Musculoskeletal System - Pelvis Development
|Embryology - 20 Sep 2017 Expand to Translate|
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The skeletal pelvis consists of: the sacrum and coccyx (axial skeleton), and pelvic girdle formed by a pair of hip bones (appendicular skeleton). Before puberty, he pelvic girdle also consists of three unfused bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis. In chicken, the entire pelvic girdle originates from the somatopleure mesoderm (somite levels 26 to 35) and the ilium, but not of the pubis and ischium, depends on somitic and ectodermal signals.
The mesoderm forms nearly all the connective tissues of the musculoskeletal system. Each tissue (cartilage, bone, and muscle) goes through many different mechanisms of differentiation.
The musculoskeletal system consists of skeletal muscle, bone, and cartilage and is mainly mesoderm in origin with some neural crest contribution.
The intraembryonic mesoderm can be broken into paraxial, intermediate and lateral mesoderm relative to its midline position. During the 3rd week the paraxial mesoderm forms into "balls" of mesoderm paired either side of the neural groove, called somites.
Somites appear bilaterally as pairs at the same time and form earliest at the cranial (rostral,brain) end of the neural groove and add sequentially at the caudal end. This addition occurs so regularly that embryos are staged according to the number of somites that are present. Different regions of the somite differentiate into dermomyotome (dermal and muscle component) and sclerotome (forms vertebral column). An example of a specialized musculoskeletal structure can be seen in the development of the limbs.
Skeletal muscle forms by fusion of mononucleated myoblasts to form mutinucleated myotubes. Bone is formed through a lengthy process involving ossification of a cartilage formed from mesenchyme. Two main forms of ossification occur in different bones, intramembranous (eg skull) and endochondrial (eg limb long bones) ossification. Ossification continues postnatally, through puberty until mid 20s. Early ossification occurs at the ends of long bones.
Musculoskeletal and limb abnormalities are one of the largest groups of congenital abnormalities.
Shoulder Development | Pelvis Development
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Search term: Pelvis Embryology
Mary M Mullen, Lindsay M Kuroki, Steven R Hunt, Kristy L Ratkowski, David G Mutch A Transperineal Approach to Hysterectomy of a Retained Didelphic Uterine Horn. Obstet Gynecol: 2017, 130(3);561-564 PubMed 28796686
Antonio Simone Laganà, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Francesca Maria Salmeri, Onofrio Triolo, Helena Ban Frangež, Eda Vrtačnik-Bokal, Lily Stojanovska, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Roberta Granese, Vincenza Sofo Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno: A novel, evidence-based, unifying theory for the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Med. Hypotheses: 2017, 103;10-20 PubMed 28571791
Gautam Dagur, Jason Gandhi, Yiji Suh, Steven Weissbart, Yefim R Sheynkin, Noel L Smith, Gargi Joshi, Sardar Ali Khan Classifying Hydroceles of the Pelvis and Groin: An Overview of Etiology, Secondary Complications, Evaluation, and Management. Curr Urol: 2017, 10(1);1-14 PubMed 28559772
Zhe Wu Jin, Kwang Ho Cho, Hyung Suk Jang, Gen Murakami, Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez, Masahito Yamamoto, Shin-Ichi Abe Coccygeal body revisited: An immunohistochemical study using donated elderly cadavers. Anat Rec (Hoboken): 2017; PubMed 28545163
Abhijeet Pal, Kimberly J Reidy Genetic Syndromes Affecting Kidney Development. Results Probl Cell Differ: 2017, 60;257-279 PubMed 28409349
Takeru Fukunaga, Shinya Fujii, Chie Inoue, Naoko Mukuda, Atsushi Murakami, Yoshio Tanabe, Tasuku Harada, Toshihide Ogawa The spectrum of imaging appearances of müllerian duct anomalies: focus on MR imaging. Jpn J Radiol: 2017; PubMed 28921452
Renata de Almeida França, André de Barros Albuquerque Esteves, Cynthia de Moura Borges, Kélcia Rosana da Silva Quadros, Luiz Carlos Nogueira Falcão, Jacqueline Costa Teixeira Caramori, Rodrigo Bueno de Oliveira Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) accumulation in skin: relations with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder. J Bras Nefrol: 2017; PubMed 28902232
B J Merema, J Kraeima, K Ten Duis, K W Wendt, R Warta, E Vos, R H Schepers, M J H Witjes, F F A IJpma The design, production and clinical application of 3D patient-specific implants with drilling guides for acetabular surgery. Injury: 2017; PubMed 28899562
Hiroshi Kusakabe, Katsuhiko Ueoka, Shinichiro Takayama, Atsuhito Seki Gradual bone transfer for the correction of the pubic diastasis using the Ilizarov technique in closure of bladder and cloacal exstrophy. J Orthop Sci: 2017; PubMed 28893435
Helene Moser, Monika Leitner, Jean-Pierre Baeyens, Lorenz Radlinger Pelvic floor muscle activity during impact activities in continent and incontinent women: a systematic review. Int Urogynecol J: 2017; PubMed 28884367
- The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (8th Edition) by Keith L. Moore and T.V.N Persaud - Moore & Persaud Chapter 15 the skeletal system
- Larsen’s Human Embryology by GC. Schoenwolf, SB. Bleyl, PR. Brauer and PH. Francis-West - Chapter 11 Limb Dev (bone not well covered in this textbook)
- Before we Are Born (5th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 16,17: p379-397, 399-405
- Essentials of Human Embryology Larson Chapter 11 p207-228
- Early myogenic progenitor cells in the dermomyotome can be initially identified by the transcription factor Pax3.
