otani H. (2007). Development of the pons in human fetuses. Congenit Anom (Kyoto) , 47, 63-7. PMID: 17504389 DOI. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "PMID17504389" defined multiple times with different content
- Fumagalli M, Ramenghi LA, Righini A, Groppo M, Bassi L, De Carli A, Parazzini C, Triulzi F & Mosca F. (2009). Cerebellar haemorrhages and pons development in extremely low birth weight infants. Front Biosci (Elite Ed) , 1, 537-41. PMID: 19482668
- Achiron R, Kivilevitch Z, Lipitz S, Gamzu R, Almog B & Zalel Y. (2004). Development of the human fetal pons: in utero ultrasonographic study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol , 24, 506-10. PMID: 15459939 DOI.
- Sekula RF, Jannetta PJ, Casey KF, Marchan EM, Sekula LK & McCrady CS. (2005). Dimensions of the posterior fossa in patients symptomatic for Chiari I malformation but without cerebellar tonsillar descent. Cerebrospinal Fluid Res , 2, 11. PMID: 16359556 DOI.
Gesemann M, Litwack ED, Yee KT, Christen U & O'Leary DD. (2001). Identification of candidate genes for controlling development of the basilar pons by differential display PCR. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. , 18, 1-12. PMID: 11461149 DOI.
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link
Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 13) Embryology Neural - Pons Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Pons_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G