From Embryology

Lab Attendance

Lab 1 --Z3462297 (talk) 13:47, 7 August 2015 (AEST)

Lab 2 --Z3462297 (talk) 13:19, 14 August 2015 (AEST)

Lab 3 --Z3462297 (talk) 12:26, 21 August 2015 (AEST)

Lab 4 --Z3462297 (talk) 12:13, 28 August 2015 (AEST)

Lab 5 --Z3462297 (talk) 12:06, 4 September 2015 (AEST)

Lab 6 --Z3462297 (talk) 12:26, 11 September 2015 (AEST)

Lab 7 --Z3462297 (talk) 12:04, 18 September 2015 (AEST)

Lab 8 --Z3462297 (talk) 12:03, 25 September 2015 (AEST)

Lab 9 --Z3462297 (talk) 12:07, 9 October 2015 (AEDT)

Lab 10 --Z3462297 (talk) 12:04, 16 October 2015 (AEDT)

Lab 11 --Z3462297 (talk) 12:09, 23 October 2015 (AEDT)

Lab 12 --Z3462297 (talk) 13:18, 30 October 2015 (AEDT)

Lab Assessment 1

1. <pubmed>25830275</pubmed>

Over time, massage therapy has been widely used to treat physical pain and mental difficulties and currently causes no significant adverse effects or risks to the patient. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of deep relaxation therapy (andullation) using oscillating vibrations on blastocyst transfer in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cryo-cycles. The 267 IVF patients that participated in this study collectively had a mean age of 36.3 years and all previously received a transfer of vitrified, warmed blastocysts. Before embryo transfer, the test group received a deep relaxation massage for 30 minutes on a vibrating device, in comparison to the control group that underwent no changes. The main measurable factors included pregnancy rates using a urine test for hCG, ongoing pregnancies by examining the fetal heartbeat and birth rates, and miscarriage rates.

The results showed that patients who received andullation therapy before embryo transfer, had significantly greater pregnancy rates, ongoing pregnancies and birth rates compared to those who did not, regardless of age and hormonal status.

  • Pregnancy rates: test group 58.9%, control group 41.7%
  • Ongoing pregnancies: test group 53.6%, control group 33.2%
  • Birth rates: test group 32%, control group 20.3%

The research team concluded that andullation therapy preceding to blastocyst transfer in cryo-cycles greatly improve implantation, as it reduces stress, uterine contractions and may also enhance blood flow in the abdomen. Ultimately, these findings have showed that massage therapy is a suitable method to enhance assisted-reproduction techniques (ARTs).

2. <pubmed>26054135</pubmed>

Acupuncture and moxibustion are key natural therapies that play a role in traditional Chinese medicine, and have been a recommended treatment for various conditions. The aim of the investigate was to observe the effects of acupuncture and moxibustion on pregnancy in IVF-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) patients, and to determine its application value in IVF-ET treatment. 114 IVF-ET patients that were treated with standard long-term program at luteal phase were equally and randomly divided into a test and control group. The test group underwent one session of acupuncture and moxibustion treatment before embryo-transfer, thus a total of 3 sessions of the therapy were undertaken. The control group did not receive acupuncture or moxibustion prior to ET. Measurable factors of this experiment included: "endometrial morphology and blood flow, levels of estrogen, progesterone and luteinizing hormone when hCG was injected, gonadotropin dosage, number of oocytes, high-quality embryo number, embryo cultivation rate and pregnancy rates" (Chen and Hau, 2015).

Patients treated with acupuncture and moxibustion revealed significantly higher estrogen levels on the day of hCG injections and high-quality embryo rate. It was also noted that endometrial blood flow and morphology was affected such that endometrial receptivity was increased. Therefore with further analysis into application and specific impacts, the researcher suggests acupuncture and moxibustion will improve IVF-ET outcome in patients and be a key assistant therapeutic.

