From Embryology

Lab Attendance

--Z3459224 (talk) 13:46, 7 August 2015 (AEST)

--Z3459224 (talk) 13:17, 14 August 2015 (AEST)

--Z3459224 (talk) 12:09, 21 August 2015 (AEST)

--Z3459224 (talk) 13:51, 28 August 2015 (AEST)

--Z3459224 (talk) 13:20, 4 September 2015 (AEST)

--Z3459224 (talk) 13:24, 11 September 2015 (AEST)

--Z3459224 (talk) 12:15, 18 September 2015 (AEST)

--Z3459224 (talk) 13:57, 25 September 2015 (AEST)

--Z3459224 (talk) 13:00, 9 October 2015 (AEDT)

--Z3459224 (talk) 12:06, 16 October 2015 (AEDT)

--Z3459224 (talk) 12:08, 23 October 2015 (AEDT)

Lab Assessment 1

Article 1

PMID 25197669


Poor response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) is still a major problem in IVF. Many protocols have been tested yet the results have always shown a poor outcome. Poor ovarian responders (PORs) exhibit reduced levels of oocyte quantity and may also exhibit a compromised oocyte quality as there is a high risk of failing to implant.

This article proposes a novel treatment in the form of a luteinizing hormone (LH) pretreatment with the aim of using its ability as an androgen modulating agent to increase androgen accumulation in pre-antral and small antral follicles.

The study consisted of two sections. The first section included a randomised controlled trial with 43 young women who had a poor response to ovarian stimulation in at least two previous cycles. These patients were randomly allocated to 2 groups. Group A was the control group which received FSH stimulation while Group B received pretreatment with LH followed by the administration of FSH to fulfill the agonist downregulation protocol. The second section of the study entailed a treatment of 65 patients with the new protocol and then a comparison of these results to those from previous cycles.

The study's results indicated that LH pretreatment was successfully able to reduce cancellations in both the RCT and historical control study groups. The new protocol was also seen to have improved the oocyte's performance in vitro and also increased the live birth rate.


Article 2

PMID 24760136


Given that there are now more than 5 million children worldwide that have been born through assisted reproductive technologies, there is growing concern over emerging evidence that IVF children have increased risk of developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life.

The study investigates the effects of different dietary conditions and the process of IVF on the glucose metabolism of young adults humans and in adult male C57BL/6J mice conceived by IVF versus their naturally conceived (NC) counterparts. 14 IVF young adult patients and 20 control subjects were fed an energy balanced diet (30% fat) for 3 days. After baseline metabolic tests had taken place, they were subjected to 3 days of overfeeding (45% fat). Concurrently, a study with C57BL/6J mice examined the effects of IVF and and natural conception in adult male offspring on significant metabolic factors. To divide the effects of ovarian stimulation (OS) and embryo culture, the study also examined mice that were conceived after OS alone.

The results showed that peripheral insulin sensitivity was lower in IVF patients than in NC patients after the energy balanced diet and that that the systolic pressure was higher in IVF patients than in NC patients. The parallel study on the C57BL/6J mice indicated that both mice conceived after 0S alone and IVF mice had weights that were significantly less than their controls at birth. Metabolic tests shows that only mice conceived with IVF displayed higher fasting glucose levels, impaired glucose tolerance and a reduction in Akt phosphorlation in the liver following insulin stimulation after an 8 week chow or high fat diet (60% fat).

These findings suggest that humans conceived by IVF have higher insulin resistance and are more metabolically susceptible to high fat overfeeding. Data from mice suggest that it is the process of embryo culture rather than OS that leads to an impairment in glucose metabolism. Thus, these findings suggest that IVF conceived offspring may present with an increased risk of developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in later stages of life.


