Embryology History - Clarence Herrick

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Introduction

Clarence Luther Herrick
Clarence Luther Herrick (1858-1904)
Journal of Comparative Neurology

Clarence Luther Herrick, (1858 – 1904) Socorro, New Mexico.

A professor at Denison and Cincinnati universities before arriving in New Mexico in 1894 to take the cure for tuberculosis, contracted the previous year. He trained originally as a geologist and paleontologist, publishing more than 150 papers in a variety of fields such as zoology, neurology, and psychobiology in addition to his contributions to the earth sciences (Northrop 1966). After a year as a geologic consultant in Socorro he was named in 1897 as president (and first geology professor) of University of New Mexico (UNM).


Embryologists: William Hunter | Wilhelm Roux | Caspar Wolff | Wilhelm His | Oscar Hertwig | Julius Kollmann | Hans Spemann | Francis Balfour | Charles Minot | Ambrosius Hubrecht | Charles Bardeen | Franz Keibel | Franklin Mall | Florence Sabin | George Streeter | George Corner | James Hill | Jan Florian | Thomas Bryce | Thomas Morgan | Ernest Frazer | Francisco Orts-Llorca | José Doménech Mateu | Frederic Lewis | Arthur Meyer | Robert Meyer | Erich Blechschmidt | Klaus Hinrichsen | Hideo Nishimura | Arthur Hertig | John Rock | Viktor Hamburger | Mary Lyon | Nicole Le Douarin | Robert Winston | Fabiola Müller | Ronan O'Rahilly | Robert Edwards | John Gurdon | Shinya Yamanaka | Embryology History | Category:People
Related Histology Researchers  
Santiago Ramón y Cajal | Camillo Golgi

Obituary

J Comp. Neural. (1904)

We are called upon with the present issue of the Journal to lament the sad and untimely death of its founder and editorin-chief at Socorro, New Mexico, on the 15th of September. For the past ten years, dating from his last connection with Denison University, he has struggled heroically against tuberculosis of the lungs, together with other complications, which at last cut him off in the midst of his labors and in the prime of life. Untimely as his death must seem when regarded from the point of view of his plans and hopes, yet Dr. Herrick had done an amount of scientific research and philosophical writing, some of which he was preparing for the press when he was taken, which assures him an enduring name in the world of thought.

The end came in accordance with his own most earnest wish — he fell fighting for the truth. As one of those who were near him when he passed away has said : "He was taken literally in the harness. His laboratory and study tables showed the unfinished tasks. His morning mail brought its usual load of duties. He had contributed an article to the September number of the American Geologist, and his mail on the morning of his death, brought a request from Dr. N. H. WiNCHELL for some further contributions to the October number. Thus in the midst of his labors he passed into the larger sphere."

Very early in his career he seems to have laid out, at least in a general way, a plan of action, including for the first part of his life miscellaneous research and study under direction in the broad field of general natural history. Upon the basis of this foundation, was to follow a period of intense specialization in a circumscribed field of zoological work leading up to a mastery of the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system. Finally the ripest years were to be devoted to physiological and comparative psychology on the basis of the mechanics of the nervous system and to philosophical correlation.

His life may be roughly divided into four periods. While these were marked by extraneous events and were apparently purely artificial and arbitrary, yet it may be said that the ideal scheme was in the end fairly achieved, though with great deviation in the details of the working.

Dr. Herrick was born near Minneapolis, June 21, 1858. He grew up in a home far from neighbors, a solitary child with few playmates, and very early showed his bent as a naturalist. While still in the Minneapolis High School he collected extensively and left at graduation a case of over a hundred mounted bird skins and other specimens to the high school. It was during this period that his father, despite his poverty, got him an eight dollar microscope. With this crude instrument and without guidance or library facilities he worked over the fresh water fauna of the neighboring brooks and pools so thoroughly that before graduation from the University of Minnesota in 1880 he had published several articles of value on the fresh water Crustacea of Minnesota and four years after graduation, with somewhat better facilities, published a report on the micro-crustacea of Minnesota, which is still standard. The materials for this report were elaborated before he graduated from college.

