Musculoskeletal System - Pelvis Development

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Stage20-23 limbs b.jpg

Introduction

Adult appendicular skeleton
The Embryonic Pelvic Girdle (week 5)
Hip bone

The skeletal pelvis consists of: the sacrum and coccyx (axial skeleton), and pelvic girdle formed by a pair of hip bones (appendicular skeleton). Before puberty, he pelvic girdle also consists of three unfused bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis. In chicken, the entire pelvic girdle originates from the somatopleure mesoderm (somite levels 26 to 35) and the ilium, but not of the pubis and ischium, depends on somitic and ectodermal signals.[1]

The mesoderm forms nearly all the connective tissues of the musculoskeletal system. Each tissue (cartilage, bone, and muscle) goes through many different mechanisms of differentiation.

The musculoskeletal system consists of skeletal muscle, bone, and cartilage and is mainly mesoderm in origin with some neural crest contribution.

The intraembryonic mesoderm can be broken into paraxial, intermediate and lateral mesoderm relative to its midline position. During the 3rd week the paraxial mesoderm forms into "balls" of mesoderm paired either side of the neural groove, called somites.

Somites appear bilaterally as pairs at the same time and form earliest at the cranial (rostral,brain) end of the neural groove and add sequentially at the caudal end. This addition occurs so regularly that embryos are staged according to the number of somites that are present. Different regions of the somite differentiate into dermomyotome (dermal and muscle component) and sclerotome (forms vertebral column). An example of a specialized musculoskeletal structure can be seen in the development of the limbs.

Skeletal muscle forms by fusion of mononucleated myoblasts to form mutinucleated myotubes. Bone is formed through a lengthy process involving ossification of a cartilage formed from mesenchyme. Two main forms of ossification occur in different bones, intramembranous (eg skull) and endochondrial (eg limb long bones) ossification. Ossification continues postnatally, through puberty until mid 20s. Early ossification occurs at the ends of long bones.

Musculoskeletal and limb abnormalities are one of the largest groups of congenital abnormalities.


Musculoskeletal Links: Introduction | Mesoderm | Somitogenesis | Limb | Cartilage | Bone | Bone Timeline | Axial Skeleton | Skull | Joint | Muscle | Muscle Timeline | Tendon | Diaphragm | Lecture - Musculoskeletal Development | Lecture Movie | Abnormalities | Limb Abnormalities | Cartilage Histology | Bone Histology | Skeletal Muscle Histology | Category:Musculoskeletal
Historic Musculoskeletal Embryology  
1902 - Pubo-femoral Region | Spinal Column and Back | Body Segmentation | Cranium | Body Wall, Ribs, and Sternum | Limbs | 1901 - Limbs | 1902 - Arm Development | 1906 Human Embryo Ossification | 1906 Lower limb Nerves and Muscle | 1907 - Muscular System | Skeleton and Limbs | 1908 Vertebra | 1909 Mandible | 1910 - Skeleton and Connective Tissues | Muscular System | Coelom and Diaphragm | 1913 Clavicle | 1920 Clavicle | 1921 - External body form | Connective tissues and skeletal | Muscular | Diaphragm | 1929 Rat Somite | 1932 Pelvis | 1940 Synovial Joints | 1943 Human Embryonic, Fetal and Circumnatal Skeleton | 1947 Joints | 1949 Cartilage and Bone | 1957 Chondrification Hands and Feet | 1968 Knee
| Shoulder Development | Pelvis Development

Some Recent Findings

More recent papers  
Mark Hill.jpg
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Note this search term may result in listing some papers related to renal development.

Search term: Pelvis Embryology

Mary M Mullen, Lindsay M Kuroki, Steven R Hunt, Kristy L Ratkowski, David G Mutch A Transperineal Approach to Hysterectomy of a Retained Didelphic Uterine Horn. Obstet Gynecol: 2017, 130(3);561-564 PubMed 28796686

Antonio Simone Laganà, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Francesca Maria Salmeri, Onofrio Triolo, Helena Ban Frangež, Eda Vrtačnik-Bokal, Lily Stojanovska, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Roberta Granese, Vincenza Sofo Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno: A novel, evidence-based, unifying theory for the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Med. Hypotheses: 2017, 103;10-20 PubMed 28571791

Gautam Dagur, Jason Gandhi, Yiji Suh, Steven Weissbart, Yefim R Sheynkin, Noel L Smith, Gargi Joshi, Sardar Ali Khan Classifying Hydroceles of the Pelvis and Groin: An Overview of Etiology, Secondary Complications, Evaluation, and Management. Curr Urol: 2017, 10(1);1-14 PubMed 28559772

Zhe Wu Jin, Kwang Ho Cho, Hyung Suk Jang, Gen Murakami, Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez, Masahito Yamamoto, Shin-Ichi Abe Coccygeal body revisited: An immunohistochemical study using donated elderly cadavers. Anat Rec (Hoboken): 2017; PubMed 28545163

Abhijeet Pal, Kimberly J Reidy Genetic Syndromes Affecting Kidney Development. Results Probl Cell Differ: 2017, 60;257-279 PubMed 28409349


Search term: Pelvis Development

Ibrahim A Mostafa, Mark N Woodward, Mohamed S Shalaby Cystoscopic-assisted laparoscopic excision of prostatic utricle. J Pediatr Urol: 2017; PubMed 29137943

K Puttmann, G O Huang, J T White, K Kukreja, A Seth, C J Koh Infant crossed renal ectopia with UPJ obstruction repaired via robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty. J Pediatr Urol: 2017; PubMed 29133165