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:15, 4 September 2015 (AEST) Good summaries of these 2 research papers. (5/5)

Lab Assessment 2

Uploading Images in 5 Easy Steps  
First Read the help page Images and Copyright Tutorial.
Hint - This exercise is best done by using separate tabs on your browser so that you can keep all the relevant pages easily available. You can also use your own discussion page to copy and paste links, text. PMIDs etc that you will need in this process.
  1. Find an image .
    1. Search PubMed using an appropriate search term. Note that there is a special library of complete (full online) article and review texts called PubMed Central (PMC). Be very careful, while some of these PMC papers allow reuse, not all do and to add the reference link to your image you will still need to use the PMID.
    2. You can also make your own search term. In this link example PMC is searched for images related to "embryo+implantation" simply replace "embryo+implantation" with your own search term, but remember not everything in PMC can be reused, you will still need to find the "copyright notice" on the full paper, no notice, no reuse.
    3. Where else can I look? BioMed Central is a separate online database of journals that allow reuse of article content. Also look at the local page Journals that provides additional resources.
    4. You have found an image, go to step 2.
  2. Check the Copyright. I cannot emphasise enough the importance of this second step.
    1. The rule is unless there is an obvious copyright statement that clearly allows reuse (there are several different kinds of copyright, some do not) located in the article or on the article page, move on and find another resource. Not complying with this is a serious academic infringement equivalent to plagiarism."Plagiarism at UNSW is defined as using the words or ideas of others and passing them off as your own." (extract from UNSW statement on Academic Honesty and Plagiarism)
    2. You have found the statement and it allows reuse, go to step 3.
  3. Downloading your image.
    1. Download the image to your own computer. Either use the download image on the page or right click the image.
    2. To find the downloaded image you may have to look in your computer downloads folder, or the default location for downloaded files.
    3. The image file will have its own original name, that you will not be using on the wiki. You can rename it now (see renaming below), but you should also make a note of the original name.
    4. Make sure you have everything ready then for the
    5. You have the image file on your computer, go to step 4.
  4. Uploading your image.
    1. First make sure you have all the information you want to use with the file readily available. There is also a detailed description below.
    2. Towards the bottom of the lefthand menuunder “Toolbox” click Upload file. This will open a new window.
    3. In the top window "Source file", click "Choose file" and then navigate to find the file on the computer. and select the image.
    4. If you have done this correctly the upload window will now have your image file shown in choose file and also in the lower window "File description" in "Destination filename:" DO NOT CLICK UPLOAD FILE YET.
    5. Rename your file in "Destination filename:" this should be a brief filename that describes the image. Not any of the following - the original file name, image, file, my image, your ZID, etc. Many of the common embryology names may have already been used, but you can add a number (01, 02, 03, etc) or the PMID number to the filename to make it unique.
    6. If the filename or image has already been used or exists it will be shown on the upload page. If another student has already uploaded that image you will have to find another file. Duplicated images will not receive a mark, so check before you upload as you cannot delete images.
    7. In the "Summary" window for now just paste the PMID. You will come back and edit this information.
    8. Now click "Upload image" at the bottom of the window, go to step 4.
  5. Edit and Add to your page.
    1. Edit - Open the image with the "Edit" tab at the top of its page. You should see the PMID you had pasted earlier in the new edit window. Add the following information to the summary box.
      1. Image Title as a sub-heading. Under this title add the original figure legend or your own description of the image.
      2. Image Reference sub-sub-heading. Use the PMID link method shown in Lab 1 and you can also have a direct link to the original Journal article.
      3. Image Copyright sub-sub-heading. Add the copyright information under this sub-sub-heading exactly as shown in the original paper.
      4. Student Image template, as shown here {{Template:Student Image}} to show that it is a student uploaded image.
    2. Add - Now add your image to your own page under a subheading for Lab 2 Assessment including a description and a reference link. If still stuck with this last step, look at the example on the Test Student page.
    3. Done!

Students cannot delete images once uploaded. You will need to email me with the full image name and request deletion, that I am happy to do with no penalty if done before I assess.

Non-Table version of this page

Stress Relief....