These years were filled with many bitter struggles, not the least of which was with poverty and the consequent lack of material for study. But, notwithstanding, he completed the college course in three years, at the same time partly supporting himself by assisting on the staff of the Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota. He had also showed so obvious a native gift with his pencil that upon his graduation the president of the university said to his father that he was uncertain whether to advise the young man to devote his life to science or to art. But there was no uncertainty in the mind of the graduate. Continuing his work on the Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota, he published many papers in rapid succession on the fauna of the state and began an extensive report, the first volume of which was completed in 1885. This was a large quarto on the Mammals of Minnesota,, fully illustrated with many colored plates and pen drawings. It was accepted for publication, but for lack of funds in the Survey never saw the light. Years afterwards, in 1892, a small octavo was published by the Survey made up of the more popular parts of this work. The remainder is still buried in the vaults of the Survey in Minneapolis, The season of 1881-2 was spent at the University of Leipzig, and in 1883 he was married to Miss Alice Keith of Minneapolis. This, roughly, may be said to constitute the first period of his life, from 1858 to 1884.

He was called to the chair of Geology and Natural History of Denison University in the summer of 1884. He spent the fall of that year at Denison, then returned to Minneapolis to complete the work in progress in the Minnesota Survey, and in the fall of 1885 moved with his family to Granville. Meanwhile, in 1885, he took the degree of M.S. from his alma mater. It had been his intention to continue his zoological work, and there was great activity in this line during the entire period, but the routine excursions made in the course of the instruction of his geology classes showed him so much of interest in the local strata that his chief labors while in Granville were upon the fossils and stratigraphy of the Waverly free stones and shales of Ohio. This work was abruptly cut short by his removal from Granville in 1889 and, while never rounded out as he would have liked, is probably his most important geological work. In 1885 he founded the Bulletin of the Scientific Laboratories of Denison University, in which the greater part of his researches, and those of his pupils, on Ohio geology were published.

His phenomenal success as a teacher during this and the subsequent periods was due to factors, some of which are easily seen — others are harder to define. After his attractive personal qualities and magnetic enthusiasm, I should place his deep philosophic insight and the fearless way in which he disclosed his profoundest thinking to the least initiated of his pupils. The ability to do this without befogging the air was an exceedingly rare gift and was stimulating even to a dullard. He knew the philosophical classics thoroughly from original sources and the trend of his thinking was very early foreshadowed in the translation of Lotze's Outlines of Psychology published in 1885 in Minneapolis, with his own appended chapter on the structure of the nervous system.

Upon his removal to the University of Cincinnati in 1889, with which the third period of his life may be said to begin, the geological studies with which the preceding five years had been so fully occupied were summarily brought to a close and he threw himself with renewed energy into the study of the nervous system. Extensive papers on the brains of different animals appeared in rapid succession, of which the most valuable are two series, one on the brains of various fishes, the other on those of reptiles. In 1891 the Journal of Comparative Neurology was founded and served as the medium of publication for most of these researches. The founding of this Journal can best be designated as a piece of characteristic audacity. It was a purely private enterprise, with no fund to defray the expenses and very little outside cooperation promised. But without counting the cose he plunged boldly in, expecting a constiuency to be developed as the work went on. In this he has not been disappointed, though recognition of financial needs has lagged sadly behind that of the scientific value of the Journal.

At the close of 1891 he resigned his chair in the University of Cincinnati to accept a chair of biology in the University of Chicago, then being reorganized. The early part of 1892 was spent in Europe, chiefly Berlin. Upon his return the adjustment at the University of Chicago presented unexpected difficulties and after a series of misunderstandings he finally withdrew from that institution, declining an offer to return to Germany for further study on full salary. He was immediately elected to his old post in Denison University with an assistant and the privilege of devoting only a part of his time to teaching, the remainder, either at home or abroad, to the further prosecution of his research. A year and a half of great productiveness followed. He bought a small tract of land adjacent to the college campus, built a residence upon it and planned to devote the remainder of his days to breeding animals on an extensive scale and studying tne laws of heredity, comparative psychology and allied problems. But before this project was fully under way his health broke down completely and he was forced to abandon his home in the fight for life.

In December, 1893, he had a severe attack of la grippe, but, as was his custom in illness, went on with his work as usual. Upon completion of the last examination of the term he came home too ill to correct the papers, and in course of the following night was attacked by a severe hemorrhage from the lungs and for weeks his life hung in the balance. With the return of spring his strength increased sufficiently to enable him to remove to New Mexico, where the local physicans told him that he had a fighting chance for a {qw years. He accepted the challenge bravely and for more than ten years held the disease in check. During the spring of 1894 his college dedicated the Barney Science Hall, which had been built largely under the stimulus of his presence in the faculty; but he was never permitted to work in it.

The fourth period, from 1894 to 1904, covers the remaining years of his life.

