From Embryology

ANAT2341 Course Work

--Mark Hill (talk) 20:29, 6 August 2015 (AEST) Thanks for setting up your page. We will be talking more about this in the Practical on Friday.

Lab attendance

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Please do not use your real name on this website, use only your student number.

2015 Course: Week 2 Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lab 1 | Week 3 Lecture 3 Lecture 4 Lab 2 | Week 4 Lecture 5 Lecture 6 Lab 3 | Week 5 Lecture 7 Lecture 8 Lab 4 | Week 6 Lecture 9 Lecture 10 Lab 5 | Week 7 Lecture 11 Lecture 12 Lab 6 | Week 8 Lecture 13 Lecture 14 Lab 7 | Week 9 Lecture 15 Lecture 16 Lab 8 | Week 10 Lecture 17 Lecture 18 Lab 9 | Week 11 Lecture 19 Lecture 20 Lab 10 | Week 12 Lecture 21 Lecture 22 Lab 11 | Week 13 Lecture 23 Lecture 24 Lab 12 | 2015 Projects: Three Person Embryos | Ovarian Hyper-stimulation Syndrome | Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome | Male Infertility | Oncofertility | Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis | Students | Student Designed Quiz Questions | Moodle page

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

Test Student 2015

Lab 1

Assessment 1: Find two recent research references on fertilisation or in vitro fertilisation and write a summary of the research article method and findings.

PMID 26285703 Does obesity have detrimental effects on IVF treatment outcomes? [1]

This study looked at the influence of BMI on IVF treatment outcomes, particularly those undergoing ICSI treatments.


Participants underwent IVF following standard procedures and embryos were transferred into the uterus at either 3 or 5 days. On day 12 of the ET, patients had B-hCG levels assessed and once exceeded 2000IU/L they underwent transvaginal ultrasounds to confirm pregnancy. A number of key parameters of the patient and the IVF-ICSI were considered and analyzed; including patient age, antral follicle count and BMI and number of retrieved oocytes, proportion of oocytes fertilized and total gonadotropin dose, respectively. Patients were then divided into three groups based on their BMI value; normal, overweight and obese. Those classified as underweight were excluded due to the small number of patients. Finally, potential correlations between BMI, total gonadotropin use and other parameters and success of IVF-ICSI treatments were evaluated.


It was found that there was a significant difference in total gonadotropin dose and stimulation duration across all weight categories. Specifically, it was demonstrated that both gonadotropin dose and stimulation duration were higher in participants classified as obese. Other findings included that rates of clinical pregnancy, spontaneous abortion and ongoing pregnancies were approximately equal across all three weight groups.

PMID 26264981 Aging-related premature luteinization of granulosa cells is avoided by early oocyte retrieval. [2]

This study compared the grnaulosa cell function across three different age groups; young oocyte donors (21-29 y.o.a) middle aged oocyte donors (30-37 y.o.a) and older infertile patients (43-47 y.o.a).


Total Number of Patients: 136

Group 1: ages 21-29; 31 patients

Group 2: ages 30-37; 64 patients

Group 3: ages 43-47; 41 patients

All subjects underwent controlled hyperstimulation and oocyte maturation, followed by a transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval. Oocyte donors were stimulated in a long gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist cycle and infertile patients were stimulated in microdose agonist cycles. Oocytes collected at retrievals were cultured and those classified as mature (presence of 1 polar body) were fertilised and further cultured in Blastocyst medium for three days. Real time PCR and western blot in the granulosa cells collected from follicular fluid were used to analyse the relationship between gene expression and gonadotropin activity, steriodogenesis, apoptosis and luteinization.


It was demonstrated by a down regulation of "FSH receptor (FSHR), aromatase (CYP19A1) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B) expression" and an up regulation of "LH receptor (LHCGR), P450scc (CYP11A1) and progesterone receptor (PGR)" with increasing age of patients that age related functional decline in granulosa cells were consistent with premature luteinization. Patients who received earlier retrieval to avoid premature luteinization demonstrated a marginal increase in oocyte prematurity, however, exhibited improved embryo numbers and quality as well as satisfactory clinical pregnancy rates.

From these results, the researches concluded that earlier retrieval of oocytes can be utilised to avoid premature follicular luteinzation, which is a key contributor to the rapidly declining successful IVF results in women over 43.

