From Embryology

Lab Attendance

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:47, 6 August 2015 (AEST) Thanks for setting up your page. We will be talking more about this in the Practical on Friday.

--Z3345331 (talk) 13:46, 7 August 2015 (AEST)

--Z3345331 (talk) 14:05, 14 August 2015 (AEST)

--Z3345331 (talk) 13:57, 21 August 2015 (AEST)

--Z3345331 (talk) 13:01, 28 August 2015 (AEST)

--Z3345331 (talk) 12:35, 4 September 2015 (AEST)

--Z3345331 (talk) 12:14, 11 September 2015 (AEST)

--Z3345331 (talk) 12:12, 25 September 2015 (AEST)

--Z3345331 (talk) 12:17, 9 October 2015 (AEDT)

--Z3345331 (talk) 12:09, 16 October 2015 (AEDT)

--Z3345331 (talk) 12:14, 23 October 2015 (AEDT)

Online Assessment

Lab 1 Assessment

Article 1

PMID 26208448 Investigating the effect of ethnicity on IVF outcome. [1]


The study aimed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and IVF outcome which is still inconclusive. It investigated a large population (13,473) over the period from 2008 to 2012. The result of the study was then compared with the results of meta-analysed data from 16 published studies.


The participants included all women undergoing their first non-donor cycle of IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) at any Centres for Assisted Reproduction (CARE) clinic in the UK and Ireland between 2008 and 2012. Each participant was required to complete her demographic profile. A total of 17 individual ethnic groups were divided into seven main categories: White (White British, White Irish, any other White), South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, any other Asian background), Black (Black Caribbean, Black African, other Black), Chinese, mixed (White and Black Caribbean, White and Black African, White and Asian, any other mixed), any other and not stated. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the contribution of ethnicity to live birth rate. The data was then adjusted for age, body-mass index, cause of infertility, duration of infertility, previous live birth, previous spontaneous abortion and number of embryos transferred.


Both of the cohort study and the meta-analysed results showed that Black and South Asian women have lower live birth rates after IVF treatment compared to White women. Further research needs to be conducted to explain the difference of live birth rates between different ethnic groups and thus improve IVF outcome for all women.

Article 2

PMID 26131230 Effect of hepatitis C virus infection on the outcomes of in vitro fertilization. [2]


The study aimed to investigate whether HCV infection is related to IVF outcomes. It analysed a relatively large population (1,424) compared to previous studies. The samples were grouped according to their sexes and the effect of HCV infection on IVF outcomes was evaluated.


The samples including in this study were couples opting for IVF between 2008 and 2013 and were separated into three groups: Group A - 90 couples where the female was HCV positive; Group B - 78 couples where the male was HCV positive and Group C - 1256 control couples where both the male and female were HCV negative by seroanalysis and the presence of HCV RNA. The sperm concentration, progressive motility (PR) percentage, sperm volume, Normal Sperm Morphology (NSM) percentage and TZI (teratozoospermia index) were checked after the semen samples were obtained. HCV-Ab were detected by ELISA. After the IVF procedures, some calculation and statistical analysis were performed.


The result showed that no differences were observed in IVF indications and ovarian stimulation when comparing the three groups. Moreover, semen parameters from male participants including concentration; PR differences; volume; NSM percentage and TZI were similar in both the group with seropositive men and the control group. The effect of HCV infection on pregnancy outcomes were finally investigated and no differences on pregnancy rates per cycle were found.

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:23, 17 September 2015 (AEST) These are reasonable summaries of these 2 articles. (5/5)

Lab 2 Assessment

Hatched Blastocyst.jpg

Hatched Blastocyst [3]

PMID 24970979

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:23, 17 September 2015 (AEST) Image uploaded with correct reference, copyright and student template. I would not have included the original figure legend in the summary box as it does little to explain what the actual image is showing. (5/5)

Lab 3 Assessment

1.PMID 26239841 The ethical challenges of the clinical introduction of mitochondrial replacement techniques. [4]

The first part of the paper evaluates the three concerns about the safety of mitochondrial replacement techniques including whether it is ethical; persons with three genetic contributors and the trust of society. And then, two recommendations are made.

2.PMID 21059727 Ethics of mitochondrial gene replacement: from bench to bedside. [5]

Both of the risks and benefits are accessed in this paper after the briefly introduction of mitochondrial replacement techniques. And then the question of when are enough safeguards made to justify introducing mitochondrial gene replacement into the clinic is discussed.

3.PMID 25888328 Mitochondrial replacement to prevent the transmission of mitochondrial DNA disease. [6]

This paper discussed about the ethics and feasibility of mitochondrial replacement techniques. The possibility of preventing the transmission of mtDNA disease by MRT is first discussed. Moreover, the four big challenges mainly ethics are discussed.

