Bat Development

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Introduction

Short-tailed fruit bat Carollia perspicillata
Short-tailed fruit bat Carollia perspicillata (embryonic stage 19)[1]

The bat (chiroptera) family consists of about 1,000 species throughout the world today (90 in Australia) and is not a common model of mammalian embryonic development.

The taxon chiroptera can also be further divided into the Megachiroptera (flying foxes) and Microchiroptera suborders. Echolocation sounds have been shown to differ in Microchiroptera (vocal cords) and Megachiroptera (tongue clicks).


Bat Development: Craniofacial Development Carollia perspicillata Stage 10-13 | Stage 12-17 | Stage 18-23 | Stage 19 Movie | Miniopterus schreibersii fuliginosus Stage 13-17 | Limb Stage 13-17 | Limb Growth Stage 13-17 | Stage 18-23 | Hipposideros pratti Stage 11-22 | Hendra Virus | Category:Bat

Some Recent Findings

  • Ovulation, fertilization, and early embryonic development in the menstruating fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata[2] "Graafian follicles developed large antra and exhibited preovulatory expansion of the cumulus oophorus. Ovulation had occurred in some on the morning, and in most by the evening, of day 1. The single ovum was released as a secondary oocyte and fertilized in the oviductal ampulla. Ovulated secondary oocytes were loosely associated with their cumulus cells, which were lost around the initiation of fertilization. Supernumerary spermatozoa were occasionally noted attached to the zonae pellucidae of oviductal ova, but never within the perivitelline space. By day 2, most ova had reached the pronuclear stage and by day 3, early cleavage stages. Several lines of evidence indicate that C. perspicillata is a spontaneous ovulator with a functional luteal phase."
  • Contrasting genetic structure in two co-distributed species of old world fruit bat [3] "The fulvous fruit bat (Rousettus leschenaulti) and the greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx) are two abundant and widely co-distributed Old World fruit bats in Southeast and East Asia. "
  • Digital gene expression tag profiling of bat digits provides robust candidates contributing to wing formation [4] "As the only truly flying mammals, bats use their unique wing - consisting of four elongated digits (digits II-V) connected by membranes - to power their flight. In addition to the elongated digits II-V, the forelimb contains one shorter digit (digit I) that is morphologically similar to the hindlimb digits. Here, we capitalized on the morphological variation among the bat forelimb digits to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying digit elongation and wing formation."
More recent papers
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Fruit Bat Embryology

Anuradha, Amitabh Krishna Prolactin modulates luteal activity in the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx during delayed embryonic development. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.: 2017; PubMed 28412388

Olivier Coen, Elisa Fiume, Wenjia Xu, Delphine De Vos, Jing Lu, Christine Pechoux, Loïc Lepiniec, Enrico Magnani Developmental patterning of the sub-epidermal integument cell layer in Arabidopsis seeds. Development: 2017, 144(8);1490-1497 PubMed 28348169

Elena M Popa, Neal Anthwal, Abigail S Tucker Complex patterns of tooth replacement revealed in the fruit bat (Eidolon helvum). J. Anat.: 2016; PubMed 27444818

Anuradha, Amitabh Krishna Role of adiponectin in delayed embryonic development of the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx. Mol. Reprod. Dev.: 2014, 81(12);1086-102 PubMed 25295970

Mohamed M A Abumandour, Raafat M A El-Bakary Morphological and scanning electron microscopic studies of the tongue of the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) and their lingual adaptation for its feeding habits. Vet. Res. Commun.: 2013, 37(3);229-38 PubMed 23709139

Taxon

Bat - rhinolophus smithersi

Chiroptera

Genbank common name: bats

Taxonomy Id: 9397 Rank: order

Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard)

Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 2 (Vertebrate Mitochondrial)

Lineage( abbreviated ): Eukaryota; Fungi/Metazoa group; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Coelomata; Deuterostomia; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Gnathostomata; Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria

Species Comparison

Carollia perspicillata

  • (short-tailed fruit bat) Ovulation has a 24 hour variation with up to 2 days of variation in oviduct transit time, and gestation period is 113 - 120 days.