This decade, filled with bodily pain and the worse torture of anxiety and mental unrest, is yet one of the most productive periods of his life. Much of the time was spent in the open with covered wagon and camp kit, and with the return of strength scientific interests again absorbed his attention. Naturally in this case he again turned to geology and an extensive series of articles on the geology of New Mexico bears testimony to the industry of these apparently aimless wanderings. The first scientific work done in the Territory, however, was a revision of his earliest important work, the Crustacea of Minnesota. As soon as his geological knowledge became known his services were in demand as a mining expert and during the later years of his life in the Territory he supported liimself and his family chiefly b}' practicing this profession as strength permitted. In 1898 he took the degree of Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota. For four years (1897- 1901) he was president of the territorial university at Albuquerque, though at the close of the third year it became evident that the strain of the executive work and confinement were too hard for him, and the connection during the fourth year was mainly one of supervision and general control.

During his last year there was an obvious foiling of physical strength, so that long field trips had to be abandoned. But the more quiet life gave opportunity for a thorough recasting of many questions and formulation of matters which had been in his mind all his life. So that before his death much of the philosophical correlation, of which mention has been made, was effected. A number of articles have already been published in the philosophical serials bearing on these matters and there is a considerable collection of MSS. remaining, much of which can doubtless be edited for publication. It is gratifying to know that he had the satisfaction of seeing this work so well rounded out before his death and that the latest months of his life were much more restful than those preceding, some of which were marked by extreme suffering. He continued in about the usual health until September 8, when he again had a series of uncontrollable hemorrhages, daily becoming weaker until on the morning of the 15th he peacefully passed away.

One essential feature of his success must receive mention here — the devoted heroism of his wife. His work was always stimulated by her interest and cooperation ; but during the last decade his life was unquestionably preserved by her self sacrificing care. She often accompanied him for weeks on wagon trips far from settlements in order to see that he had proper food and comforts, sometimes enduring severe hardships and sacrificing her own health for his welfare.

So much for a brief sketch of Professor Hekkick's life. Of his relation to the various institutions with which he was connected and the great stimulus which he gave to education by his connection with them, an account will be given in other biographical notices soon to appear in the Bulletin of the Scientific Laboratories of Denison University, which he founded. It remains here to say something of Dr. Herrick, first, as an investigator and thinker, and secondly, as a teacher and as a man.

In estimating the character of his work it is difficult to say whether he was primarily an investigator or a philosopher. And this is to his great credit for he combined in a remarkable degree the qualifications of an expert in both of these lines. He had at once acute perceptions, and keen insight for scientific details, and a broad philosophic horizon and perspective which peculiarly fitted him for the work he undertook of throwing light upon the nature of consciousness from the neurological side. A glance at the appended bibliography will show that a philosophic scope as well as a scientific specialization characterized all his work.

His work in every line was extremely suggestive, and it should be added, seldom exhaustive, though certain of his neurological and geological papers reveal his power of accurate and detailed research. But his thought ever was moving forward, and he was impatient of the routine details which would put any check upon his richly developing insight.

His scientific labors fall in three states — Minnesota, Ohio, and New Mexico. Of his work in geology during the first and second periods of his life we have already spoken. His neurological work was done mostly during the second and third periods, while connected with the University of Cincinnati and with Denison University.

The first contribution in neurology was the elementary chapter on the nervous system appended to the translation of Lotze's Outlines of Psychology, published in Minneapolis, in 1885. This is significant not so much for its content (though here the dynamic point of view is dominant) as for its context. The juxtaposition, in a manual designed for an elementary text book, of Lotze's lectures and original lectures on the mechanism of the brain was a decided novelty in those days.

In 1889 he began work in earnest on the nervous systemand immediately there appeared a series of papers in rapid succession, some of great length and others mere jottings. The first long paper was published with Professor W. G. Tight in the Denison University Bulletin in 1890, and was entitled "The Central Nervous System of Rodents." This paper contains nineteen double plates and a vast amount of observation; and was designed as a preliminary survey of the field, the plates to form the basis of further detailed observations and correlation. But he soon became convinced that this correlation could best be attempted after a thorough study of several types of lower brains and the series was interrupted. At the time of his breakdown in 1894 he was just about to take up again by the degeneration methods a more thorough study of the mammalian brain. Thus this rodent paper stands now as an unfinished fragment.