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:23, 17 September 2015 (AEST) These papers relate to your project topic. I hope you have read them and that they are useful for the final submitted project. (5/5)

Lab 4 Assessment

Quiz for Week 1 and Week 2 Development

1 The characterization of the first week of human development is the formation of the:

all of the above

2 Implantation of human embryos typically occurs:

about 1 day after fertilization
about 6-7 days after fertilization
about 9 days after fertilization
about 12 days after fertilization
NONE of the above

3 The normal implantation site is:

external surface of uterus
uterine wall
uterine tube
all of the above

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:36, 17 September 2015 (AEST) Q1 is a little simplistic and does not require the student understand the topic, simply remember terms. Your explanation in the answer should provide more detailed information and perhaps links to other resources Week 1, Blastocyst etc. Q2 similarly asks the student to simply guess a date. I think you need to explain why this occurs then in relation to blastocyst development/hatching. Q3 is far too simplistic. I think you are beginning to understand how difficult it is to design questions that really test knowledge and understanding. As well you have not used the answer explanation to best help. (7/10)

Lab 5 Assessment

What is the difference between gastroschisis and omphalocele?

For gastroschisis, the defect in the abdominal wall is extra-umbilical. There is no membranous sac covering the eviscerated mass of intestines, and the umbilical cord is inserted normally into the abdominal wall and is not involved in the evisceration. The defect in the abdominal wall in gastroschisis is more common to occur on the right side of the umbilicus. [7]

A congenital hernia into the base of the umbilical cord is known as an omphalocele. The defect of the muscles of the abdominal wall results in the intestines, liver, and occasionally other organs remain outside of the abdomen in a sac.[8]

The characteristics which differentiate gastroschisis from omphalocele are the extra-umbilical location of the abdominal wall defect, the normal insertion of the umbilical cord and the absence of a covering sac or its ruptured remnants. [9] The frequencies of the two diseases are different as well. Gastroschisis occurred twice as often as omphalocele and is increasing in frequency. [10]

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:20, 8 November 2015 (AEST) A concise description. (5/5)

Lab 7 Assessment

Findings of a recent research paper on development of one of the endocrine organs.

PMID 26393762 Deviant development of pancreatic beta cells from embryonic exposure to PCB-126 in zebrafish. [11]

It is believed that those who exposure to co-planar PCBs and dioxins may be predisposed to diseases such as diabetes. The authors tested the hypothesis that embryonic exposure to a model Ahr-ligand, PCB-126 would cause structural and/or functional alterations to the developing primary pancreatic islet in the zebra fish. The embryos 24-48 hours post fertilization were exposed to nominal concentrations of 2 or 5 nM PCB-126 or DMSO. Defects including hypomorphic islets, altered islet migration, islet fragmentation, and formation of ectopic β-cells were found. And then, the transcription factor Nrf2a was examined. The result showed that embryonic exposure to PCB-126 can result in deviant development of the pancreatic islet and Nrf2a plays a role in regulating glucose homeostasis during development.

Embryonic layers and tissues that contribute to the developing teeth.

Ectoderm, mesoderm and neural crest ectomesenchyme contribute to the tooth formation. The neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells Odontoblasts differentiate under the influence of the enamel epithelium and form predentin. Ameloblasts produce enamal. Periodontal ligament holds tooth in bone socket.

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:23, 8 November 2015 (AEST) (4/5)

Lab 9 Assessment

Group 2

First of all, I’d like to say this is a fantastic wiki page. The key points for polycystic ovarian syndrome are well described. The page is well structured and the layout is clear and easy to follow. Making each section expandable is a good idea. The bold texts in lines highlight help readers catching the main points easier. One of the highlights of this page is the introductory. It is well written and the aim of the page gives reader an overview and a general idea of this page. The table and image used are relative to the topic. The background color of the table is pretty nice and the content in the table is still easy to read. The glossary at the end of page helps those without background knowledge understanding the topic easier. The references and citations are appropriate as well as the text citations. Some recommendations I will give will be:

1. More images and videos may be used so that the page is easier to read.

2. Recent research may be included in your page.

Overall, you have done a fantastic job. Thanks for your effort.

Group 3

This is a really good wiki page. The key points for polycystic ovarian syndrome are well described. The animal and cell culture models are pretty impressive. The use of images and tables make the page easy to read. The Hand drawn image is especially awesome. It explained the difference between PCOS Ovary and Non-PCOS Ovary really well. The purple highlighting is another highlight of this wiki page and the key information thus is really eye catching. Moreover, the references and citations are correct and appropriate. The page layout is neat and easy to follow. Some suggestions for your work would be:

1. The topic of the wiki page can be defined more specifically: whether it is female infertility or just polycystic ovarian syndrome.