Myotis thysanodes and M. lucifugus

  • Ovulation, fertilization, and implantation occur during the first 2 weeks of May and gestation is 50 - 60 days for both species.
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Bat embryo (stage 19)

Embryonic Stages - Carollia perspicillata

Embryonic Bat Stages Carollia perspicillata[1]

Stage

Key features

Somites

Age
(dpc)

Uterus diameter
(mm)

Crown-rump length
(mm)

Mass
(mg)

12

Forelimb buds form; tail bud forms; caudal neuropore closes; 3 pharyngeal arches.

21-29

40

5.75
(+/- 0.64)

3.4
(+/- 0.42)

4.3
(+/- 1.7)

14

Retinal pigment; nasal pits; end of somitogenesis; propatagium and plagiopatagium primordia; hindlimb AER.

36-40

44

6.95
(+/- 0.44)

5.35
(+/- 0.24)

24.6
(+/- 3.6)

15

Hand plate and footplate form; lens vesicle; auditory hillocks; premaxillary centers.

46

8.65
(+/- 1.20)

7.45
(+/- 0.92)

56
(+/- 13)

16

Nose-leaf primordium; pinna and tragus form; forelimb digital condensations, uropatagium primordium.

50

12.06
(+/- 1.45)

8.66
(+/- 1.05)

110
(+/- 30)

17

Tongue protruding; cervical flexure straightens; hindlimb interdigit tissue receding; eyes begin to close.

54

13.45
(+/- 1.34)

9.15
(+/- 1.34)

114
(+/- 45)

18

Free thumb; head and body smoother, rounder; eyes half-closed; postaxial flexure at wrist; calcar.

60

16.32
(+/- 0.98)

12.35
(+/- 1.16)

278
(+/- 83)

20

Distal forelimbs overlap over face; head larger; eyelids cover pigmented retina; claw primordia form.

70

20.0
(+/- 3.54)

16.35
(+/- 1.06)

617
(+/- 156)

22

Prominent, triangular nose-leaf; eyelids reopening; wing membranes corrugated; claws pigmented, hooked.

80

23.03
(+/- 2.68)

20.02
(+/- 0.26)

1527
(+/- 208)

24

Fetal period commences; eyes completely open; face and nose-leaf pigmenting.

90

23.53
(+/- 0.64)

21.13
(+/- 0.06)

2097
(+/- 199)


(Values are mean n= 2-6, +/- standard deviation, original table contains more detailed data)

Thanks to Prof Richard Behringer and Dr Chris J. Creteko Dept. of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, who provided images and stage information on the embryonic development of the Carollia perspicillata bat.

Embryonic Stages


Miniopterus schreibersii fuliginosus

Limb Development

Bat limb 02.jpg

Bat limb 01.jpg

Images of the bat embryo Miniopterus schreibersii fuliginosus at embryonic Stages 13-17.[5]


Bat - adult and fetal limbs.jpg

Bat - adult and fetal limbs[4]

A - Left limbs of adult Myotis ricketti. DI, DII, DIII, DIV and DV represent digits I-V of the forelimb

B, C - Left limbs of Miniopterus schreibersii fuliginosus in the Fetal Stage as an example of samples used for the Myotis ricketti libraries. Libraries Hand DI and Hand DII-V are constructed from forelimb digit I and digits II-V, respectively. Library Foot is constructed from hindlimb digits I-V.

Bar = 1 cm in A; bar = 1 mm in B and C.

Neural Development

Bat - neural development 01.jpg

The short-tailed fruit bat Carollia perspicillata Stage 14 embryo nervous system as identified by neurofilament antibody (brown) staining. Neurofilament is an intermediate filament protein, forming part of the neuronal cytoskeleton.

Historic Images

Abnormalities

Australia map - bats and hendra virus

Hendra Virus

  • Hendra virus is a paramyxoviridae (ssRNA negative-strand virus) that mainly infects large fruit bats (flying foxes) which can be passed on to horses.
  • The infection has occasionally been passed onto people who have been in close contact with an infected horse.
  • There is evidence of fetal and placental infection in flying fox[6] and animal models.[7]
  • There is currently insufficient information to determine whether there are developmental effects in humans.