This, however, illustrates well his plan of work, a plan which must be clearly understood in order to put a proper estimate on his published researches. He found correlation impossible and at once saw that only in primitive types could the key be found, and that too not in any one series, but only in the common features of many lower types. Accordingly he undertook to examine in rapid succession as material offered a large number of lower brains, taking voluminous notes and publishing the observed data as fast as they were ready. All of this work was fragmentary and much of it contained but little correlation. But the mass of facts gathered and recorded was enormous. He realized that the incessant strain on his eyes could not always be kept up, and planned to accumulate fact as rapidly as possible until failing eyes should impair his efficiency in this field. TJien he hoped to review the whole field of vertebrate neurology systematical!)-, using his own observations as the skeleton on which to build by study of literature and further research of his own on critical points, until the whole should take shape as a unity. When he settled in Granville the second time in 1893 he expected to begin that work of correlation, and this is doubtless the special significance of the announcement published at that time of a text-book on comparative neurology. But this period of work he was not able to enter far and the text-book is still unpublished. This manuscript, together with that of several other projected works on psychology and ethics, remains. It is yet too early to state how much of this matter can be edited for publication. If the last ten years of his life could have been spent in Granville, as was his plan, results of moment in the way of correlation would undoubtedly have followed. As it is, none of the papers in neurological lines were regarded by him as other than fragments.

The first important paper in neurology was published in the Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History — "Notes upon the Brain of the Alligator." This is an elaborate descriptive article illustrated with nearly a hundred of the beautiful pen drawings which he used so freely in all of his work.

The second neurological paper of special importance was the leading article in the first issue of this Journal, on the histogenesis of the cerebellum in correlation with its comparative anatomy. This paper was ignored largely by the workers immediately following, but its main points have been fully confirmed by later students. It is really, though very brief, one of his best contributions.

Of the remaining neurological papers, the most important were published in this Journal, those in the Anatotniuker Anzeiger, American Naturalist, etc., being for the most part summaries of the longer articles. These were descriptive articles, in most cases, devoted mainly to the brains of fishes and reptiles, with some atrention to amphibians.

The greater part of his descriptions of the fish brain have since been worked over with the same sections which he used in hand, and his descriptions have been found to be very exact, though often so brief as to make it difficult to understand them without reference to the preparations. Furthermore they stand the test of control by the more recent neurological methods very well, though of course not always in detail. His method of pushing a given research through rapidly enabled him to cover a great deal of ground with surprising fidelity to the facts of his material. But the method results in a positive hardsliip to his readers, since the matter was not fully digested and correlated before publication. While, therefore, this matter is of great value, it is hard to read and will not be used fully save by a few specialists until it is worked over and correlated within itself and with other more recent work. It is hoped that this ma}' be done soon. The facts as stated must necessarily serve as the basis for any future work on the types which he studied.

After his departure for New Mexico a few brief neurological articles were published, but only fragments remaining from his earlier work or critical articles. This period was devoted chiefly to geology and other studies which could be pursued out-of-doors, and more recently to philosophical writing.

In 1892 he contributed a short paper to the Leuckart Festschrift. In 1893 he wrote four articles for the supplement to Wood's Reference Handbook of the Medical Sciences. He also wrote a few articles for the second edition of the Handbook, beginning in 1900. In conjunction with C. Judson Herrick, he prepared the neurological articles for the Baldwin Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, some of these being encyclopedic articles of considerable length.

The best years of his life were devoted to his neurological work and it is all of a high order of merit, yet one feels that in very little of it did he do himself justice. His impetuous temperament and phenomenal ability to turn off research rapidly is partly responsible for this ; but its unsatisfactory character is largely due to the fact that it was cut off prematurely. He never had the patience to polish his work as some like to see it done, and it would have been much more accessible if he had put even the unfinished reports of progress into more systematic form. Yet, even as it is, the aggregate is a monumental work to stand as the out-put of only about half a decade of productive work.

Of his work in New Mexico one who had first-hand knowledge writes as follows :


"He first resided, with his family, in Albuquerque, and while gaining strength, began to study the local fauna and flora. Perhaps it may be allowable to give an incident from this period of his life, for it is most typical of him.

"While recovering strength he was accustomed to lie upon a couch in the open air. His microscope was close at hand, and he began at once the study of our fresh water crustaceans. For a few minutes he would study his creature under the microscope, make his exquisite drawings, write out his description, when, being seized with a coughing spell, he would be forced to his couch completely exhausted, to remain there perhaps half an hour before he could resume his study.

"This incident illustrates two characteristics. It illustrates first, his unremitting labors. Only when necessity compelled did he cease his labor. True, he had his recreations, but these were often of such a character as to be downright labor for most men. The incident also illustrates, secondly, his deep thirst for knowledge. Only he who has drunk at the fountain of in spiration could labor so incessantly under conditions so unfavorable.

"After some months spent in Albuquerque, Professor Herrick and his family moved to Socorro. There he became interested in geological studies, and also collected a considerable herbarium of native plants. He contributed occasional articles to the Journal of Comparative Neurology . In the spring of 1897 he, in company with his son Harry and Dr. Maltbv, made an exploring trip to the Tres Marias Islands, off the western coast of Mexico, where a large natural history collection was made.