--Mark Hill (talk) 13:44, 17 September 2015 (AEST) These are good summaries of these 2 papers. I have shown below how you can make the reference appear above the text if you are not using in reference list. (5/5)

<pubmed>25197669</pubmed> <pubmed>24760136</pubmed>

Lab Assessment 2


Human Ovary [3]

PMID 26250560

--Mark Hill (talk) 13:50, 17 September 2015 (AEST) Image uploaded correctly, but name is not an accurate description of image as requested. All summary information, reference, copyright and student template are associated with the image.A better file name would have been "Overview of human ovary follicle development with histology" (4/4)

Lab Assessment 3

Impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women

<pubmed>25509968</pubmed> This study focuses on the effect of physical activity on fertility in three groups of women at reproductive age; normal, overweight and obese. The results from the study suggest that there was a marked improvement in fertility as shown by the ovarian reserve markers for all 3 groups, however it was most significant in the overweight and obese groups. This study is relevant to our project as it gives an insight into the preventative measures that can be taken for infertility.

Risk factors of polycystic ovarian syndrome among Li People

<pubmed>26276294</pubmed> This study examined the risk factors entailed in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrdome (PCOS) amoung Li people. Using the method of a case control study, questionnaires were given to female Li people with and without PCOS. Analysis of the questionnaires showed that family history of diabetes, family history of infertility, bad mood, lack of physical exercise are all high risk factors of PCOS. As a result, management of these risk factors can be taken into consideration when preventing infertility through PCOS.

Vitamin D and female fertility

<pubmed>24717915</pubmed> This article is a review focusing on research regarding Vitamin D and fertility over the past year. The review found that the levels of Vitamin D is crucial for women undergoing in-vitro fertilisation. It was also found that Vitamin D was beneficial for women with PCOS and carried a protective effect against endometriosis. These observations suggest that having sufficient Vitamin D in your body can be preventative for problems associated with fertility.

--Mark Hill (talk) 13:50, 17 September 2015 (AEST) These articles are relevant to your group topic. (5/5)

Lab Assessment 4

Mesoderm Development

1 Which of the following components is responsible for somatogenesis:

Intermediate Mesoderm
Extraembryonic Mesoderm
Paraxial Mesoderm
Lateral Plate Mesoderm

2 Which of the following statements regarding somites is incorrect:

Somites occur in a rostrocaudal direction on either side of the notochord
Compartmentalisation of the somites is mediated by the pattern of expression of the Pax gene
The first pair of somites can be seen in day 20
Somite initially forms the sclerotome and myotome
The paraxial mesoderm only segments into somites at the level of the body

3 Which of the following statements regarding lateral plate mesoderm is most correct:

The somatic mesoderm is closest to the endoderm
The intraembryonic coelom divides the lateral plate into 2 parts in day 18-19 of development
The splanchnic mesoderm gives rise to the connective tissue of body wall
The lateral plate mesoderm contributes to somatogenesis
The somatic mesoderm differentiates into the smooth muscles of the GIT

--Mark Hill (talk) 13:55, 17 September 2015 (AEST) Q1 is not correct grammatically and could have been better written (Gastrulation leads to the formation of the mesoderm layer that also separates into different developmental regions. Which part of this mesoderm layer is associated with the process of somatogenesis) It always helps to give the student something more to work with. Having said that, this is a very simple question and needs only understand single concept. (See also my following comment on Q2) Q2 gives the answer to Q1 so these 2 questions should not appear together. Your answer is correct, but a little of a trick question understanding that dermomyotome is an earlier component than the myotome. The question would need to be more specific to test this sequence concept. Q3 Tests an understanding of lateral plate development. I don't know why you talk about paraxial mesoderm in your answer as it is not part of the question? "in day 18-19" should be "between day 18-19" and always controversial to be so specific with timing. (7/10)

Lab Assessment 5

What is the difference between gastroschisis and omphalocele?

