From Embryology

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2015 Course: Week 2 Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lab 1 | Week 3 Lecture 3 Lecture 4 Lab 2 | Week 4 Lecture 5 Lecture 6 Lab 3 | Week 5 Lecture 7 Lecture 8 Lab 4 | Week 6 Lecture 9 Lecture 10 Lab 5 | Week 7 Lecture 11 Lecture 12 Lab 6 | Week 8 Lecture 13 Lecture 14 Lab 7 | Week 9 Lecture 15 Lecture 16 Lab 8 | Week 10 Lecture 17 Lecture 18 Lab 9 | Week 11 Lecture 19 Lecture 20 Lab 10 | Week 12 Lecture 21 Lecture 22 Lab 11 | Week 13 Lecture 23 Lecture 24 Lab 12 | 2015 Projects: Three Person Embryos | Ovarian Hyper-stimulation Syndrome | Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome | Male Infertility | Oncofertility | Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis | Students | Student Designed Quiz Questions | Moodle page

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--Mark Hill (talk) 10:47, 6 August 2015 (AEST) Thanks for setting up your page. We will be talking more about this in the Practical on Friday.

Lab Attendance

--Z3251292 (talk) 13:46, 7 August 2015 (AEST)

--Mark Hill (talk) 17:40, 7 August 2015 (AEST) Note Square brackets not curly for links. Curly brackets are for templates.

--Z3251292 (talk) 15:43, 10 August 2015 (AEST)Many Thanks

--Z3251292 (talk) 13:13, 14 August 2015 (AEST)

--Z3251292 (talk) 13:23, 4 September 2015 (AEST)

--Z3251292 (talk) 13:23, 11 September 2015 (AEST)

--Z3251292 (talk) 12:16, 18 September 2015 (AEST)

--Z3251292 (talk) 13:29, 16 October 2015 (AEDT)

Test student 2015

Week2 Lab1 Reference

Summary 1

PMID 26254037

Casillas [1] evaluated the in-vitro maturation, and in-vitro fertilization of cryopreserved immature porcine oocyte with different protocols. Immature porcine oocytes were vitrified with 7.5% dimethylsulphoxide (Me2SO) and 7.5% ethylene glycol (EG), followed by preserving with the cryolock protocol. Two test groups of cryopreserved oocytes are the cumulus-cell oocyte complexes (COCs group), and the denuded oocytes co-cultured with granulose cells (NkO-cc group). The un-vitrified fresh oocytes were used as the control group in experiments.

The in-vitro maturation was achieved by culturing in maturation medium supplemented with Luteinizing hormone(LH) and Follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH). Then the matured oocytes were subjected to in-vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The capabilities of embryo development of the test oocytes were compared.

Statistical results showed that the NKO-cc group produced higher cleavage rate and blastocyst production than the COCs group, which also suggested a higher embryonic development in NKO-cc group. And there was no significant difference between the control group and the NKO-cc group. Blastocysts were generated by both IVF and ISCI, Whilst IVF resulted in better blastocyst development.

Summary 2

PMID 26253435

Oxidantive stress caused by high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is believed to degrade spermatozoa generically and functionally. Crocin, which can quench free radicals were hypothesised to serve as an anti-oxidant protector, so as to improve the quality of sperm, and the in vitro fertilization rate.

Sapanidou[2] investigated whether the addition of Crocin in in-vitro sperm preparation media will improve the sperm quality by preventing them over-oxidated during the freeze-thaw process. Spermatozoa collected from 4 bulls were freezed, thawed and washed, followed by incubation with media supplemented with 3 different concentration of crocin (0.5, 1 and 3mM) up to 240 minutes. The sperm motility, viability, acrosomal status, DNA fragmentation index, intracellular ROS, and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. The author also tested the effects of crocin (1mM) in the IVF medium by evaluating the embryo development rate.