"Upon his return from Mexico, Professor Herrick was elected President of the University of New Mexico, and began his new labors in 1897. His wide experience, having been connected with three universities, viz., Minnesota, Cincinnati and Denison, his several trips to Germany, where he met and worked with the leaders in the biological sciences, his national reputation in fields of zoology, geology, neurology, psychology and philosophy, gave him an ideal preparation as a college president. No wonder, then, that he drew to him immediately a number of advanced students who were inspired by his genius and broad knowledge, and who fairly worshiped him.

"In passing, it may be mentioned that under him the policy of the University was completely reversed. From a literary academy, it became a scientific school ; from a preparatory school it developed into a college with a post-graduate department. In three short years the institution was placed where it belonged — at the head of the school system of New Mexico.

"Upon entering his new duties, Dr. Herrick commenced the biological and geological survey of the territor)'.

' 'Two volumes of original investigations in these lines speak for themselves. In addition, contributions were made to some of the leading journals of America, especially to tlie Journal of Comparative Neurology, the American Geologist and the Psychological Reviezv.

Of Professor Herrick's contributions to philosopiiy a word should be said. That his interest was a deep and abiding one is abundantly evident from a glance at his writings which include many articles and discussions dating from the publication in 1882 of his translation of Lotze's lectures on psychology to the series of articles on "Dynamic ReaHsm" which he had begun to publish in the Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific MetJwcis, at the time of his death. He made frequent short contributions to the Psychological Reviezv, besides publishing various articles of a psychological and philosophical character in the columns of his own Journal. His interest in problems of ethics and religion is evidenced by divers articles in certain of the religious periodicals as well as by much unpublished MS.

Of his metaphysical writings it should be said that they were always inspired by his scientific researches. He never was satisfied with the easy philosophy of the "anti-metaphysical" standpoint of many fellow scientists. Ps)cho-physical parallelism he regarded as "the Great Bad." The aim of his life was to throw^ light upon just such so-called insoluble problems as the relation of consciousness to the brain. "Ignorabimus" is a word which never fell from his lips. The unity of the material and the mental is a truth upon which he came to lay increasing stress in his later years. Starting from a Lotzean spiritualistic idealism he never lost hold of the monism which characterizes that philosophic world-view, though in many respects he worked beyond it, his scientific studies serving to correct any tendency to an exclusive emphasis upon the mental. This is seen in the title under which his latest writings appear — "Dynamic realism" — in which many will find hints of a coming philosophic movement which is to reinterpret the fixed ontological categories of a past metaphysics in more dynamic and organic terms.

Of his contributions to the theory as to the nature of consciousness (equilibrium theory oi consciousness), the physiological basis of the emotions, theory of pleasure-pain (summationirradiation theory of pleasure-pain), his discussion of the reflex arc or organic circuit under the terms of his own coining ("aesthesodic" and "kinesodic"), and in general his interpretation of experience in dynamic and energic terms, we may not here speak in detail. But the attention of the readers of this Journal should be called to this side of his work as it is embodied in his various published writings and especially in certain writings which are yet to appear.

In the memory of his pupils Professor Herkick was greatest as a teacher. This statement can only be appreciated by those who knew him personally and were in his classes. There was no display or oratory. He was not what would be called a gifted public speaker, though he was often called upon for such services. It was in the class-room or about the seminar table or in general conversation that the inexhaustible fertility of his thought and fine suggestiveness of his language appeared. In his lectures one always knew that he was getting the best, the latest, the deepest results of his scientific research and philosophic reflection. Never was any work slighted in which his students were involved. Other things might be sacrificed — time, money, convenience, even health itself, but never the student. The result was that his teaching was not confined to the class room or laboratory. There never was an occasion upon which he was not ready to suggest, advise, assist the groping mind in its search for the truth.

He was extraordinarily versatile in the class-room. He would lecture with a piece of chalk in each hand, sketching at the same time ambidextrously upon the blackboard the figure he was describing. Never did the lecture degenerate into a mere description of the figure. The figure he was describing was the figure in his mind, the figure that he was thereby suggesting in the student's mind. Such description and all the other instrumentalities of the class-room and laboratory were always kept in their proper place and proportion as means to the end of knowledge and insight. His artistic sense was too fine to allow them ever to degenerate into mere ends in themselves ; the technique of his teaching was in itself a work of art, the more that it was unconscious on his part. His courses in neurolog)', embryology, and histology were primarily courses in thinking. This is no doubt the reason why so many of his students look back upon his teaching as the period of their intellectual awakening.