2. A glossary at the end of page will help those without background knowledge understanding the topic easier.

3. The full term for the acronym ‘LH’ is described in the Animal Models under heading ‘Hyperandrogenism’. However, the acronym ‘LH’ is firstly used under the ‘Hyperandrogenemia’ heading. The full term should be explained at the first place. Moreover, the acronym ‘GnRH’ and ‘FSH’ are not explained.

4. Some sections can be described more detailed such as ‘Environmental Factors’ which just contains one sentence.

Overall, this is an excellent page. Good Luck!

Group 4

This page is really with high quality. The key points relating to the topic are clearly described. The page is organized very well which is neat and easy to read. The headings and subheadings are appropriate and easy to follow. The video is relative to the content and the images are well chosen. The choice of background color of the tables is pretty good which makes the page nice but still easy to read. The video is well referenced. Other references and citations are appropriate as well. I will make the following suggestions:

1. A glossary at the end of page will help those without background knowledge understanding the topic easier.

2. An animal model and the current research may be included in your page.

3. A hand-drawn image can be added.

Overall, this is a good teamwork and you have made a great page.

Group 5

You have made an awesome page! The page layout is really good which is neat and easy to read. Making the oncofertility timeline table expandable is a good idea. Lots of research and work have been done! The key points relating to the topic are clearly described. The use of images, tables and videos are appropriate and highly relative to the topic. I will make the following suggestions.

1. The references and citations still need to be checked, eg: the videos lack citations.

2. It would be better if you can use a hand-drawn image.

3. A glossary at the end of page will help those without background knowledge understanding the topic easier.

4. More images can be used since you have a heavy content.

Overall, you have done a great job!

Group 6

You have done a great job for your project! As we can see from the amount of your references, huge amount of research must have been done. The page is organized very well and the use of expandable table keeps the page neat. The images and tables used are highly relative to your topic. I would recommend that:

1. Instead of using the acronym, the use of full form ‘Artificial Reproductive Technologies’ for the topic name maybe better.

2. The introductory part is missing. It gives readers an overview of the page and helps readers without background knowledge understanding the topic easier.

3. The layout for the Biopsy Methods part maybe reconsidered. More spacing between three different methods will make the page easier to read. And also, the background color for the table may be lighter. Since the table is a summary of the three methods, I will suggest moving it to the end of the three methods.

4. A hand-drawn image somewhere on the page or a video can be added.

5. For the legal status, it would be nicer if you can classify these countries according to whether they are permit or prohibit.

Overall, you have made a great page. Thanks for your effort.

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:23, 8 November 2015 (AEST) You have identified 3 specific comments for each project that are relevant to peer assessment. (16/20)

Lab 10 Assessment


Link to permalink image: Eyelid

An eyelid is a thin fold of skin that covers and protects the human eye. Prior to the development of the eyelids, a small groove forms both above and below the eye (eyelid groove) at stage 16. And then, these grooves deepen, eyelid folds develop, first below, and then above, the eye. At stage 19-22, the eyelid folds develop into the eyelids and cover more of the eye as the palpebral fissure takes shape. The upper and the lower eyelids meet at the outer canthus in Stage 19.

Embryonic Link Integumentary System - Eyelid Development

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:27, 8 November 2015 (AEST) (5/5)

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:27, 8 November 2015 (AEST) I have no record of your CATEI submission. (0/5)


  1. <pubmed>26208448</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>26131230</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>24970979</pubmed>| [1]
  4. <pubmed>26239841</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed>21059727</pubmed>
  6. <pubmed>25888328</pubmed>
  7. <pubmed> 14248452</pubmed>
  8. <pubmed> 13964781</pubmed>
  9. <pubmed> 4266281</pubmed>
  10. <pubmed> 6449913</pubmed>
  11. <pubmed>26393762</pubmed>

Test Page 2015

Test student 2015

Please do not use your real name on this website, use only your student number.

2015 Course: Week 2 Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lab 1 | Week 3 Lecture 3 Lecture 4 Lab 2 | Week 4 Lecture 5 Lecture 6 Lab 3 | Week 5 Lecture 7 Lecture 8 Lab 4 | Week 6 Lecture 9 Lecture 10 Lab 5 | Week 7 Lecture 11 Lecture 12 Lab 6 | Week 8 Lecture 13 Lecture 14 Lab 7 | Week 9 Lecture 15 Lecture 16 Lab 8 | Week 10 Lecture 17 Lecture 18 Lab 9 | Week 11 Lecture 19 Lecture 20 Lab 10 | Week 12 Lecture 21 Lecture 22 Lab 11 | Week 13 Lecture 23 Lecture 24 Lab 12 | 2015 Projects: Three Person Embryos | Ovarian Hyper-stimulation Syndrome | Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome | Male Infertility | Oncofertility | Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis | Students | Student Designed Quiz Questions | Moodle page

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