Musculoskeletal System - Pelvis Development

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Stage20-23 limbs b.jpg

Introduction

Adult appendicular skeleton
The Embryonic Pelvic Girdle (week 5)
Hip bone

The skeletal pelvis consists of: the sacrum and coccyx (axial skeleton), and pelvic girdle formed by a pair of hip bones (appendicular skeleton). Before puberty, he pelvic girdle also consists of three unfused bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis. In chicken, the entire pelvic girdle originates from the somatopleure mesoderm (somite levels 26 to 35) and the ilium, but not of the pubis and ischium, depends on somitic and ectodermal signals.[1]

The mesoderm forms nearly all the connective tissues of the musculoskeletal system. Each tissue (cartilage, bone, and muscle) goes through many different mechanisms of differentiation.

The musculoskeletal system consists of skeletal muscle, bone, and cartilage and is mainly mesoderm in origin with some neural crest contribution.

The intraembryonic mesoderm can be broken into paraxial, intermediate and lateral mesoderm relative to its midline position. During the 3rd week the paraxial mesoderm forms into "balls" of mesoderm paired either side of the neural groove, called somites.

Somites appear bilaterally as pairs at the same time and form earliest at the cranial (rostral,brain) end of the neural groove and add sequentially at the caudal end. This addition occurs so regularly that embryos are staged according to the number of somites that are present. Different regions of the somite differentiate into dermomyotome (dermal and muscle component) and sclerotome (forms vertebral column). An example of a specialized musculoskeletal structure can be seen in the development of the limbs.

Skeletal muscle forms by fusion of mononucleated myoblasts to form mutinucleated myotubes. Bone is formed through a lengthy process involving ossification of a cartilage formed from mesenchyme. Two main forms of ossification occur in different bones, intramembranous (eg skull) and endochondrial (eg limb long bones) ossification. Ossification continues postnatally, through puberty until mid 20s. Early ossification occurs at the ends of long bones.

Musculoskeletal and limb abnormalities are one of the largest groups of congenital abnormalities.


Musculoskeletal Links: Introduction | Mesoderm | Somitogenesis | Limb | Cartilage | Bone | Bone Timeline | Axial Skeleton | Skull | Joint | Muscle | Muscle Timeline | Tendon | Diaphragm | Lecture - Musculoskeletal Development | Lecture Movie | Abnormalities | Limb Abnormalities | Cartilage Histology | Bone Histology | Skeletal Muscle Histology | Category:Musculoskeletal
Historic Musculoskeletal Embryology  
1902 - Pubo-femoral Region | Spinal Column and Back | Body Segmentation | Cranium | Body Wall, Ribs, and Sternum | Limbs | 1901 - Limbs | 1902 - Arm Development | 1906 Human Embryo Ossification | 1906 Lower limb Nerves and Muscle | 1907 - Muscular System | Skeleton and Limbs | 1908 Vertebra | 1909 Mandible | 1910 - Skeleton and Connective Tissues | Muscular System | Coelom and Diaphragm | 1913 Clavicle | 1920 Clavicle | 1921 - External body form | Connective tissues and skeletal | Muscular | Diaphragm | 1929 Rat Somite | 1932 Pelvis | 1940 Synovial Joints | 1943 Human Embryonic, Fetal and Circumnatal Skeleton | 1947 Joints | 1949 Cartilage and Bone | 1957 Chondrification Hands and Feet | 1968 Knee
| Shoulder Development | Pelvis Development

Some Recent Findings

  • Cartilage formation in the pelvic skeleton during the embryonic and early-fetal period[2] "The pelvic skeleton is formed via endochondral ossification. However, it is not known how the normal cartilage is formed before ossification occurs. Furthermore, the overall timeline of cartilage formation and the morphology of the cartilage in the pelvis are unclear. In this study, cartilage formation in the pelvic skeletons of 25 human fetuses (crown-rump length [CRL] = 11.9-75.0 mm) was observed using phase-contrast computed tomography and 7T magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Review - Ontogeny of the Human Pelvis[3] "The human pelvis has evolved over time into a remarkable structure, optimised into an intricate architecture that transfers the entire load of the upper body into the lower limbs, while also facilitating bipedal movement. The pelvic girdle is composed of two hip bones, os coxae, themselves each formed from the gradual fusion of the ischium, ilium and pubis bones. Unlike the development of the classical long bones, a complex timeline of events must occur in order for the pelvis to arise from the embryonic limb buds. An initial blastemal structure forms from the mesenchyme, with chondrification of this mass leading to the first recognisable elements of the pelvis. Primary ossification centres initiate in utero, followed post-natally by secondary ossification at a range of locations, with these processes not complete until adulthood.
More recent papers  
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

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Note this search term may result in listing some papers related to renal development.