Links: NSW Public Health Sheet 2011 | Viralzone - Paramyxoviridae | Genome | Abnormal Development - Viral Infection

Rabies Virus

Rabies is a fatal encephalitis that can infect humans and is caused by lyssaviruses. Lyssavirus circulation has emerged in Southeast Asian bats.[8]


Links: Viral Infection - Lassa Virus | Abnormal Development - Viral Infection

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Chris J Cretekos, Scott D Weatherbee, Chih-Hsin Chen, Nilima K Badwaik, Lee Niswander, Richard R Behringer, John J Rasweiler Embryonic staging system for the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata, a model organism for the mammalian order Chiroptera, based upon timed pregnancies in captive-bred animals. Dev. Dyn.: 2005, 233(3);721-38 PubMed 15861401
  2. John J Rasweiler, Nilima K Badwaik, Kiranmayi V Mechineni Ovulation, fertilization, and early embryonic development in the menstruating fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata. Anat Rec (Hoboken): 2011, 294(3);506-19 PubMed 21337714
  3. Jinping Chen, Stephen J Rossiter, Jonathan R Flanders, Yanhong Sun, Panyu Hua, Cassandra Miller-Butterworth, Xusheng Liu, Koilmani E Rajan, Shuyi Zhang Contrasting genetic structure in two co-distributed species of old world fruit bat. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(11);e13903 PubMed 21085717
  4. 4.0 4.1 Zhe Wang, Dong Dong, Binghua Ru, Rebecca L Young, Naijian Han, Tingting Guo, Shuyi Zhang Digital gene expression tag profiling of bat digits provides robust candidates contributing to wing formation. BMC Genomics: 2010, 11;619 PubMed 21054883
  5. Zhe Wang, Naijian Han, Paul A Racey, Binghua Ru, Guimei He A comparative study of prenatal development in Miniopterus schreibersii fuliginosus, Hipposideros armiger and H. pratti. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2010, 10;10 PubMed 20092640 | PMC: 2824742 | BMC Dev Biol.
  6. Raina K Plowright, Hume E Field, Craig Smith, Anja Divljan, Carol Palmer, Gary Tabor, Peter Daszak, Janet E Foley Reproduction and nutritional stress are risk factors for Hendra virus infection in little red flying foxes (Pteropus scapulatus). Proc. Biol. Sci.: 2008, 275(1636);861-9 PubMed 18198149
  7. M M Williamson, P T Hooper, P W Selleck, H A Westbury, R F Slocombe Experimental hendra virus infectionin pregnant guinea-pigs and fruit Bats (Pteropus poliocephalus). J. Comp. Pathol.: 2000, 122(2-3);201-7 PubMed 10684689
  8. Kis Robertson, Boonlert Lumlertdacha, Richard Franka, Brett Petersen, Saithip Bhengsri, Sununta Henchaichon, Leonard F Peruski, Henry C Baggett, Susan A Maloney, Charles E Rupprecht Rabies-related knowledge and practices among persons at risk of bat exposures in Thailand. PLoS Negl Trop Dis: 2011, 5(6);e1054 PubMed 21738801 | PLoS Negl Trop Dis.

Reviews

Rick A Adams Morphogenesis in bat wings: linking development, evolution and ecology. Cells Tissues Organs (Print): 2008, 187(1);13-23 PubMed 18163246

K E Sears Molecular determinants of bat wing development. Cells Tissues Organs (Print): 2008, 187(1);6-12 PubMed 18160799

R T Bernard, G S Cumming African bats: evolution of reproductive patterns and delays. Q Rev Biol: 1997, 72(3);253-74 PubMed 9293029

J J Rasweiler Pregnancy in chiroptera. J. Exp. Zool.: 1993, 266(6);495-513 PubMed 8371094


Articles

Chih-Hsin Chen, Chris J Cretekos, John J Rasweiler, Richard R Behringer Hoxd13 expression in the developing limbs of the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata. Evol. Dev.: 2005, 7(2);130-41 PubMed 15733311

J J Rasweiler, N K Badwaik Improved procedures for maintaining and breeding the short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata) in a laboratory setting. Lab. Anim.: 1996, 30(2);171-81 PubMed 8783180


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Bat Development. Retrieved December 17, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Bat_Development

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