<html5media height="480" width="640"></html5media>

Embryos during late blastula phase and early gastrulation.jpg

Embryos during late blastula phase and early gastrulation[1]

PMID 25887993

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:19, 4 September 2015 (AEST) Image uploaded correctly with reference, copyright and student template. The file name is long (File:Embryos during late blastula phase and early gastrulation.jpg) and should have included the species to be a better description, e.g. File:Midas cichlid late blastula and early gastrula.jpg. (4/5)

Lab Assessment 3

The following are research articles discussing possible treatments for male infertility

1. <pubmed>22958644</pubmed> This article investigates the use of clomiphene citrate, hCG and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), to treat oligospermia as they increase hormones that are essential for successful spermatogenesis to occur, including FSH and testosterone.

2. <pubmed>26097523</pubmed> The research discussed in this article discusses the advantages of using cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CNPs) to treat male infertility due to its antioxidant effects. The research team experimented on male rats to observe CNP effects on male health and infertility as oxidative stress plays a key role in preventing proper spermatogenesis.

3. <pubmed>PMC4023371</pubmed> Research article also focuses on the effects of oxidative stress on male fertility. It discusses the use of lycopenes as a possible treatment for infertility disorders due to its antioxidant properties, as well as contributing to gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunological aspects.

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:19, 4 September 2015 (AEST) These 3 papers relate to the group project and you have given a good brief description. (5/5)

Lab Assessment 4

Mesoderm Development

1 Select the INCORRECT statement regarding the mesoderm.

It is formed by epiblast cells migrating through the primitive streak
It divides into 3 different components
It forms a layer between the ectoderm and endoderm
It spreads over the entire embryonic disc

2 Which of the following statements about somites is CORRECT?

They are formed by the intermediate mesoderm
Early somites do not contain a somitocoel
They form in sequence in a rostro-caudal direction
The dorsolateral portion of the somite becomes the sclerotome
Each somite differentiates differently

3 The intermediate mesoderm is responsible for:

Somite formation
Creating the 3 major body cavities
Blood vessel formation
Generating the urogenital system
Epidermis of the skin

--Mark Hill (talk) 16:18, 28 October 2015 (AEST) Not a bad first attempt. Questions 2 and 3 are not very well designed and do not test knowledge well. (4/5)

ANAT2341 Student 2015 Quiz Questions

Lab 5 Assessment

Cleft Lip and cleft palate are associated with many different environmental and genetic causes. Identify and describe one cause of these abnormalities.

Cleft lip and cleft palate are the most common birth defects that occur during the first trimester of pregnancy. Cleft lip occurs when there is a failure of fusion of the maxillary portion of the first pharyngeal arch, and the frontonasal prominence in early embryonic period. Cleft palate is the failure of the maxillary shelves fusing together in early fetal period. These defects can occur simultaneously and separately, and cleft lip can be unilateral or bilateral [2]. Despite the variation in time of the formation of these structures, the normal processes of fusion can be interrupted by the same factor. Patients suffering from cleft lip or palate usually have difficulty speaking, eating, hearing, and are susceptible to ear infections [3]. Out of the numerous causes that have been identified and are still being investigated, a notable aetiological factor includes the widely used drug, methotrexate. Several investigations have been undertaken to understand the mechanism of action of methotrexate in order to take preventative measures.

Methotrexate is commonly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, cancer (breast and leukaemia), and has also been used to terminate ectopic pregnancies. Research has revealed severe teratogenic effects of methotrexate causing structural defects during pregnancy particularly involving the central nervous system, skeletal structures including the palate, and the heart [4]. Its mode of action includes decreasing the proliferation rate of cytotrophoblast cells, and more importantly it acts as an antifolate [5]. The presence of cytotrophoblast cells are important for the formation of placental villi and ultimately, the development of placental circulation within the embryo. Therefore its decline will impact proper development of embryonic systems and population of stem cells, affecting lip and palate formation. Methotrexate is commonly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, cancer (breast and leukaemia), and has also been used to terminate ectopic pregnancies. Research has revealed severe teratogenic effects of methotrexate causing structural defects during pregnancy particularly involving the central nervous system, skeletal structures including the palate, and the heart [4]. Its mode of action includes decreasing the proliferation rate of cytotrophoblast cells, and more importantly it acts as an antifolate [5]. The presence of cytotrophoblast cells are important for the formation of placental villi and ultimately, the development of placental circulation within the embryo. Therefore its decline will impact proper development of embryonic systems and population of stem cells, affecting lip and palate formation.