- Subsequent myogenic program development then depends on the myogenic determination factors (Myf5, MyoD, and MRF4), both Myf5 and MyoD are expressed in the limbs.
- Final differentiation of these cells into post-mitotic muscle fibers in the limb bud is regulated by another myogenic determination factor, Myogenin.
(Some of the above text modified from)
Links: Muscle Development
Bone formation within the limb occurs by endochondral ossification of a pre-existing cartilage template. Ossification then replaces the existing cartilage except in the regions of articulation, where cartilage remains on the surface of the bone within the joint. Therefore bone development in the limb is initially about cartilage development or chondrogenesis.
In addition, there are two quite separate aspects to this development.
- Pattern - where the specific regions will commence to form cartilage, which will be different for each cartilage element.
- Chondrogenesis - the differentiation of mesoderm to form cartilage, which will be essentially the same program for all cartilage templates.
A recent study has identified that the overlying limb surface ectoderm potentially inhibits limb early chondrogenesis through Wnt6 signaling.
The skeletal shoulder consists of: the clavicle (collarbone), the scapula (shoulder blade), and the humerus. Development of his region occurs through both forms of ossification processes.
- Links: Shoulder Development
Fibroblast Growth Factors
- Fgf8 - morphogen gradient forms by a source-sink mechanism with freely diffusing molecules.
T-box Transcription Factors
- Yegor Malashichev, Bodo Christ, Felicitas Pröls Avian pelvis originates from lateral plate mesoderm and its development requires signals from both ectoderm and paraxial mesoderm. Cell Tissue Res.: 2008, 331(3);595-604 PubMed 18087724
- Julien Giordani, Lola Bajard, Josiane Demignon, Philippe Daubas, Margaret Buckingham, Pascal Maire Six proteins regulate the activation of Myf5 expression in embryonic mouse limbs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2007, 104(27);11310-5 PubMed 17592144
- Poongodi Geetha-Loganathan, Suresh Nimmagadda, Bodo Christ, Ruijin Huang, Martin Scaal Ectodermal Wnt6 is an early negative regulator of limb chondrogenesis in the chicken embryo. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2010, 10;32 PubMed 20334703
- Shuizi Rachel Yu, Markus Burkhardt, Matthias Nowak, Jonas Ries, Zdenek Petrásek, Steffen Scholpp, Petra Schwille, Michael Brand Fgf8 morphogen gradient forms by a source-sink mechanism with freely diffusing molecules. Nature: 2009, 461(7263);533-6 PubMed 19741606
Robert E Hill How to make a zone of polarizing activity: insights into limb development via the abnormality preaxial polydactyly. Dev. Growth Differ.: 2007, 49(6);439-48 PubMed 17661738
Akira Satoh, Aki Makanae, Naoyuki Wada The apical ectodermal ridge (AER) can be re-induced by wounding, wnt-2b, and fgf-10 in the chicken limb bud. Dev. Biol.: 2010, 342(2);157-68 PubMed 20347761
Antonella Galli, Dimitri Robay, Marco Osterwalder, Xiaozhong Bao, Jean-Denis Bénazet, Muhammad Tariq, Renato Paro, Susan Mackem, Rolf Zeller Distinct roles of Hand2 in initiating polarity and posterior Shh expression during the onset of mouse limb bud development. PLoS Genet.: 2010, 6(4);e1000901 PubMed 20386744
Emily K Stefanov, Jordan M Ferrage, Nicholas F Parchim, Christine E Lee, Angela D Reginelli, Mara Taché, Rosalie A Anderson Modification of the zone of polarizing activity signal by trypsin. Dev. Growth Differ.: 2009, 51(2);123-33 PubMed 19207183
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Musculoskeletal System - Pelvis Development. Retrieved September 20, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Musculoskeletal_System_-_Pelvis_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G