Search term: Pelvis Embryology

L Asensio Romero, M Asensio Gómez, A Prats-Galino, J A Juanes Méndez 3D Models of Female Pelvis Structures Reconstructed and Represented in Combination with Anatomical and Radiological Sections. J Med Syst: 2018, 42(3);37 PubMed 29333592

Hubert Scheuerlein, Frank Henschke, Ferdinand Köckerling Wilhelm von Waldeyer-Hartz-A Great Forefather: His Contributions to Anatomy with Particular Attention to "His" Fascia. Front Surg: 2017, 4;74 PubMed 29255713

Spyridon Pagkratis, Sara Kryeziu, Miranda Lin, Samah Hoque, Juan Carlos Bucobo, Jonathan M Buscaglia, Georgios V Georgakis, Aaron R Sasson, Joseph Kim Case report of intestinal non-rotation, heterotaxy, and polysplenia in a patient with pancreatic cancer. Medicine (Baltimore): 2017, 96(49);e8599 PubMed 29245220

Ramon Balius, Antonio Susín, Carles Morros, Montse Pujol, Dolores Pérez-Cuenca, Xavier Sala-Blanch Gemelli-obturator complex in the deep gluteal space: an anatomic and dynamic study. Skeletal Radiol.: 2017; PubMed 29218390

V N Bakov, M S Los [Case report of rare co-occurrence of renal cell carcinoma and crossed renal dystopia (L-shaped kidney)]. Urologiia: 2017, (5);96-99 PubMed 29135151


Search term: Pelvis Development

Arlindo Rosario Muhelo, Genni Montemezzo, Liviana Da Dalt, Olivier Manzungu Wingi, Daniele Trevisanuto, Piergiorgio Gamba, Damiano Pizzol, Elena Cavaliere Successful management of a parasitic ischiopagus conjoined twins in a low-income setting. Clin Case Rep: 2018, 6(2);385-390 PubMed 29445482

Samir M Iskander, Meghan M Feeney, Kirby Yee, Norman D Rosenblum Protein Kinase 2β Is Expressed in Neural Crest-Derived Urinary Pacemaker Cells and Required for Pyeloureteric Contraction. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.: 2018; PubMed 29436516

Mohammed Kamil Quraishi, Yih Chyn Phan, Wael Asaad, Naing Lynn Prostatic abscess: a rare complication of staghorn calculi. BMJ Case Rep: 2018, 2018; PubMed 29391357

Xue-Rui He, Zheng Liu, Jing Wei, Wan-Jun Li, Tao Liu Primary desmoplastic small round cell tumor in the left orbit: a case report and literature review. Int Ophthalmol: 2018; PubMed 29383463

Hooi H Tan, Shung K Tan, Rajah Shunmugan, Rozman Zakaria, Zakaria Zahari A Case of Persistent Urogenital Sinus: Pitfalls and challenges in diagnosis. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J: 2017, 17(4);e455-e459 PubMed 29372089

Textbooks

  • The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (8th Edition) by Keith L. Moore and T.V.N Persaud - Moore & Persaud Chapter 15 the skeletal system
  • Larsen’s Human Embryology by GC. Schoenwolf, SB. Bleyl, PR. Brauer and PH. Francis-West - Chapter 11 Limb Dev (bone not well covered in this textbook)
  • Before we Are Born (5th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 16,17: p379-397, 399-405
  • Essentials of Human Embryology Larson Chapter 11 p207-228

Cartilage Development

The following timeline data comes from a recent CT and MRI study of late human embryos from the Kyoto Collection.[2]

  • Carnegie stage 18 - chondrification centres of the ilium, ischium, and pubis first appears. Located around the acetabulum and grew radially.
  • Carnegie stage 20 - iliac crest formed while the iliac body's central part remained chondrified.
  • Carnegie stage 22 - Iliac body is discoid. The growth rate was greater in the ilium than in the sacrum-coccyx, pubis, and ischium.
  • Carnegie stage 22 - Articulation of the pubic symphysis, connection of the articular column in the sacrum, and Y-shape connection of the three parts of the hip bones to the acetabulum.
  • Early Fetal - connection of the ischium and pubic ramus.