Methotrexate is a well known folic acid antagonist inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase, an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid [6]. Normally this reduction eventually leads to the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) by adding a methyl group to deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP), a critical step for DNA and RNA synthesis and repair, cell division and protein synthesis [5]. Animal studies have demonstrated the effects of methotrexate on chicken embryos, resulting in several conditions such as stunted growth, beak deformity (short beak) and limb deformities [4]. In humans in 2003, a woman exposed to methotrexate during pregnancy gave birth to an infant with cleft palate along will deformities of the toes thus leading to the belief that exposure to the drug during 6 to 8 weeks of pregnancy is associated with high risk of birth defects [7] [4]. Therefore, methotrexate plays a vital role in cleft lip and palate, along with other birth defects due to its antifolate effects that may prevent proper embryonic/fetal development.

--Mark Hill (talk) 16:37, 28 October 2015 (AEST) (5/5)

Lab 7 Assessment

1. Identify and write a brief description of the findings of a recent research paper on development of one of the endocrine organs covered in today's practical.


The adrenal gland is an essential endocrine organ responsible for the secretion of various steroidal and amino acid hormones. The adrenal cortex is derived from mesothelium, and neural crest cells contribute to the adrenal medulla, thus this gland has two embryonic origins. The purpose of this research article was to investigate the proteins and pathways involved in driving the specification of the adrenal gland's endocrine function. This was carried out using the adrenal glands of rats, isolated on different days during the embryonic (E) and postnatal period (P) (E14, E16, E18, E19, and P1). Proteome investigations of the adrenal glands at different stages allowed for 464 protein spots to be identified that resulted in 203 non-redundant proteins. These proteins were categorised into groups based on their molecular function and biological processes to indicate their role in adrenal gland development.

Findings of this experiment revealed that key proteins involved in the retinoic acid pathway, decrease from E16 throughout the embryonic development of the adrenal gland. Retinoic acid (RA) is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) important for organ development, cell growth, immune function and visual function. Therefore the down-regulation of binding and transport proteins in the RA pathway such as retinol binding protein (Rbp1), has interestingly shown it's little significance in adrenal gland development. In contrast, proteins of the steroid biosynthetic process and cholesterol transporter activity, greatly increased later in adrenal gland development at E19. As the production of steroid hormones is the main role of the adrenal cortex, the increase of associated proteins suggests the commencement of endocrine specialisation of the adrenal gland. These results not only support previous experiments, but will hopefully assist in further investigations concerning the mechanisms of the embryonic development of the adrenal gland.

2. Identify the embryonic layers and tissues that contribute to the developing teeth.

Odontogenesis (tooth development) commences in week 6 and this process has contributions from the ectoderm of the first pharyngeal arch and neural crest ectomesenchyme. The following are specific cells and tissues that contribute to the formation of teeth.

  • Ameloblasts - These cells are epithelial cells derived from the oral epithelium of ectoderm and produce tooth enamel. They are formed by the differentiation of preameloblasts that originate from inner enamel epithelium.
  • Odontoblasts - These mesenchymal cells are of neural crest origin, and their differentiation depends upon the activity of enamel epithelium. Odontoblasts produce predentin that undergoes calcification to form dentin, found beneath the enamel in the crown and below the cementum in the root of the tooth.
  • Peridontal Ligament (PDL) - This structure is comprised of fibroblasts, epithelial cells, undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, bone and cementum cells, and bundles of collagen fibres. The PDL provides attachment of the teeth to the alveolar bone, and surrounds the cementum (surface layer of the tooth root).

--Mark Hill (talk) 16:37, 28 October 2015 (AEST) (5/5)

Lab 9 Assessment

Group Project 1

Thus far, I think this page has a good layout and is heading in the right direction. The headings and subheadings are relevant and show that you have conducted literature searches to deduce what information needs to be covered. I suggest moving “Benefits” below “Technical Progression” as it is important for the reader to understand the process of three person embryos, before learning its advantages. You could also add information about disadvantages and controversial issues.

