Neural - Pons Development
|Embryology - 18 Apr 2021 Expand to Translate|
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(Latin, pons = "bridge") A brain stem region within the central nervous system, anatomically lying above the medulla before the nervous system becomes the spinal cord.
Historically, the pons was described as originating from rhombomere r1 to r6, molecular studies have shown that the basilar pons is located only within rhombomeres r3 and r4.
Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system. The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects). Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.
|These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.
Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.
- Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest
|Neural Tube||Primary Vesicles||Secondary Vesicles||Adult Structures|
|week 3||week 4||week 5||adult|
|prosencephalon (forebrain)||telencephalon||Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, hippocampus, cerebrum (cortex), hypothalamus, pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles|
|diencephalon||epithalamus, thalamus, Subthalamus, pineal, posterior commissure, pretectum, third ventricle|
|mesencephalon (midbrain)||mesencephalon||tectum, Cerebral peduncle, cerebral aqueduct, pons|
|myelencephalon||medulla oblongata, isthmus|
|spinal cord, pyramidal decussation, central canal|
Early Brain Vesicles
- 130 -140 mm CRL - first myelinated fibers in each motor root of the trigeminal, abducent, and facial nerves.
Adult Pons MRI
- Watson C, Bartholomaeus C & Puelles L. (2019). Time for Radical Changes in Brain Stem Nomenclature-Applying the Lessons From Developmental Gene Patterns. Front Neuroanat , 13, 10. PMID: 30809133 DOI.
- Kratochwil CF, Maheshwari U & Rijli FM. (2017). The Long Journey of Pontine Nuclei Neurons: From Rhombic Lip to Cortico-Ponto-Cerebellar Circuitry. Front Neural Circuits , 11, 33. PMID: 28567005 DOI.
- Tate MC, Lindquist RA, Nguyen T, Sanai N, Barkovich AJ, Huang EJ, Rowitch DH & Alvarez-Buylla A. (2015). Postnatal growth of the human pons: a morphometric and immunohistochemical analysis. J. Comp. Neurol. , 523, 449-62. PMID: 25307966 DOI.
- Hatta T, Satow F, Hatta J, Hashimoto R, Udagawa J, Matsumoto A & Otani H. (2007). Development of the pons in human fetuses. Congenit Anom (Kyoto) , 47, 63-7. PMID: 17504389 DOI. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "PMID17504389" defined multiple times with different content
- Fumagalli M, Ramenghi LA, Righini A, Groppo M, Bassi L, De Carli A, Parazzini C, Triulzi F & Mosca F. (2009). Cerebellar haemorrhages and pons development in extremely low birth weight infants. Front Biosci (Elite Ed) , 1, 537-41. PMID: 19482668
- Achiron R, Kivilevitch Z, Lipitz S, Gamzu R, Almog B & Zalel Y. (2004). Development of the human fetal pons: in utero ultrasonographic study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol , 24, 506-10. PMID: 15459939 DOI.
- Sekula RF, Jannetta PJ, Casey KF, Marchan EM, Sekula LK & McCrady CS. (2005). Dimensions of the posterior fossa in patients symptomatic for Chiari I malformation but without cerebellar tonsillar descent. Cerebrospinal Fluid Res , 2, 11. PMID: 16359556 DOI.
Gesemann M, Litwack ED, Yee KT, Christen U & O'Leary DD. (2001). Identification of candidate genes for controlling development of the basilar pons by differential display PCR. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. , 18, 1-12. PMID: 11461149 DOI.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, April 18) Embryology Neural - Pons Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Pons_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G