One of his colleagues at Denison University says of him : "All who knew Professor Herrick loved him. Different friends had different reasons for loving him, but all agreed in loving. Christian people loved him because he was a loyal Christian man. Intellectual people loved and adinired him because of his brilliant and keen intellect ; and men in general loved him because they saw in him a true and noble man loving the truth and living it out in his daily life."

As has been said of another: "He did his work with a quietness which concealed its power. He contributed to science our best example of the scientific temper. He was a profound thinker. He was a successful teacher. He was a lover, in. spirer, and leader of youth."


H. Heath Bawden.

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1888

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1889

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Notes upon the Brain of the Alligator. Jouru. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. LList., 12, 129-162, 9 pl.

Suggestions upon the Significance of the Cells of the Cerebral Cortex. The Microscope, 10, No. 2, 33-38, 2 pl.

The Central Nervous System of Rodents. Preliminary Paper. Bui. Sci. Lab. Denison Univ., 5, 35-95, 19 pl- (With W. G. Tight).

The Philadelphia Meeting of the International Congress of Geologists. Auier. Geologist, 5, 379-388.

1891

The Cuyahoga Shale and the Problem of the Ohio Waverly. Bui. Geological Soc. of America, 2, 31-48, i pl.

The Commissures and Histology of the Teleost Brain. Anat. Anz., 6, 676-681, 3 figs.

Biological Notes upon Fiber, Geoniys and Erethyzon. Bu/. Sc/'. Lab. Denison Univ., 6, Pt. i, 15-25. (With C. Judson Herrick).

The Evolution of the Cerebellum. Science, 18, 188-189.

Contributions to the Comparative Morphology of the Central Nervous System. I. Illustrations of the Architectonic of the Cerebellum. Jotirn. Comp. Neiir., 1, 5-14, 4 pi.

Contrtbutions to the Comparative Morphology of the Central Nervous System. H. Topography and fiistology of the Urain of Certain Reptiles. /ourn. Comp. Neur., 1, 14-37, 2 pi.

Laboratory Technique. A New Operating Bench. Journ. Comp. A'^cur., 1, 38.

Editorial. The Problems of Comparative Neurology. Journ. Comp. A'eur.,

1, 93-105 Notes upon. Techniijue. Journ. Comp. A'eur., ■y^ 133-134.

Contributions to the Comparative Morphology of the Central Nervous System. III. Topography and Histology of the Brain of Certain Ganoid Fishes. Journ. Comp. New., 1, 149-182, 4 pi.

Editorial. Neurology and Psychology, fourv. Comp. Neur., 1, 183-200.

Contributions to the Morphology of the Brain of Bony Fishes. (Part I by C. Judson Herrick). Part H. Studies on the Brains of Some American Freshwater Fishes. Journ. Comp. A'eur.^ 1, 228-245, 333-85S, 5 pi.

1892

The Mammals of Minnesota. A Scientific and Popular Account of their Features and Habits. Bulletin No. 7, Geological ami Nat. Hist. SurTey of Minn., 300 pp., with 23 figures and 8 plates.

Notes upon the Anatomy and Histology of the F'rosencephalon of Teleosts. Anier. A'at., 26, No. 2, 1 12-120, 2 pi.

Additional Notes on the Teleost Brain. Anat. Anz., 7, Nos. 13-M, 422431, 10 figs.

Notes upon the Histology of the Central Nervous System of Vertebrates. Festschrift zum siebenzigsten Gebutrstage Rudolf Leuckharts, 278-288, 2 pi.

The Cerebrum and Olfactories of the Opossum, Didelphys virginica. /ourn. Comp. Neur., 2, 1-20; and Bui. Set. Lab. Demson Univ., 6, Pt. 2, 75-94, 3 pi.

Contributions to the Morphology of the Brain of Bony Fishes. Part II. Studies on the Brain of Some American Fresh- water Fishes (Continued), /ourn. Comp. Neur., 2, 21-72, 8 pi.

Neurologists and Neurological Laboratories. No. i. Professor Gustav Fritsch. With portrait, /ourn. Comp. A'eur. ^ 2, 84-88.

The Psychophysical Basis of Feelings. Journ. Comp. Neur., 2, 1 :i-ii4.

Instances of Erronious Inference in Animals. Journ. Comp. Neur., 2, 114.

Editorial. Instinctive Traits in Animals. Journ. Comp. Neur. 2, 115-136.