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:54, 4 September 2015 (AEST)These are accurate summaries of these 2 research papers. (5/5)

Lab 2 Images

Uploading Images in 5 Easy Steps  
First Read the help page Images and Copyright Tutorial.
Hint - This exercise is best done by using separate tabs on your browser so that you can keep all the relevant pages easily available. You can also use your own discussion page to copy and paste links, text. PMIDs etc that you will need in this process.
  1. Find an image .
    1. Search PubMed using an appropriate search term. Note that there is a special library of complete (full online) article and review texts called PubMed Central (PMC). Be very careful, while some of these PMC papers allow reuse, not all do and to add the reference link to your image you will still need to use the PMID.
    2. You can also make your own search term. In this link example PMC is searched for images related to "embryo+implantation" simply replace "embryo+implantation" with your own search term, but remember not everything in PMC can be reused, you will still need to find the "copyright notice" on the full paper, no notice, no reuse.
    3. Where else can I look? BioMed Central is a separate online database of journals that allow reuse of article content. Also look at the local page Journals that provides additional resources.
    4. You have found an image, go to step 2.
  2. Check the Copyright. I cannot emphasise enough the importance of this second step.
    1. The rule is unless there is an obvious copyright statement that clearly allows reuse (there are several different kinds of copyright, some do not) located in the article or on the article page, move on and find another resource. Not complying with this is a serious academic infringement equivalent to plagiarism."Plagiarism at UNSW is defined as using the words or ideas of others and passing them off as your own." (extract from UNSW statement on Academic Honesty and Plagiarism)
    2. You have found the statement and it allows reuse, go to step 3.
  3. Downloading your image.
    1. Download the image to your own computer. Either use the download image on the page or right click the image.
    2. To find the downloaded image you may have to look in your computer downloads folder, or the default location for downloaded files.
    3. The image file will have its own original name, that you will not be using on the wiki. You can rename it now (see renaming below), but you should also make a note of the original name.
    4. Make sure you have everything ready then for the
    5. You have the image file on your computer, go to step 4.
  4. Uploading your image.
    1. First make sure you have all the information you want to use with the file readily available. There is also a detailed description below.
    2. Towards the bottom of the lefthand menuunder “Toolbox” click Upload file. This will open a new window.
    3. In the top window "Source file", click "Choose file" and then navigate to find the file on the computer. and select the image.
    4. If you have done this correctly the upload window will now have your image file shown in choose file and also in the lower window "File description" in "Destination filename:" DO NOT CLICK UPLOAD FILE YET.
    5. Rename your file in "Destination filename:" this should be a brief filename that describes the image. Not any of the following - the original file name, image, file, my image, your ZID, etc. Many of the common embryology names may have already been used, but you can add a number (01, 02, 03, etc) or the PMID number to the filename to make it unique.
    6. If the filename or image has already been used or exists it will be shown on the upload page. If another student has already uploaded that image you will have to find another file. Duplicated images will not receive a mark, so check before you upload as you cannot delete images.
    7. In the "Summary" window for now just paste the PMID. You will come back and edit this information.
    8. Now click "Upload image" at the bottom of the window, go to step 4.
  5. Edit and Add to your page.
    1. Edit - Open the image with the "Edit" tab at the top of its page. You should see the PMID you had pasted earlier in the new edit window. Add the following information to the summary box.
      1. Image Title as a sub-heading. Under this title add the original figure legend or your own description of the image.
      2. Image Reference sub-sub-heading. Use the PMID link method shown in Lab 1 and you can also have a direct link to the original Journal article.
      3. Image Copyright sub-sub-heading. Add the copyright information under this sub-sub-heading exactly as shown in the original paper.
      4. Student Image template, as shown here {{Template:Student Image}} to show that it is a student uploaded image.
    2. Add - Now add your image to your own page under a subheading for Lab 2 Assessment including a description and a reference link. If still stuck with this last step, look at the example on the Test Student page.
    3. Done!

Students cannot delete images once uploaded. You will need to email me with the full image name and request deletion, that I am happy to do with no penalty if done before I assess.

Non-Table version of this page

Stress Relief....

<html5media height="480" width="640"></html5media>

Syrian Hamster In Vitro Fertilisation PMID- 24852961.jpeg

Syrian Hamster In Vitro Fertilisation PMID- 24852961[3]

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:58, 4 September 2015 (AEST) Image uploaded correctly with reference, copyright and student template. I have fixed the reference that had an unnecessary </ref>. (5/5)

Lab 3

Research articles associated with male infertility in humans.