Benjamin W Fischer-Valuck, Lauren Henke, Olga Green, Rojano Kashani, Sahaja Acharya, Jeffrey D Bradley, Clifford G Robinson, Maria Thomas, Imran Zoberi, Wade Thorstad, Hiram Gay, Jiayi Huang, Michael Roach, Vivian Rodriguez, Lakshmi Santanam, Harold Li, Hua Li, Jessika Contreras, Thomas Mazur, Dennis Hallahan, Jeffrey R Olsen, Parag Parikh, Sasa Mutic, Jeff Michalski Two-and-a-half-year clinical experience with the world's first magnetic resonance image guided radiation therapy system. Adv Radiat Oncol: 2017, 2(3);485-493 PubMed 29114617

Damien Kiernan, Rory O'Sullivan, Ailish Malone, Timothy O'Brien, Ciaran K Simms Pathological Movements of the Pelvis and Trunk During Gait in Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Cross-Sectional Study With 3-Dimensional Kinematics and Lower Lumbar Spinal Loading. Phys Ther: 2017; PubMed 29106655

W D Jayamali, H M M T B Herath, Aruna Kulatunga A young female presenting with unilateral sacroiliitis following dengue virus infection: a case report. J Med Case Rep: 2017, 11(1);307 PubMed 29089045

Textbooks

  • The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (8th Edition) by Keith L. Moore and T.V.N Persaud - Moore & Persaud Chapter 15 the skeletal system
  • Larsen’s Human Embryology by GC. Schoenwolf, SB. Bleyl, PR. Brauer and PH. Francis-West - Chapter 11 Limb Dev (bone not well covered in this textbook)
  • Before we Are Born (5th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 16,17: p379-397, 399-405
  • Essentials of Human Embryology Larson Chapter 11 p207-228

Myogenesis

  • Early myogenic progenitor cells in the dermomyotome can be initially identified by the transcription factor Pax3.
  • Subsequent myogenic program development then depends on the myogenic determination factors (Myf5, MyoD, and MRF4), both Myf5 and MyoD are expressed in the limbs.
  • Final differentiation of these cells into post-mitotic muscle fibers in the limb bud is regulated by another myogenic determination factor, Myogenin.

(Some of the above text modified from[2])

Links: Muscle Development

Limb Bone

Limb sox9 and Wnt6 expression[3]
Chicken- limb bud chondrogenesis

Bone formation within the limb occurs by endochondral ossification of a pre-existing cartilage template. Ossification then replaces the existing cartilage except in the regions of articulation, where cartilage remains on the surface of the bone within the joint. Therefore bone development in the limb is initially about cartilage development or chondrogenesis.

In addition, there are two quite separate aspects to this development.

  1. Pattern - where the specific regions will commence to form cartilage, which will be different for each cartilage element.
  2. Chondrogenesis - the differentiation of mesoderm to form cartilage, which will be essentially the same program for all cartilage templates.

A recent study has identified that the overlying limb surface ectoderm potentially inhibits limb early chondrogenesis through Wnt6 signaling.[3]


Links: Cartilage Development | Bone Development

Shoulder

The skeletal shoulder consists of: the clavicle (collarbone), the scapula (shoulder blade), and the humerus. Development of his region occurs through both forms of ossification processes.


Links: Shoulder Development

Molecular

Fibroblast Growth Factors

  • Fgf8 - morphogen gradient forms by a source-sink mechanism with freely diffusing molecules.[4]

T-box Transcription Factors

References

  1. Yegor Malashichev, Bodo Christ, Felicitas Pröls Avian pelvis originates from lateral plate mesoderm and its development requires signals from both ectoderm and paraxial mesoderm. Cell Tissue Res.: 2008, 331(3);595-604 PubMed 18087724
  2. Julien Giordani, Lola Bajard, Josiane Demignon, Philippe Daubas, Margaret Buckingham, Pascal Maire Six proteins regulate the activation of Myf5 expression in embryonic mouse limbs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2007, 104(27);11310-5 PubMed 17592144
  3. 3.0 3.1 Poongodi Geetha-Loganathan, Suresh Nimmagadda, Bodo Christ, Ruijin Huang, Martin Scaal Ectodermal Wnt6 is an early negative regulator of limb chondrogenesis in the chicken embryo. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2010, 10;32 PubMed 20334703
  4. Shuizi Rachel Yu, Markus Burkhardt, Matthias Nowak, Jonas Ries, Zdenek Petrásek, Steffen Scholpp, Petra Schwille, Michael Brand Fgf8 morphogen gradient forms by a source-sink mechanism with freely diffusing molecules. Nature: 2009, 461(7263);533-6 PubMed 19741606


Reviews

Robert E Hill How to make a zone of polarizing activity: insights into limb development via the abnormality preaxial polydactyly. Dev. Growth Differ.: 2007, 49(6);439-48 PubMed 17661738


Articles

Akira Satoh, Aki Makanae, Naoyuki Wada The apical ectodermal ridge (AER) can be re-induced by wounding, wnt-2b, and fgf-10 in the chicken limb bud. Dev. Biol.: 2010, 342(2);157-68 PubMed 20347761

Antonella Galli, Dimitri Robay, Marco Osterwalder, Xiaozhong Bao, Jean-Denis Bénazet, Muhammad Tariq, Renato Paro, Susan Mackem, Rolf Zeller Distinct roles of Hand2 in initiating polarity and posterior Shh expression during the onset of mouse limb bud development. PLoS Genet.: 2010, 6(4);e1000901 PubMed 20386744

Emily K Stefanov, Jordan M Ferrage, Nicholas F Parchim, Christine E Lee, Angela D Reginelli, Mara Taché, Rosalie A Anderson Modification of the zone of polarizing activity signal by trypsin. Dev. Growth Differ.: 2009, 51(2);123-33 PubMed 19207183


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Musculoskeletal System - Pelvis Development. Retrieved November 18, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Musculoskeletal_System_-_Pelvis_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G