Histogenesis and Physiology of the Nervous Elements, /ourn. Comp. Neur.,

2, 136-149 Intelligence in Animals. Journ. Comp. Neur., 2, 157-158. Embryological Notes on the Brain of the Snake, /ourn. Comp. A'eur., 2, 169-176, 5 pi.

Localization in the Cat. Journ. Couip. Ncur.^ 2, 190-192.

1893

Observations upon the so-called Waverly (uoup of Ohio. Ohio Geological Survey, 7, 495-515.

The Scope and Methods of Comparative Psychology. Denison Quarterly, 1, i-io; 134-141 ; 179-187; 264-281.

Articles in Woods Reference Hand-book of the Medical Sciences, 9, Suppl., as follows: (i) The Comparative Anatomy of the Nervous System ; (2) The Histogenesis of the Elements of the Nervous System ; (3) The Physiological and Psychological Basis of the Emotions; (4) Waller's Law.

The Evolution of Consciousness and of the Cortex. Science, 21, No. 543, 351-352 The Development of Medullated Nerve Fibers. Journ. Coinp. Neur., 3 II-16, I pi.

Editorial. The Scientific Utility of Dreams. Journ. Coinp. Ncur., 3^ 17-34 The Hippocampus in Reptilia. Journ. Coinp. .Veur., 3, 56-60.

Contributions to the Comparative ALirpoIogy of the Central Nervous System. H. Topography and Histology of the Brain of Certain Reptiles (Continued) . Journ. Conip. Ncur., 3, 77-106, Iig-140, II pi.

Report upon the Pathology of a Case of General Paralysis. Journ. Conip. Neur., 3, 141-162, and Bulletin No. i of the Columbus State Hospital for the Insane, t; pi.

The Callosum and Hippocampal Region in Marsupial and Lower Brains. Journ. Coinp. Ncur., 3, 176-1S2, 2 ])1.

1894

The Seat of Consciousness, /ourn. Coinp. Neur., 4, 221-226.

1895

Synopsis of the Entomostraca of Minnesota, with Descriptions of Related Species, Comprising all Known Forms from the United States Licluded in the Orders Copepoda, Cladocera, Ostracoda. Gcolo.:ical and Nat. Hist. Survey oj AJtnn., Zoological Series, 2, 1-525, 81 pi. (With C. H. Turner).

Microcrustacea from New Mexico. Zool. .Anz., 18, No. 467, 40-47.

Modern Algedonic Theories. Journ. Conip. A'cur., 5, 1-32.

Herrick CL. The histogenesis of the cerebellum. (1895) J Comp. Neurol. 5: 66-70.

Notes on Child Experiences. Journ. Coinp. Xcur., 5, 119- 1.^3.

Editorial. The Cortical Optical Center in Pirds. Journ. Loiiip. Ncur., 5, 208-209.

Editorial. Neurology and Monism. Poiini. Coinp. .Veui., 5, 209-JI4.

1896

Suspension of the Spatial Consciousness. /'svi/i. AVr., 3, 191-192.

Focal and Marginal Consciousness, I'sycli. Rev., 3, 193-194.

The Testimony of Heart Disease to the Sensory Facies of the Emotions. Psych. J\cv., 3, 320-322.

Illustrations of Central Atrophy after ICye Injuries. Journ. Coinp. Neur., 6, 1-4, I pi.

Lecture Notes on Attention. An Illustration of the l-^mployment of Neurological Analogies for Psychical i'roblenis. Journ. Coinp. Neur., 6, 5-14.

The Psycho-sensory Climacteric. Psych., Rei'., 3, 657-661.

The Critics of Ethical Monism. l^enisoii Qiiartfrly, 4, 240-252.

The So-cnllcd Socorro Tripoli. Am. Geologist, 18, I.;5-I40, 2 [)1.

1897

Kclilorial. The Ethics of Criticism. Jomn. Comp. Nciir., 7, 71-72.

I'svcholoLjical Corrollaries of M<jclcrn .Neuroloijical Discoveries. Jouru. Coinp. Ncur. , 7, 155-161.

Incjuiries Regarding Current Tendencie.s in Neurological Nomenclature, [oiirii. Conip. Neur., 7, 162-168. (With C. Judson Herrick).

The Propogatioii of Memories. Psych. AV?'. , 4, 294-296.

The Ceology of a Typical Mining Camp. Ant. Geo/., 19, 256-262, 2 pi.

The W aveily (Iroup of Ohio. Finn! Rep. Geol. Sur-'cv of Ohio, 7, 256262, 2 pi.