Results showed that spermatozoa incubated with 1mM crocin developed lower level of ROS production, lower lipid peroxidant and lower percentage of fragmented cells. They also maintained better motility, viability, and acrosomal function. Furthermore, the addition of 1mM crocin in IVF media significantly increased the embryo development rate. Thus, the author concluded that 1mM crocin improved the sperm quality and fertilization rate by regulating ROS concentration.

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:05, 17 September 2015 (AEST) These are good summaries. The second article could have included a description of what "Crocin" actually is. I would have also listed the references at the top as shown below.

<pubmed>26254037</pubmed> <pubmed>26253435</pubmed>

Week3 Lab2 Image

Embryo and Uterus stained with CD34 at Embryonic day 6.png

Embryo and Uterus stained with CD34 at Embryonic day 6 [3] PMID 26247969

Embryo and Uterus stained with CD34 at Embryonic day 6. Impaired formation of decidual angiogenesis in the folate-deficient group. N:normal; FD:folate-Deficient group; E:Embryo; L:luminal epithelium; G:glandular epthelium; M:mesometrial; AM:anti-mesometrial; VSF:vascular sinus folding. Scale bar: 500um(left), 100um(right).

Copyright © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:10, 17 September 2015 (AEST) Image uploaded OK, file name could have identified the species (mouse). You do not need the copyright information on your student page here, but in the image summary box, which does not contain the reference, copyright or student image template as requested. I have now added these to the image summary box and you should see what you should have done. (3/5)

Week 4 Lab 3 Paper

Topic: 3 person IVF

PMID 23608245 The ethics of creating children with three genetic parents. [4]

PMID 24382342 Three-Parent IVF: Gene Replacement for the Prevention of Inherited Mitochondrial Diseases.[5]

PMID 20933103 Mitochondrial function in the human oocyte and embryo and their role in developmental competence.[6]

PMID 26020522 Mitochondrial reshaping accompanies neural differentiation in the developing spinal cord.[7]

PMID 25421171 The impact of mitochondrial function/dysfunction on IVF and new treatment possibilities for infertility.[8]

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:14, 17 September 2015 (AEST) Thes papers relate to your group project, I hope they are useful for your final submission. (5/5)

Week 5 Lab 4 Assessment


1 From Implantation onward, Which of the following are not right:

Cytotrophoblast cells fuse and form a multinucleated cytoplasmic mass called syncitiotrophoblasts.
Cytotrophoblast cells lay around the blastocyst, proliferates and extends behind syncitiotrophoblasts.
Syncitiotrophoblasts invade the decidua.
Cytotrophoblast secrets hCG and support Corpus Luteum.

2 Implantation of human embryos typically occurs:

1 day after fertilization.
about one week after fertilization.
about two weeks after fertilization.
During fertilization.

3 Which of the following are not derived from mesoderm:

Neural crest

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:16, 17 September 2015 (AEST) You have not given your quiz questions a title (perhaps, Implantation and Mesoderm). Q1 " Which of the following are not right" should be written "from the following options select the INCORRECT answer". The question looks as if it is designed to test the difference between syncitiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts. Your revealed answer should have provided more information and links to resources. Q2 is not a very well designed question as it does not really test a developmental concept, some of your options are also easily excluded. Q3 is far to simplistic for an assessment item. (7/10)

Week 6 Lab 5 Assessment

Discuss how aganglionic colon is a gastrointestinal tract abnormality related to neural crest migration.

Aganglionic colon is also called Hirschsprung’s disease(HD), or congenital megacolon. It is the most frequent congenital disorder of intestinal motility and the most significant entity of pediatric intestinal motility abnormality, caused by the lack of enteric neurons in the distal intestine.[9]

Most entreric neurons arise from a multipotent cell population named neural crest cells, Which first migrate from the caudal hindbrain to the cranial end of gastrointestinal tract, and then migrate caudally along the entire gut during embryo development. A failure of neural crest-derived cells to colonize the affected gut regions will then cause the absence of enteric neurons from variable lengths of the bowel. [10]

Extensive research has identified a number of key genes that regulate neural crest cells' survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration in the pathogenesis of HD.[11] In addition, the micro-environmental factors also affect the development of the neural crest cells. For example, a small variance of different factors (eg. GDNF, NTN) in the hindgut can cause an inactivation of the receptor system and result in arrest of the neural crest migration.[12]

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:16, 17 September 2015 (AEST) You have simply listed references not answered my question. If you fix this before the lab this week I can give you a mark.