Muscle Development (Myogenesis)

  • Early myogenic progenitor cells in the dermomyotome can be initially identified by the transcription factor Pax3.
  • Subsequent myogenic program development then depends on the myogenic determination factors (Myf5, MyoD, and MRF4), both Myf5 and MyoD are expressed in the limbs.
  • Final differentiation of these cells into post-mitotic muscle fibers in the limb bud is regulated by another myogenic determination factor, Myogenin.

(Some of the above text modified from[4]

Links: Muscle Development

Limb Bone

Limb sox9 and Wnt6 expression[5]
Chicken- limb bud chondrogenesis

Bone formation within the limb occurs by endochondral ossification of a pre-existing cartilage template. Ossification then replaces the existing cartilage except in the regions of articulation, where cartilage remains on the surface of the bone within the joint. Therefore bone development in the limb is initially about cartilage development or chondrogenesis.

In addition, there are two quite separate aspects to this development.

  1. Pattern - where the specific regions will commence to form cartilage, which will be different for each cartilage element.
  2. Chondrogenesis - the differentiation of mesoderm to form cartilage, which will be essentially the same program for all cartilage templates.

A recent study has identified that the overlying limb surface ectoderm potentially inhibits limb early chondrogenesis through Wnt6 signaling.[5]


Links: Cartilage Development | Bone Development

Shoulder

The skeletal shoulder consists of: the clavicle (collarbone), the scapula (shoulder blade), and the humerus. Development of his region occurs through both forms of ossification processes.


Links: Shoulder Development

Molecular

Fibroblast Growth Factors

  • Fgf8 - morphogen gradient forms by a source-sink mechanism with freely diffusing molecules.[6]

T-box Transcription Factors

References

  1. Malashichev Y, Christ B & Pröls F. (2008). Avian pelvis originates from lateral plate mesoderm and its development requires signals from both ectoderm and paraxial mesoderm. Cell Tissue Res. , 331, 595-604. PMID: 18087724 DOI.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Okumura M, Ishikawa A, Aoyama T, Yamada S, Uwabe C, Imai H, Matsuda T, Yoneyama A, Takeda T & Takakuwa T. (2017). Cartilage formation in the pelvic skeleton during the embryonic and early-fetal period. PLoS ONE , 12, e0173852. PMID: 28384153 DOI.
  3. Verbruggen SW & Nowlan NC. (2017). Ontogeny of the Human Pelvis. Anat Rec (Hoboken) , 300, 643-652. PMID: 28297183 DOI.
  4. Giordani J, Bajard L, Demignon J, Daubas P, Buckingham M & Maire P. (2007). Six proteins regulate the activation of Myf5 expression in embryonic mouse limbs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 104, 11310-5. PMID: 17592144 DOI.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Geetha-Loganathan P, Nimmagadda S, Christ B, Huang R & Scaal M. (2010). Ectodermal Wnt6 is an early negative regulator of limb chondrogenesis in the chicken embryo. BMC Dev. Biol. , 10, 32. PMID: 20334703 DOI.
  6. Yu SR, Burkhardt M, Nowak M, Ries J, Petrásek Z, Scholpp S, Schwille P & Brand M. (2009). Fgf8 morphogen gradient forms by a source-sink mechanism with freely diffusing molecules. Nature , 461, 533-6. PMID: 19741606 DOI.


Reviews

Hill RE. (2007). How to make a zone of polarizing activity: insights into limb development via the abnormality preaxial polydactyly. Dev. Growth Differ. , 49, 439-48. PMID: 17661738 DOI.

Articles

Satoh A, Makanae A & Wada N. (2010). The apical ectodermal ridge (AER) can be re-induced by wounding, wnt-2b, and fgf-10 in the chicken limb bud. Dev. Biol. , 342, 157-68. PMID: 20347761 DOI.

Galli A, Robay D, Osterwalder M, Bao X, Bénazet JD, Tariq M, Paro R, Mackem S & Zeller R. (2010). Distinct roles of Hand2 in initiating polarity and posterior Shh expression during the onset of mouse limb bud development. PLoS Genet. , 6, e1000901. PMID: 20386744 DOI.

Stefanov EK, Ferrage JM, Parchim NF, Lee CE, Reginelli AD, Taché M & Anderson RA. (2009). Modification of the zone of polarizing activity signal by trypsin. Dev. Growth Differ. , 51, 123-33. PMID: 19207183 DOI.

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, February 20) Embryology Musculoskeletal System - Pelvis Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Musculoskeletal_System_-_Pelvis_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G