1898

The(leology of the hhuirons of .\lluu|uer(pie, New .\le.\ico. Am. Geol., 21, 26-43, ' I-- 5 .si^ Occurrence of Co[)]H'r and Lead in the San Andieas and Cahallo Mountains, New Mexico. Am. Geo/.. 22, 28^291, i fig I'apeis on the Cieology of .\e\v Mexico. />'///. Sci. La/'. Ihnisov Univ., 11, 7v')2, 4 pi.

The Ceologv of the San i'edro and .\ll)iujucr(|ue Districts. Bit/. Sci. Iai/i. Deiiisoii Univ., 11, 93-11(1.

IMivsiological Corollaries of tlie l",(piilil)vium I'heory of Nervous Action and Control. Jown. Comp. Neur., 8, 21-31.

The Somatic liquilihrium aii<! the Nerve Endings in the Skin. J'art L /oiirn. Comp. Neiir., 8, 32-56, 5 ])!. (With C. E. Coghill).

The Cortical Motor Centei> in Lower Mammals. Jonrn. Co»ip. Neur., 8, 92-98, 1 pi.

The N'ital l';(|uilihrium ami the \er\-ous System. Science^ N. S., 7, -N^o. 181, 8 1 3-8 18.

1899

Notes on a Collection of Lizards from .\e\v Mexico. Bu/. Sci. Lab. Deuison i^///T.. 11, 117-148, II pi. (With John Terr}- and LI. N. LJerrick, Jr.).

'i'hc Material Versus the Dynamic I'sychology. Psych. /iV?'., 6, 180-187.

.I-lditorial. Clearness anil Lnilormily in .Xeuiological Descriptions. Journ. Comp. Neur., 9, I 50- 1 52.

Cie<jgra|)hy of .New .Mexico. .\ chaptei' in the .Natural .\il\-anced (Geography. Nt-iO York, Am. Book Co., O pp., map and i; figs.

1900

The (u-ology of 1 lie Whilr Sands of New .Mexico. /,)//;//. Geol.. 7 , Wl128, 3 pi.

The Geology of the .Mbrnjuei-que Sheet. Bu/. Sci. La//. r\')tisou Uh/t., 11, 175-231-), 1 map and 32 pi. (Willi D. \V. Johnson).

Rejiort of a Ceologieal Reconnaissance in Western Soc(jrro and \'alencia Cfliinties, New .Mexico. Am. Geol., 25, 331-346, 2 jjI.

Identihcation of an ()hio Coal Measures Horizon in .New .Mexico. A>n. Geol., 25, 234-242. (Willi r. .\. Ueiidrat).

1901

Neurological .Vrticles lor lialdwin'.s Dictionary ol Philosophy and PsvcIkjIogy. JVeiv York, The Mactnillan Co. (With C. Judson Herrick).

Article on The Development of the Brain in Woods Reference Hand-book of the Medical Sciences. Second Edition, 2, 26S-282.

1903

Secondary Enrichment of Mineral Veins in Regions of Small Erosion. Miriing and Scit-ntific Press, San Francisco, 87, 97 1904.

Laws of Eormation of New Mexico Mountain Ranges. At/i. Ccol.. 33, 301-312, 2 pi.

Block Mountains in New Mexico : A Correction. Am. GcoL, 33, 393 The Clinoplains of the Rio Grande. Am. GeoL, 33, 376-381.

Lake Otero, an Ancient Salt Lake Basin in Southeastern New Mexico. .4m. Gtol., 34, 174-189, 2 pi.

A Coal Measure Forest near Socorro. New Mexico. Jottrn. GeoL. 12, 237252.

The Logical and I'sychologica! l^istinction betwee the True and the Real. Fsyc/i. Rev., 11, 204-210.

Fundamental Concepts and Methodology of Dynamic Realism. Journ. Phil., Psy., Sci. Methods, 1, 281-288.

The Dynamic Concept of the Individual. Journ. PJiil.. Psy., Sci. Ahthods, 1, 373-378.

Editorial L'Envoi. Jo7trn. Comp. Ncnr. and Psych., 14, 62-63.

The Beginnings of Social Reaction in Man and Lower Animals. Journ. Comp. Neur. and Psych., 14, 1 18-124.

Color Vision (a critical digest). Journ. Comp. Nenr. and Psycli.. \A, 2-,i,2S1.

Recent Contributions to the Body-Mind Controversy. Journ. Comp. Neur. and Psych., 14, 421-432.

The Law of Congruousness and its Logical Application to Dynamic Realism. Journ. Phil., Psy., Sci. Methods, 1, 595-604.

Mind and Body — The Dynamic View. Psych. Rev., 11, 395-409.



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