On a positive note, I am impressed with the way you have set up headings under “Technical Progression”. The consistency of discussing a model and current research provides a systematic approach to the viewing of your page, making it easy to understand. Delving further in each of these subheadings would provide a greater understanding of the current technologies available, such as including limitations and advantages, and statistics of their success rates. The timeline under “Cytoplasmic Transfer” could probably be incorporated with the timeline under “History” to equalize the amount of content under each heading.

The content under each heading still needs work in terms of editing and elaboration. There are quite a lot of grammatical and spelling errors such as “Timeline of Mitocondrial Donation” (missing an ‘h’ in mitochondrial), and some sentences aren’t finished. Proofreading would be key to making the information more understandable and effective to the reader. Information seems to be lacking under a few headings especially “Benefits”, “Hereditary Mitochondrial Disease”, “Mitochondria linked Infertility” and “Other approaches”. To make it a bit easier for yourselves, you may want to consider using a table, flow chart for pathogenesis of the disease, and a detailed diagram of the relevant heading. You have provided a table to explain the "Prohibited Section" however a very short description/summary of each source in the table would be very helpful.

I also noticed you have not included many images, videos or tables. These visual aids really help the reader to understand the content in front of them, and also keep their interest in the topic so it imperative to focus on them as much as the content.

The references have all been cited correctly and have shown you have performed adequate research to cover the important information for this topic. As you add more information, more references should be present within the body of your page.

Overall, I think this page has a really good framework for further information to be added. With more editing, content and diagrams, you are sure to produce a wonderful Wiki page.

Group Project 2

Collectively, this page is well structured and shows you have a well-rounded understanding of this topic. The introduction encapsulates the whole topic extremely well and provides a good framework for the rest of the page. The headings are relevant and follow the structure to discuss a disease, thus being very easy for the reader to grasp the key concepts of the syndrome. Perhaps consider using bullet points in your “Causative Agents” section and “Prevention” heading. You can also utilize numerical steps to describe the pathogenesis of OHSS to accompany the well-structured diagram, and to break up the text in your page.

I have also noticed that the page is lacking subheadings in a few sections, thus it prevents the reader from knowing the key points that are being discussed and explained. Together with the subheadings that are already present, they can also be used under “Diagnosis” for each diagnostic tool, “Genetics” for VEGF, LHR and BMP-15, and possibly in the “Animal Models” section. The content under each of these headings however, is very interesting and has been written well, showing you have gained a thorough understanding of OHSS. I am certain the content you add for the untouched headings will also be of a high standard. On that note, further explanation about treatments and complications of OHSS could be added. These sections are currently lists therefore they can be further expanded with more research and videos to explain things like surgery procedures.

The glossary provided is extremely beneficial however; more diagrams, tables, and videos should be incorporated to further enhance the reader’s understanding. At the moment it is quite content heavy and needs visual aids to make the page more interesting and easy to read.

This page also demonstrates that you have thoroughly researched each aspect of OHSS, and have used recent studies to support the content added. The resources have all been cited correctly, but perhaps search for more literature to further support your claims and theory regarding OHSS.

I am really impressed with your page so far. Using more references, visual aids, and adjusting the format of this page will guarantee a successful mark. Well done!

Group Project 3

Currently, this Wikipage is very impressive through the incorporation of numerous images, and tables. Because this page is mainly focused on PCOS I feel as though you should either remove “Female Infertility” from the title of the page or at least give an overview of other factors that may cause female infertility in the introduction.

The amount of images that have been used in this project page is highly commendable. The hand drawn image in particular, is very simple and clearly demonstrates the morphology of PCOS in comparison to a normal ovary. You have used a variety of diagrams to show various aspects of PCOS thus making the page very intriguing to the reader. Perhaps you could use videos or gifs to further explain diagnostic tools and pathogenesis of the disease.

I am also finding that there are inconsistencies throughout each section of the page. For example, under “Causes” there is a lot of information about genetic factors in comparison to the one line explaining that there are environmental aspects associated with PCOS. Perhaps you could look more into this aetiological factor and “Obesity and Diet” and refer to specific studies that prove this. Again for “Medication”, consider listing a few examples that are known to be an associated risk for PCOS. Also when discussing signs and symptoms of PCOS, you mentioned infertility. Since you stated in the introduction that PCOS is the most common cause of infertility, you should expand more on this mechanism and why it does this.