Gastroschisis is characterized by a defect in the anterior abdominal wall of infants and occurs in approximately 1 in every 12 000 live births. Being one of the two most common anterior abdominal wall malformations, it involves the protrusion of the small intestine outside of the body without the protection of a membranous sac. It can also involve the stomach and the colon. The defect in the abdominal wall is usually 3-4 cm and in almost all cases is located to the right of the umbilicus. [4]

While the intestines are outside the peritoneal cavity, the amniotic fluid in which they are suspended in causes irritation on the intestine wall and local inflammation of tissues surrounding the viscera, known as perivisceritis. Other complications involve poor peristalsis of the intestine and a large imbalance in nutrient absorption. [5]

Omphalocele is the other most common anterior abdominal wall defect and occurs in approximately one in every 4000 live births. Unlike Gastroschisis, the defect is more central and occurs between the abdominal muscle and the edges of the rectus. The abdominal contents that lie outside of the body include the small intestine, liver and other organs. Initially they are covered by a thin transparent membrane which becomes more opaque as it comes into contact with air. [4] [5]

While the exact causes of both have not been fully ascertained, it is thought that they are associated with a disruption to the mesenchymal differentiation. The most accepted theory regarding the pathogenesis of gastroschisis states that a blockage in the right umbilical mesenteric artery leads to infarction and a split in the umbilical ring which leads to the herniation of the intestine. With regards to omphalocele, various theories have been put forward including the incorrect engulfment of the abdominal contents back into the abdomen during the 10-12th weeks and the lack of central migration of the lateral mesodermal abdominal folds. [5]

Environmental factors have been associated with gastroschisis, including teratogens, maternal infections and poor prenatal care, however, genetic factors are seen to be more significant with omphalocele. Infants with omphalocele have more than a 50% chance of carrying a genetic syndryome such as trisomy 13, 18 and 21 as well as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. [4]

--Mark Hill (talk) 14:00, 17 September 2015 (AEST) This is a reasonable descriptive summary of these 2 abnormalities. (5/5)

Lab Assessment 6

Group Project

Lab Assessment 7

Identify and write a brief description of the findings of a recent research paper on development of one of the endocrine organs covered in today's practical.

This article focuses on the expression of key markers during early development of the pancreas in the distal foregut and bud formation up until endocrine commitment, a period in development that remains unexplored. The expression profiles of these markers at specific stages of development were compared to those of mouse embryos. The findings of the article reported that early pancreatic development was identical across human and mouse however the timings of specific events were different. This included the detection of the transcription factor, PDX1, which in humans occurs after the endodermal separation from the notochord and aorta by the mesenchyme. In mouse, this event takes place at an earlier time when the dorsal gut is still in contact with these structures. PDX1 and other transcription factors allow us to sequence certain stages and differentiating events of pancreatic cell types. This research is important as it provides stem cell researchers specific time points at which human pluripotent stem cells can be differentiated into a pancreatic β-cell. Differentiation of stem cells into pancreatic β-cells in vitro is crucial to develop drug therapy or cell therapy for diabetes.

<pubmed>23630303 </pubmed>

Identify the embryonic layers and tissues that contribute to the developing teeth

Teeth development involves contributions from embryonic layers such as the ectoderm and takes place through interactions between the oral epithelium and the underlying neural crest-derived mesenchyme. The two major cell types involved in teeth development are odontoblasts and ameloblasts. Odontoblasts are derived from mesenchyme and produce dentin and ameloblasts which in turn produce enamel. The role of enamel is to protect teeth during mastication.


--Mark Hill (talk) 16:18, 28 October 2015 (AEST) (5/5)

Lab Assessment 9

Peer Reviews

Group Project 1

Firstly, I think your page is very well thought out and includes a lot of relevant information. The sub-headings fit in well with the topic and allow for a coherent flow of information, however it would be better if some of the sub-headings were re-arranged. For example, it might be better if the benefits section is placed after technical progression in order to really emphasize the relevance and value of this procedure. Under some sub-headings, it would be good if you could write 3 or 4 sentences summarising that section instead of having the sub-sub heading right underneath, especially for Benefits and Legal Status. This allows for a better flow of information and also makes it look more organised.