1. Aydos SE, Karadağ A, Özkan T, Altınok B, Bunsuz M, Heidargholizadeh S, Aydos K, Sunguroğlu A. Association of MDR1 C3435T and C1236T single nucleotide polymorphisms with male factor infertility. PMID 26125837

2. V. A. Giagulli, Carbone, G. De Pergola, E. Guastamacchia, F. Resta, B. Licchelli, C. Sabbà, and V. Triggiani Could androgen receptor gene CAG tract polymorphism affect spermatogenesis in men with idiopathic infertility? PMID 24691874

3. Lazaros L, Xita N, Takenaka A, Sofikitis N, Makrydimas G, Stefos T, Kosmas I, Zikopoulos K, Hatzi E, Georgiou I. Semen quality is influenced by androgen receptor and aromatase gene synergism. PMID 23001776

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:58, 4 September 2015 (AEST) These relate to your group project topic. You might have used the correct reference format (as shown below) and included a single descriptive sentence about each reference. (4/5)

<pubmed>26125837</pubmed> <pubmed>24691874</pubmed> <pubmed>23001776</pubmed>


Design 3 quiz questions based upon any of the major subjects we have covered to date. Add the quiz to your own page under Lab 4 assessment and provide a sub-sub-heading on the topic of the quiz

Placental Development Quiz

1 Which one of the following is most correct? Primary villi are:

developed in week 2 and are the first development stage of chorionic villi, composed of trophoblastic shell cells.
the first stage of chorionic villi development and cover the entire surface of the chorionic sac.
composed of only syncitiotrophoblasts.
developed in week 3 and form finger like extensions that are primarily located at the chorion frondosum.
composed of only cytotrophoblasts.

2 Which of the following is the type of placenta found in humans?

None of the above

3 Which one of the following is the most common placental abnormality?

Chronic Intervillostis; the inflammation of placental lesions.
Vasa Previa; fetal vessels lie within the membranes close to or crossing the inner cervical os.
Placenta Previa; villi penetrate the myometrium and cross through to the uterine serosa.
Placenta Increta; placenta attaches deep into the uterine wall, penetrating into the uterine muscle
Hydatidiform mole; a placental tumour develops with no embryo development

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:07, 4 September 2015 (AEST) Well designed, though a few issues. Q1 not correct as second option (the first stage of chorionic villi development and cover the entire surface of the chorionic sac) is just as correct as the first. Q2 is better designed, though you might explain the other types in the answer and link to page with further information. Q3 I guess you are deliberately giving incorrect options (e.g.. Placenta Previa) here though your question suggests that these are all real possibilities. Once again, your answer does not help the student understand the topic. (7/10)

ANAT2341 Student 2015 Quiz Questions

Lab 5

Cleft Lip and cleft palate are associated with many different environmental and genetic causes. Identify and describe one cause of these abnormalities.

Cleft lip and Cleft palate (CLP) are one of the most common congenital birth defects in humans, occurring in approximately 1/500 to 1/1000 births worldwide. [4] Of these cases, approximately 70% are classified as Nonsyndromic; meaning that there is a likely relationship between both genetic factors and environmental factors. [5] There is a strong evidence to support the theory that CLP is influenced more heavily by genetic factors than environmental factors with incidence being greatest is Asian populations, followed by Caucasians and finally those of African decent, even in cases occurring after migration. [6] Cleft lip and Cleft palate can also be defined as syndromic, meaning that they have not occurred as a single, isolated event within a family and are of genetic origin. Those classified as syndromic (more than 300 different syndromic disorders) can occur following Mendelian inheritance of alleles from a genetic lovus [7] or due to repetitive chromosomal rearrangements. [8] However, the emerging research on the etiology of CLP suggests that the development of these congenital birth defects are a result of the complex interactions between both environmental and genetic causes, including the exposure to chemical pollution, hazardous cigarette smoke and occupational exposure. [9]

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:27, 8 November 2015 (AEST) (5/5)

Lab 7

1.Identify and write a brief description of the findings of a recent research paper on development of one of the endocrine organs covered in today's practical.