The layout of the tables and colour scheme is consistent, making it appealing to the reader. However for the “Current Treatments” table, consider adding another column to address the advantages of each. Success rates are provided but further explanation on their benefits would be great. Grouping prevention and current treatments together, it seems as though you forgot to add preventative measures in an obvious way. A few sentences on this should be enough to clearly state this. Also consider putting a glossary as you have used terms such as 'hirsutism', and mentioned hormones GH and LH without initially writing their full names.

Your group has shown extensive research and correct citations for each reference. As a reader of your page, I suggest that more of your research should focus on specific studies to support the content and on topics that are lacking important information such as “New Trials”, “Current Treatments” and “Causes”.

This page has a very good framework and structure. Adding more content, relevant pictures and references will ensure a great final page.

Group Project 5

This page is progressing really well. You have lots of content aided by some videos and relevant images. You have discussed extremely relevant aspects of your chosen topic, which is highly commendable, however the page seems very content heavy. I would suggest making the bolded headings as actual subheadings to make it easier for the reader to ‘jump’ sections. This is evident for sections “Surgery”, “Fertility Drugs”, and “Fertility Preservation in Men and Women”. To break up the text further and keep the page exciting for your audience, consider using bullet points to convey your information under the sections previously mentioned. You have used dashes (-) but perhaps the different colour and layout of the bullet points will make your page much neater. I should also note that the oncofertility timeline has been condensed well. You may want to move it to the top of the page for readers to understand the history of oncofertility and its progression.

The videos you have incorporated are very insightful and easy to understand. The same can be said for the images on the page as they help to explain the information you have laid out. The only exception I have is for the images under “Radiation” and “Chemotherapy”. Although they are relevant and simple, you may want to replace them for a diagram or flow chart that is more practical to the reader. For example, you could draw a diagram or flow chart of how radiation and chemotherapy eliminate cancer cells. Because you have a lot of text, try adding more images, videos, or condensing the information into a table, especially in “Surgery”, “Types of Chemotherapy Drugs” and “Fertility Preservation”.

Throughout the page, there are areas that have not been focused on as much as others. This includes “Artificial Insemination” and “In-Vitro Fertilisation” where there is very little content. These processes are currently really big in the fertility industry so with more research, I am certain there will be relevant articles to use for your page. You could also refer to these studies specifically to support the content, and discuss their success rates.

The references have been cited inconsistently, which can be fixed with proofreading. In particular, references 19 to 25, 33 and 44 needs to be checked as they have been incorrectly cited or are non-existent. I am also finding that content under a few sections are lacking in-text references, such as “Radiation”, “How Does Chemotherapy Work?”, “Types of Chemotherapy Drugs” and “Side Effects”. Be sure to add citations in these headings to avoid being accused of plagiarism, and to encourage further reading by your readers.

So far this page is very impressive. The amount of information you have included, and the useful videos shown, demonstrates your hard work and efforts into making this page successful. With more editing, visual aids and content, this page will be tremendous. Well done!

Group Project 6

This page contains a lot of interesting information regarding the chosen topic, and has been accompanied by some really useful images. I was particularly intrigued by the information you have provided for genetic techniques and hope to see some more images and videos to help your explanation. Especially for PCR, this is a widely used technique for genetic analysis and I am sure there are some really good videos on YouTube you can add to this section. For these procedures, you have also listed a great amount of disadvantages and advantages but it would be easier to read if this were in a table format.

I believe the headings are extremely relevant and cover the correct areas of focus for this topic. However, the use of sub-headings is lacking which makes it difficult for the reader to initially understand the areas that will be discussed on this page. You can easily change the bolded headings under “Indications”, “Preimplantation Genetic Screening”, and “Biopsy Methods” into subheadings with a minor edit. On that note, the table presented in the “Biopsy Methods” is quite confusing as the advantages and disadvantages of “Blastomere” are absent. Also, further elaboration on these headings is needed for the reader to gain an adequate understanding of the topic.

