Embryology History - John Gurdon

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Introduction

John Gurdon (2006) interview

Sir John Gurdon (born 1933) in 1962 used nuclear transplantation and cloning to show that the nucleus of a differentiated somatic cell retains the totipotency necessary to form a whole organism.



Links: Frog Development | Stem Cells | Shinya Yamanaka
Frog Links: Frog Development | 2009 Student Project | Hans Spemann | Wilhelm Roux | 1921 Early Frog Development | 1951 Rana pipiens Development | Rana pipiens Images | Frog Glossary | John Gurdon | Category:Frog | Animal Development

Some Recent Findings

Xenopus androgenetic haploids, hybrids and cybrids[2]
Frog eggs

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012 was awarded jointly to Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka

"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"
  • Deficient induction response in a Xenopus nucleocytoplasmic hybrid[2] "Incompatibilities between the nucleus and the cytoplasm of sufficiently distant species result in developmental arrest of hybrid and nucleocytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) embryos. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain their lethality, including problems in embryonic genome activation (EGA) and/or nucleo-mitochondrial interactions. ... Altogether, our study demonstrates that the egg cytoplasm of one species may not support the development promoted by the nucleus of another species, even if this nucleus does not interfere with the cytoplasmic/maternal functions of the egg, while the egg cytoplasm is also capable of activating the genome of that nucleus. Instead, our results provide evidence that inefficient signalling and differences in the concentrations of key proteins between species lead to developmental defects in cybrids. Finally, they show that the incompatibilities of cybrids can be corrected by appropriate treatments."
  • Nuclear actin polymerization is required for transcriptional reprogramming of Oct4 by oocytes[3] "Amphibian oocytes can rapidly and efficiently reprogram the transcription of transplanted somatic nuclei. ...Here, we found that nuclear actin polymerization plays an essential part in the transcriptional reactivation of the pluripotency gene Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1). We also found that an actin signaling protein, Toca-1, enhances Oct4 reactivation by regulating nuclear actin polymerization. Toca-1 overexpression has an effect on the chromatin state of transplanted nuclei, including the enhanced binding of nuclear actin to gene regulatory regions. This is the first report showing that naturally stored actin in an oocyte nucleus helps transcriptional reprogramming in a polymerization-dependent manner."


Recent References | References

Research History

Key Papers

Detached-cell method of transplanting nuclei[4]


Methods of transplanting nuclei from single cultured cells to unfertilized frogs' eggs[4]

"Two methods of transplanting single nuclei from monolayers of cultured cells to unfertilized eggs of Xenopus laevis are described, illustrated, and tested.

The detached-cell method is simpler and quicker to operate and is suitable for homogeneous populations of cells which are easily removed from the substrate on which they are growing. The other, attached-cell, method is technically more elaborate, but is applicable to cells whose properties can be individually determined under the phase-contrast microscope and to cells which are not readily dissociated from other cells or from their substrate."


Genetic content of adult somatic cells tested by nuclear transplantation from cultured cells[5]

"It has yet to be proved that somatic cells of an adult animal possess genes other than those necessary for their own growth and differentiation. A particularly stringent test of the genetic content of the nucleus of a somatic cell is provided by transplanting it to an enucleated egg. The development of the egg tests the capacity of the genes in the transplanted nucleus to elicit normal early development and differentiation. Although this method has been applied to certain cells of embryos, larvae, and newly metamorphosed froglets, it has not been possible, until now, to transfer nuclei successfully from the cells of normal adult animals."

Historic Embryologists

Embryologists: Wilhelm Roux | Wilhelm His | Julius Kollmann | Hans Spemann | Charles Minot | Ambrosius Hubrecht | Charles Bardeen | Franz Keibel | Franklin Mall | Florence Sabin | George Streeter | George Corner | James Hill | Jan Florian | Thomas Bryce | Thomas Morgan | Ernest Frazer | Francisco Orts-Llorca | José Doménech Mateu | Frederic Lewis | Arthur Meyer | Erich Blechschmidt | Klaus Hinrichsen | Hideo Nishimura | Arthur Hertig | John Rock | Mary Lyon | Nicole Le Douarin | Robert Winston | Fabiola Müller | Ronan O'Rahilly | Robert Edwards | John Gurdon | Shinya Yamanaka | Embryology History | Category:People

References

  1. John Gurdon The birth of cloning: an interview with John Gurdon. [Interview by Kristin Kain]. Dis Model Mech: 2009, 2(1-2);9-10 PubMed 19132124
  2. 2.0 2.1 Patrick Narbonne, David E Simpson, John B Gurdon Deficient induction response in a Xenopus nucleocytoplasmic hybrid. PLoS Biol.: 2011, 9(11);e1001197 PubMed 22131902 | PLoS Biol. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "PMID22131902" defined multiple times with different content
  3. Kei Miyamoto, Vincent Pasque, Jerome Jullien, John B Gurdon Nuclear actin polymerization is required for transcriptional reprogramming of Oct4 by oocytes. Genes Dev.: 2011, 25(9);946-58 PubMed 21536734
  4. 4.0 4.1 J B Gurdon, R A Laskey Methods of transplanting nuclei from single cultured cells to unfertilized frogs' eggs. J Embryol Exp Morphol: 1970, 24(2);249-55 PubMed 4923666 | Development | PDF
  5. R A Laskey, J B Gurdon Genetic content of adult somatic cells tested by nuclear transplantation from cultured cells. Nature: 1970, 228(5278);1332-4 PubMed 5530658 | PDF

Reviews

J B Gurdon, J A Byrne The first half-century of nuclear transplantation. Biosci. Rep.: 2005, 24(4-5);545-57 PubMed 16134025

J B Gurdon The use of Xenopus oocytes and embryos as a route towards cell replacement. J. Biosci.: 2005, 30(1);11-4 PubMed 15824436


Articles

J Gurdon Not a total waste of time. An interview with John Gurdon. Interview by James C Smith. Int. J. Dev. Biol.: 2000, 44(1);93-9 PubMed 10761853

J B Gurdon Embryonic induction--molecular prospects. Development: 1987, 99(3);285-306 PubMed 3308408

J B Gurdon, R A Laskey The transplantation of nuclei from single cultured cells into enucleate frogs' eggs. J Embryol Exp Morphol: 1970, 24(2);227-48 PubMed 5531072

J B Gurdon, V Uehlinger "Fertile" intestine nuclei. Nature: 1966, 210(5042);1240-1 PubMed 5967799

J B GURDON Adult frogs derived from the nuclei of single somatic cells. Dev. Biol.: 1962, 4;256-73 PubMed 13903027

T R ELSDALE, J B GURDON, M FISCHBERG A description of the technique for nuclear transplantation in Xenopus laevis. J Embryol Exp Morphol: 1960, 8;437-44 PubMed 13726553


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Embryology History - John Gurdon. Retrieved October 24, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Embryology_History_-_John_Gurdon

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© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G