Paven K. Aujla, Vedran Bogdanovic, George T. Naratadam & Lori T. Raetzman. Persistent expression of activated notch in the developing hypothalamus affects survival of pituitary progenitors and alters pituitary structure Developmental Dynamics: 2015, 244;8 PMID25907274

The pituitary gland is known to be an endocrine organ of dual ectodermal origins. Rathke's pouch and the primordium of both the anterior lobe and intermediate lobe are formed by the proliferation of cells of the oral ectoderm midline. The neurohypophysis region which forms the infundibulum and pars nervosa are of neuroectodermal origin. Pituitary development is influenced by factors such as SHH, BMP and FGF that exchange signals between the developing pituitary and hypothalamus. The Notch signalling pathway is present in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary and is responsible for the downstream of effector gene Hes1 that is essential in pituitary organogenesis. This study evaluated the contribution of the Notch signalling pathway of the hypothalamus to pituitary gland organogenesis. This was achieved through the manipulation of Notch function (loss or gain) in the developing hypothalamus of mice.

Findings of this experiment demonstrated that a loss of effector gene Hes1 in the hypothalamus did not alter the gene expression in the posterior hypothalamus or the expression of Notch target Hes5. However, the study revealed that ectopic Hes5 and increased Hes1 expression is a direct result of increased activated Notch expression in the hypothalamus and is sufficient to disrupt pituitary development and postnatal expansion. This altering of pituitary development is a result of a disruption in the signalling pathways between the hypothalamus and the pituitary by persistant Notch expression. Therefore, it was concluded that persistent Notch signalling and Hes5 expression adversely affects pituitary development and expansion.

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:27, 8 November 2015 (AEST) There were 2 parts to this assessment, you were also supposed to identify the embryonic origin of tooth components. The endocrine paper is a good recent article. (3/5)

Lab 9

Group 1

Firstly, this is a very impressive wiki and I think you guys are setting the bar very high. The resources you have used and referenced are of really high quality and demonstrate that you have carried out extensive research and identified the information that is most relevant and important. The introductory video and all the images you have included are awesome and really help to solidify the information that you are presenting; they also add more depth to the page and provide further explanation and clarification of the information. The "Technical Progression" section is really great, well structured and provides a lot of explanation about the procedure that I found aided my understanding about major the concepts of the page.

My suggestions to improve your wiki page would be to have a second look at the layout and headings; I found they were difficult to follow and disrupted the flow of the page, for example the heading "Benefits" followed immediately by "Mitochondrial linked information" which was followed again almost immediately by "Hereditary Mitochondrial Disease". These headings made me stop and think about whether there was some information missing and I was just a little confused about whether the two latter headings came under the first. I really liked the inclusion of the legislation and ethics surrounding the topic (very interesting reading), however I am a bit concerned that they are the biggest portions of the page; I think this would be easily rectified by simple adding further explanations of the current research and journal articles that you have referred to instead of providing only one or two sentences about each. Lastly, it would be really interesting to present information about the controversial opinions/incidents surrounding the topics and also about the disadvantages of the procedures.

Over all, I think you guys have done an awesome job thus far and with a few minor changes the page will be amazing! Good Luck!

Group 2

Everyone seems to have already commented on your introduction, but it will not deter me from giving you another amazing high five! That introduction is so well thought out and structured that it has set up the entire page in an easy to read and easy to understand way- amazing work!! The page as a whole was fantastically structured and I found it very easy to follow which made the experience of reading and learning about the topic. Furthermore the topic was outstandingly researched with a wide variety of sources and really demonstrated the time and effort that you guys have put into it so great job; however, one thing that lets you down here is that there are some citations missing or large chunks of writing that are not cited which is a shame because it is evident that you have put in the time and effort. The language that has been used through out the page, although very formal, was appropriate and made it easy to understand the information. This was further aided by the inclusion of the glossary which is a necessity and was very well planned. I also really enjoyed the inclusion of the section "Epidemiology" as it provided a comprehensive snap shot and scope of the disease.

Some aspects that you could improve on include the inclusion of more images, videos, graphs and tables. Again, everyone seems to have commented on this, there is too much writing and it makes it difficult to follow and stay concentrated on the information. Another point to improve on would be further explanations about the treatment and prevention, this would be highly beneficial as it not only would provide information to students but also relevant and useful information to the public as the site is public facing. Lastly, the information missing below the “Effect on the Newborn” and “Animal Models” section will add another layer of detail and ultimately complete the page.

Overall, you guys have done an amazing job- the main area of improvement is the inclusion of more interactive and visual elements that can break up the chunks of texts and make the page more well-rounded. Awesome work and I look forward to seeing the end result!!