--Mark Hill (talk) 9:45, 6 November 2015 (AEST) (4/5)

Week 8 Lab 7 Assessment

Identify and write a brief description of the findings of a recent research paper on development of one of the endocrine organs covered in today's practical.

PMID 26348989 Hes1 and Hes5 are required for differentiation of pituicytes and formation of the neurohypophysis in pituitary development. [13]

The pituitary gland is essential endocrine organ which involves in homeostasis, metabolism, reproduction, and growth. It composed of two main parts, adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. The adenohypophysis derived from Rathke’s pouch, and consists of the anterior and intermediate lobes, where the neurohypophysis contains the posterior lobe, and originated from the infundibulum, which is an evagination of the ventral diencephalon. The neurohypophysis mainly composes two cell types, pituicytes and axons. The pituicytes in neurohypophysis are specially classified as glial cells, which are non-neural cells but regulate homeostasis, and support neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system.

The auther’s research group focused on studying the molecular mechanisms that regulate neurohypophysis development in pituitary, especially the of role Hes1 and Hes5 genes in pituicytes’ differentiation. Hes gene is a repressor type of basic helix-loop-helix genes. It maintains stem cells and progenitors, as well as the differentiation timing of them. Hes1 and Hes5 are important effectors for the famous ‘Notch signalling’.

By examine the expression pattern of Hes1 and Hes5 gene in mutant mice embryo (Hes1-null mice and wild-type mice), the Arthur hypothesis that Hes1 may control the evagination of the ventral diencephalon and the neurohypophysis development, and Hes5 effects as a compensation for Hes1 in this development. Further study with mutant mice embryo (Hes1-/- Hes5+/-, Hes1-/- Hes5-/-) at E12.5 revealed that in the absence of Hes genes, progenitor cell may differentiate into neurons but in the loss of pituicytes and astrocytes. This result is also comfirmed by immunostaining with anti-Sox2 antibody at E12.5 mutant mice. The infundibulum and neurobypophysis were found to be lost in Hes1 and Hes5 mutant embryo at E12.5 and E16.5 respectively. Taking together all the above results, the author commented that the Hes genes are essential for the development of pituicytes and eventually posterior pituitary.

Identify the embryonic layers and tissues that contribute to the developing teeth.

Teeth consists of three different types of hard tissue, enamel, dentine, and cementum. Both ectoderm and mesoderm layers contributed to the developing teeth (Tooth Development UNSW embryology). Ectodermal epithelum give rise to ameloblasts which then forms the enamel. Mesoderm develops into the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels. Neural crests derived ectomesenchyme has the major contribution in the teeth development. It differentiates into odontoblasts and cementoblasts, and eventually form the dentine and cementum. All the connective tissues in teeth (eg. periodontal ligament which holds tooth in bone socket) are also originated from neural crest cells. [14] [15]

This Summary is also referenced from:

Textbook: Larsen's Human Embryology (7th ed.) Chapter17 pp466-469

--Mark Hill (talk) 9:45, 6 November 2015 (AEST) Endocrine paper is well described. Though you tooth description is correct, I do not like you to cite embryology textbooks as sources. (5/5)

Peer Review

Group 2

This Wiki covers the topic well. The content is very well written and easy to understand. Images and texts are correctly cited and referenced. In some of the sections, eg, ‘Ovulation Induction’, ‘Avoiding hCG during Luteal Phase Support’, more in-text reference will need to be added.

It is a great idea to have some bold texts in lines, which highlight the main points of paragraphs, and help readers to understand when skimming.