You have provided a really good framework to add more content on this page. This is especially required in your heading of “Diagnosis”. I think a more detailed explanation about how the diseases are linked to PGD is needed to avoid confusion. When I first read it, it didn’t make much sense so perhaps use an image of how these diseases relate to PGD could mend this.

The addition of a “Future/Current Research” heading is very well done. This demonstrates you have thought beyond the mechanics of describing PGD and are looking into extra sources. You may want to consider separating future research from current research to make the page more systematic, and to clearly show what scientists are looking to achieve later. The image in this section is also really good as it is clear and shows the process of extraction. More images, videos or GIFS may be needed to effectively convey the research and procedures to your audience.

Lastly, your reference list is extremely impressive. You have shown you have conducted numerous and successful literature searches and are utilizing them accordingly. An important thing to note is that you are lacking in-text references in a few sections, especially “Biopsy Methods”, and in your lists of advantages and disadvantages. Make sure to add these to avoid academic misconduct to allow your reader to do further reading if they wish.

Overall, this is a really good page so far. You have demonstrated great teamwork and strong efforts to make this page standout. I suggest you consistently edit your work, add more visual aids, and condense your information where possible to gain the mark you deserve. Fantastic work!

--Mark Hill (talk) 16:37, 28 October 2015 (AEST) You have provided some very good peer feedback here, hopefully the groups will make some of the recommended changes to improve their final projects. (17/20)

Lab 10 Assessment

Middle Ear Ossicles

Link to permalink image: Middle Ear Ossicles

The middle ear ossicles named the malleus, incus, and stapes, are involved in transmitting vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window, and ultimately to the inner ear. The are attached to muscles, tensor tympani and stapedius, to assist in reducing sound vibration and oscillations at the oval window. Embryologically, the malleus and incus are derived from the cartilage of the 1st pharyngeal arch, and the stapes is derived from the cartilage of the 2nd pharyngeal arch. In ossicle development, the malleus and incus initially form as a single structure from Meckel's cartilage, that are later separated by joint that forms between them. This process occurs within solid mesenchyme of the pharyngeal arches, therefore the ossicles are not functioning. It is only after birth that elongation of the auditory tube occurs to form the middle ear cavity that the middle ear ossicles are situated in.

Embryology Link Hearing - Middle Ear Development

--Mark Hill (talk) 16:42, 28 October 2015 (AEST) (5/5) Please do not use your real name on this website, use only your student number.

2015 Course: Week 2 Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lab 1 | Week 3 Lecture 3 Lecture 4 Lab 2 | Week 4 Lecture 5 Lecture 6 Lab 3 | Week 5 Lecture 7 Lecture 8 Lab 4 | Week 6 Lecture 9 Lecture 10 Lab 5 | Week 7 Lecture 11 Lecture 12 Lab 6 | Week 8 Lecture 13 Lecture 14 Lab 7 | Week 9 Lecture 15 Lecture 16 Lab 8 | Week 10 Lecture 17 Lecture 18 Lab 9 | Week 11 Lecture 19 Lecture 20 Lab 10 | Week 12 Lecture 21 Lecture 22 Lab 11 | Week 13 Lecture 23 Lecture 24 Lab 12 | 2015 Projects: Three Person Embryos | Ovarian Hyper-stimulation Syndrome | Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome | Male Infertility | Oncofertility | Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis | Students | Student Designed Quiz Questions | Moodle page

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link


  1. <pubmed>25887993</pubmed>
  2. Hill, M.A. (2015) Embryology Lecture - Head Development. Retrieved September 10, 2015, from
  3. <pubmed>21331089</pubmed>
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Natekar, P. (2007). Methotrexate Induced Gross Malformations in Chick Embryos. Journal Of Human Ecology, 21(3), 223-226. Retrieved from
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 <pubmed>22434686</pubmed>
  6. <pubmed>19902469</pubmed>
  7. <pubmed>14501341</pubmed>

--Mark Hill (talk) 08:39, 1 November 2015 (AEDT) Catei submitted (5)