In terms of media content, I think the introductory video is great in providing a brief overview of the whole topic. I also think your choice of images for the technical progression section is great in being able to visually summarise the written information. As I could not see an original picture in your page, I think it would be a good idea to include a more visually appealling hand drawn diagram of one of your timelines. You could have the timeline going horizontally with coloured boxes coming off of it to describe the events. This can be easily hand drawn or done in word.

It's clear a lot of research has been done due to the sheer number of articles that have been referenced, especially in reference to the inclusion of several animal and human models. I like your use of timelines however I think the timeline under prohibited section is quite laden with content and can be presented in a more appealing way.

Overall, I think you guys have done a great job in setting up this page. It has the foundations to becoming a very informative and useful page.

Group Project 2

The structure of your page is very effective in allowing us to easily understand the topic. The introduction is brilliant as it focuses on the main points of the topic while touching on a bit of its history and then finally stating the purpose of the page.

The hand drawn image is outstanding and presents the information in a very appealing way. As there is only one image so far, it would be great if you could include more images, especially for sections such as epidemiology and causative agents. For diagnosis, you could include an image of an ultrasound or X-ray which would give us a better understanding of the physical changes that are seen as a result of this problem.

I love the use of bold text to highlight the important features of some sections. It would be great if this is used in the other sections too as it really helps to focus on the main points.

The use of a table to present the symptoms is a great idea. It would be great if this was also done for treatments which is also divided into sections of mild, moderate and severe.

It's evident that a lot of research has been done to finding the information on this topic, however I feel that for some sections, there might be a bit too much information, particularly for Prevention and Genetics. If possible, try and make these sections more concise by focusing on the main points. For genetics, it might be helpful to have a sub-sub heading for each new growth factor or receptor discussed.

Overall, I think you guys have done an amazing job with this page. Apart from the minor changes here and there, there is not much more to be done. Great job!

Group Project 4

Firstly, you have done an exceptionel job in creating such a well organised page with the right amount of images and videos. It is also evident that a lot of effort was taken to make sure each section is covered comprehensively which is a mark of great teamwork.

You have added images and videos at the right places to make it easier for us to absorb the information, however I could not find an original image. Perhaps you could use a flowchart from one of the existing images to make your own simplified version using Word.

The sub-headings are very appropriate and ensure that there are no big blocks of text. My only suggestion would be to cut down on the background information regarding spermatozoa and spermatogenesis. While this is important in providing us with an insight into male reproduction, a paragraph at most would suffice. Under Male Infertility Treatments with ARTs, there are a few sub-sub headings that don't have any text underneath them.

I really liked the use of a table under Risks and Prevention as it breaks the monotonous style of reading paragraphs of text.

At the end of the page, it would be helpful to include a glossary as there are a few terms that are hard to understand.

I really commend you on being able to produce such a well crafted page that the readers can enjoy going through. Great team work!

Group Project 5

The page is very informative with a good balance of text, images and videos. Clearly a lot of research has been done to cover such an expansive topic.

The introduction provides a good overview of the topic and the growing concern for the issue, however there was no clear cut definition of the topic. The first sentence resembles the first sentence of the actual wikipedia page so it would be good to change it. It would also be good to include a few statistics so we can get an understanding of the scope of the issue. For example what percentage of infertility is caused by cancer? You can also have this under a separate heading called Epidemiology.

I liked that each section was covered comprehensively, however, there wasn't a coherent flow between the sub-headings. The formatting of the headings also made it difficult to know if it was a separate sub-heading or a sub sub-heading. I suggest that you should only underline the major sub headings and have all other minor headings in bold and in smaller size font. This makes it easier to read the information and makes it look more organised. The headings itself also made it hard to follow. It would be good to divide the page into the familiar sub-headings such as cause, treatment and prevention. For treatment, it would be good to divide it into treatment for infertility and treatment for cancer.