Group 3

As a first impression, this page is remarkable and provides a very thorough description, explanation and presentation of facts about PCOS. I really like the first image as it immediately caught my eye and demonstrated the differences between an affected ovary and a normal ovary in an easy to understand way. Furthermore the information under the "definition" section was very interesting, however I think maybe re-naming this would be more beneficial because at first I was a little confused about the topic, whether it was focusing more on female infertility or PCOS as a cause of infertility.

Other strengths of this page were the clear and well thought out lay out that allowed easy movement through the page and a logical progression of subheadings. Lastly, the "Pathogenesis" section is exceptionally researched and the range of resources you used highlights the extent and detail of your research- something that you all should be very proud of.

Some areas of improvement include providing more in depth information on some of the sub-headings in the "causes" section including environmental factors, obesity and diet and medication. More information on these areas would really aid in providing a thorough explanation and furthering the readers understanding of the topic. The inclusion of some more visual aids such as a video and maybe even some images or graphs/tabels in the "causes" section to break up the bulk of text. Finally, the inclusion of a glossary at the end of the page would be very useful- especially when considering this page is forwards-facing and can be accessed by the public; some sentences and paragraphs are very dense and use a lot of jargon and terminology that could be further defined in a glossary.

On a light note to end, the little touches such as the bold text throughout the paragraphs highlighting important words and key concepts, as well as the recurrence of the purple colour throughout the page really brought the wiki together and contributed to the flow and overall aesthetic of the page. Overall, you guys have done an awesome job!! Good luck with your final edits!!

Group 5

Awesome page overall guys- I think everyone has agreed that it is an amazing achievement and you have done a great job.

The amount of research and the number of resources; as well as the correctly referenced sources, is something the be very proud of. It also presents a very thorough and detailed explanation about the topic that creates a well rounded and highly informative page. I also really liked the inclusion of bolded subheadings under the "Surgery" section as it made the page easier to read; however there seems to be a little bit of inconsistency as later in the page seemingly random words are in bold text- I wasn't sure of their importance or whether you were going to include a glossary so I got a little side tracked and I found that section a bit more difficult to read.

A few areas of improvement-- there aren't many; especially to do with the actual writing and information of this page. The first would be to include some more images, videos, tables or diagrams. Although you have quite a few already, the sheer size of the page and the amounts of information beneath each subheading means that you really do need to have more interactive elements and visual aids to help with understanding the content; I found that sometimes I got a little lost within the large chunks or writing and it became more difficult to follow. There seems to be a little bit of inconsistency throughout the page and because there are such vast amounts of information beneath most subheadings, I think that it would be beneficial to restructure some of the sub headings such as "Bone marrow or stem cell transplants" into sub-sub-headings to aid with continuity and over all visual aesthetics of the page. Finally, another way to reduce to presence of chunks of information would be to utilise some more tables to break up the volume and density of information, especially because it is a very heavy (terminology wise) topic.

Over all you guys have done an absolutely outstanding job and I really look forward to the final product!! Good Luck!!

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:27, 8 November 2015 (AEST) I like your peer assessment feedback. My only suggestion would be to structure it in a more point-like form and organise as major/minor. (17/20)

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:30 , 8 November 2015 (AEST) Lab 10 assessment missing?

CATEI Evaluation

Q1. Being able to access all the lecture content and lab work throughout the entire course- especially prior to the lectures and labs to have an opportunity to prepare.

Q2. Having the information in a format that was more accessible. I like to print off all my notes for lectures and then add any additional information onto the slides/info during the lecture and it was difficult to do this when we could only access them on the wiki site. The inclusion of a PDF of just the notes would be useful.

Q3. The way that he encouraged student participation in the labs and lectures by consistently asking questions aided in my learning process because it forced me to integrate information to appropriately respond to questions. The use of models and videos was really helpful because it's often difficult to visualise concepts that are not easily illustrated.

Q4. Providing examples of questions that will be asked in the end of session exam; perhaps in the course outline we received at the beginning of the semester. Setting the weekly assessments before the lab to enable students to complete it immediately after rather than waiting a few days to be updated.


PMID 26244658

look at this[10]

Here's the list

  1. <pubmed>26285703</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>26264981</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>24852961</pubmed>| [1]
  4. <pubmed>16942766</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed>26343712</pubmed>
  6. <pubmed>9360903</pubmed>
  7. <pubmed>9360903</pubmed>
  8. <pubmed>16942766</pubmed>
  9. <pubmed>26343712</pubmed>
  10. <pubmed>26244658</pubmed>