The hand-draw diagram of ‘pathogenesis of OHSS’ is excellent. It is well structured, and easy to understand and memorize. It will be great if more images, diagrams, videos can be added to the other sections.

Overall, the project page is very well developed. Some of the sections need to have more work on though. It would be nice if more graphs and tables can be added to balance the texts.

Group 3

This project page is nicely organized, and well balanced with graphs, tables, and diagrams. It is wise to narrow down the topic and focus on the female infertility caused by polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. But it will be better if the other possible causes are mentioned at the beginning.

The image ‘ PCOS Ovary vs. Non-PCOS Ovary’ explains the differences between normal and PCOS Ovary very well. It will be better if the image is inserted after the texts which define PCOS as it causes confusion about your topic at the current location.

The use of colour highlighting is very impressive. It do make the important messages stand out. Pages are correctly referenced. Current scientific researches are nicely summarized and fitted into the context. It is impressive to include animal and cell culture models in the pathogenesis section.

Overall, the wiki page has covered the topic well. Contents are concise and easy to understand. It would be better if a ‘glossary’ can be added to explain some of the terminologies for readers.

Group 4

The topic is well investigated in this project wiki. It is excellent that you also include some background information on the structure and development of spermatozoa, which would help readers without knowledge in this field.

Images are properly cited and referenced. They make the page looked refreshing. Tables are used wisely to summarize information on ‘male infertility disorders’, but will need some more in-text referencing with the table contents.

Paragraphs are written very well. There are great efforts in rewriting and summarizing. It will be better if the texts can be simplified by some diagrams or lists, which will be easier for readers to get through. Overall, this project wiki is an excellent work.

Group 5

This is an excellent group project wiki. The content covers the topic in all aspects. However, there might be excessive effort in the investigation of ‘infertility’, ’Fertility Drugs’ and ‘Chemotherapy’, which occupied more than half of your project page. They are relevant to this topic, but might need to be consolidated to balance the page.

Images and videos are good choice in your page. It would be better if more images, diagrams, tables are added into your page to balance the texts.

Referencing and citing are excellent in most section, although some sections seem to be lack of in-text references. You might still want to work on them.

Overall, this wiki is an excellent work in investigating oncofertility. It is relevant to the aim of learning embryology.

Group 6

This project page is very well done. Clearly, you have done huge amount of research on this topic. And all sections of the page are well balanced.

I appreciate that you include the advantages and disadvantages of each diagnostic methods, which not only indicates your thorough understanding of the topic, but also make it easier for readers to compare each methods.

Images and tables are well chosen in your page. It would be great if you can add more visual aids in some sections because there are large amount of texts in some section.

--Mark Hill (talk) 8:55, 6 November 2015 (AEST) (15/20)


link to permalink image Duct cochlear duct The cochlear duct is an fluid filled cavity inside the cochlea. It located between the tympanic duct and the vestibular duct, and between the basilr membrane and reissner's memebrane. It derived from otic placode, otic vesicle, and originated from surface ectoderm.

--Mark Hill (talk) 9:45, 6 November 2015 (AEST) (5/5)

Stem cell presentation

PMID 26295456 PMID 26439174 PMID 24837661

Reference list

  1. <pubmed>26254037</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>26253435</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed> 26247969 </pubmed>| Nutrients
  4. <pubmed> 23608245</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed> 24382342</pubmed>
  6. <pubmed> 20933103 </pubmed>
  7. <pubmed> 26020522 </pubmed>
  8. <pubmed> 25421171</pubmed>
  9. <pubmed>26361414</pubmed>
  10. <pubmed>10917288</pubmed>
  11. <pubmed>23799632</pubmed>
  12. <pubmed>19196962</pubmed>
  13. <pubmed>26348989</pubmed>
  14. <pubmed>17209531</pubmed>
  15. <pubmed>12640730</pubmed>

--Mark Hill (talk) 20:09, 3 November 2015 (AEDT) CATEI submitted (5)