The chemotherapy is section is very detailed with an abundance of information which shows that a lot of research was conducted, however it does not need to be this detailed. The focus of this page should be on oncofertility and not solely on cancer treatments themselves. While background information on cancer is important, it can be delivered in a more succinct manner.

I liked the choice of images and videos for your page. I could not find an original image on your page. You can hand draw or use Word to make a simplified version of one of the existing images on your page.

It would be good to include a glossary at the end of the page to state the definitions of difficult terminology.

Overall, you have researched this topic well and have provided a very detailed analysis covering the several aspects, however a few changes need to be made to the structure and organisation of the page to make it more coherent.

Group Project 6

This is a very well organised and detailed analysis of the topic. An impressive amount of research has gone into delivering such an informative page.

You have the appropriate sub-headings which make it easy to understand the information, however there may be a few too many. See if you can try and merge a few sub- headings together. I particularly liked the breakdown of each biopsy method into the three minor headings of description, procedure and advantages and disadvantages. This is a good way to approach such a content heavy topic.

It would be a good idea to include more images and videos as there is a lot of text on your page. I could not see an original image on your page, so it would be good to hand draw an exisitng image or another image. You can also include more tables to break the monotonous style of reading paragraphs of text, especially when describing the advantages and disadvantages of the genetic techniques.

The laws and legal status section is a bit unnecessary as it is not an important part of this topic. A simple table would be good to summarise the current legal status for each country without having to write a paragraph for each.

I liked that you ended of by discussing current and future research, which not many groups have done. The last sub sub-heading for this section, "Utilisaiton of Diseased Cell Lines" does not have any text underneath it.

It would also be helpful for the readers if a glossary is included at the end of the page as there a few terms that are difficult to understand.

Overall, this is a very impressive page with an abundance of information. The topic has been covered comprehensively which is a mark of good teamwork as a lot of research has been done to cover such an expansive topic. Great job!

--Mark Hill (talk) 16:18, 28 October 2015 (AEST) (16/20)

Lab Assessment 10

Otic Capsule

Link to Permalink: Otic Capsule

Otic Capsule is formed when the inner and middle ear form within the mesenchyme and is located at the base of the skull. The mesenchyme differentiates first to cartilage which will form the chondrocranium. This initial bone will form marrow spaces which will disappear as ongoing ossification occurs. The remaining cartilage will undergo endochondral ossficiation to form the mastoid process of the temporal bone during weeks 16-24.

Embryonic Link Hearing - Middle Ear Development

--Mark Hill (talk) 16:18, 28 October 2015 (AEST) (5/5)


  1. <pubmed>25197669</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>24760136</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>26250560</pubmed>
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 <pubmed>24951080</pubmed>
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 <pubmed>24524464</pubmed>

--Mark Hill (talk) 09:58, 6 November 2015 (AEDT) CATEI submitted (5)

Please do not use your real name on this website, use only your student number.

2015 Course: Week 2 Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lab 1 | Week 3 Lecture 3 Lecture 4 Lab 2 | Week 4 Lecture 5 Lecture 6 Lab 3 | Week 5 Lecture 7 Lecture 8 Lab 4 | Week 6 Lecture 9 Lecture 10 Lab 5 | Week 7 Lecture 11 Lecture 12 Lab 6 | Week 8 Lecture 13 Lecture 14 Lab 7 | Week 9 Lecture 15 Lecture 16 Lab 8 | Week 10 Lecture 17 Lecture 18 Lab 9 | Week 11 Lecture 19 Lecture 20 Lab 10 | Week 12 Lecture 21 Lecture 22 Lab 11 | Week 13 Lecture 23 Lecture 24 Lab 12 | 2015 Projects: Three Person Embryos | Ovarian Hyper-stimulation Syndrome | Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome | Male Infertility | Oncofertility | Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis | Students | Student Designed Quiz Questions | Moodle page

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link