Difference between revisions of "Book - An Atlas of the Medulla and Midbrain"

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References To Literature
 
References To Literature
 
==Description of Figures and Plates==
 
 
Figs. 3-24. Series of horizontal sections passing through the medulla,
 
pons and midbrain of a new-born babe. The series is traced from the
 
dorsal to the ventral surface. The following sections, Figs. 6, 7, 9, 12, 13,
 
16 and 19 are after Barker, L. F.: The Nervous System and its Constituent Neurones. D. Appleton & Co., 1899. (Preparations by Dr. John
 
Hewetson.)
 
 
Figs. 25-51. Series of transverse sections passing through the medulla, pons and midbrain of a new-born babe. The series is traced from
 
the spinal cord toward the cerebrum. The following sections, Figs. 25,
 
28, 31, 33, 35, 36, 39, 41, 42, 46 and 49 are after Barker, L. F.: Op. cit.
 
(Preparations by Dr. John Hewetson.)
 
 
Fig. 52. KEY TO PLANES OF SECTIONS.
 
 
PLATE I.
 
 
Fig. 1. View of the dorsolateral and lateral surfaces of the nucleus
 
olivaris inferior.
 
F. dl. Facies dorsolateralis.
 
F. 1. Facies lateralis.
 
F. p. Fissura prima.
 
F. s. Fissura secunda.
 
F. t. Fissura tertia.
 
F. q. Fissura quarta.
 
L. p. Lobus primus.
 
L. s. Lobus secundus.
 
L. t. Lobus tertius.
 
L. q. Lobus quartus.
 
 
Fig. 2. View of the ventral surface of the nucleus olivaris superior.
 
S. p. Sulcus primus.
 
S. s. Sulcus secundus.
 
S. t. Sulcus tertius.
 
 
PLATE II.
 
 
View of the model from the lateral surface. This view is designed to
 
relate the model to the cord, the cerebellum and the cerebrum. The
 
cut edge of the cord shows on the extreme right. The following points
 
will make the position of the model clear: the dorsal and lateral funiculi
 
and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, the cerebellum, the fourth ventricle, the inferior and superior colliculi and the third ventricle.
 
 
The color system is as follows: all fibres are in white and black, all
 
nuclei in colors. Red represents the nuclei of the motor cerebral
 
nerves, blue the nuclei of the sensory cerebral nerves and yellow all
 
other nuclei.
 
 
Nu. et Radix N. vestibuli: The nucleus is distinguishable from the root
 
by its color. The ascending and descending parts of the root are to be
 
determined by their relation to the entering root-bundle of the nerve.
 
The part of the vestibular nucleus distal to the nucleus N. abducentis is
 
the nucleus N. vestibuli medialis; the part proximal, is the nucleus N.
 
vestibuli superior. The nucleus N. vestibuli lateralis (Deiters'), (pars
 
lateralis) lies in the vestibular tract just dorsal to the corpus restiforme.
 
9
 
 
 
 
122 DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES AND PLATES
 
 
PLATE III.
 
 
View of the model from the dorsal surface. On the right side is
 
shown the floor of the fourth ventricle; on the left, the structures
 
beneath are exposed. The position of these structures can be related
 
to the dorsal funiculi of the spinal cord, the fourth ventricle, and the
 
inferior and superior colliculi.
 
 
Nu. et Radix N. vestibuli: To be distinguished by the colors. The ascending root is marked by the most proximal of the three lines on the
 
figure; the descending by the most distal line, while the nucleus N.
 
vestibuli medialis is indicated by the middle of the three lines. The
 
nucleus N. vestibuli superior is continuous with the medial nucleus and
 
lies opposite the ascending root. The nucleus 1ST. vestibuli lateralis
 
consists of two parts, one between the corpus restiforme and the
 
ascending root, the other in the notch between the medial and superior
 
nuclei.
 
 
Nucleus N. cochlew dor sails: The more proximal of the two lines points
 
to the striae acusticae.
 
 
Traotus solitarius et Nu. alas cinerce: The former is in black and white,
 
the latter in blue.
 
 
PLATE IV.
 
 
View of the model from the lateral aspect. After removing from
 
Plate i, the following structures: the corpus restiforme, the substantia
 
nigra and the medial, lateral and superior lemnisci. The view is designed to show (1) the sensory nerves and their nuclei, and (2) the midbrain. The nuclei of the dorsal funiculi represent a way-station for the
 
sensory fibres from the spinal cord; the sensory cerebral nerves are
 
represented by the nuclei nervi glossopharyngei, vagi, vestibuli et trigemini. These include all of the sensory nerves of the region of the model
 
except the N. cochleae, which was removed with the corpus restiforme.
 
 
Radix N. trigemini (Sens.) : The proximal line runs to the root bundle,
 
the distal to the tractus spinalis N. trigemini.
 
 
Tract from Betters' nucleus to F. i. (3), and Fasciculus lateraMs (4): The
 
numbers are explained in the text.
 
 
PLATE V.
 
 
View of the model from the lateral aspect. The sensory nerves of
 
Plate iv have been removed and all of the motor cerebral nerves except
 
the N. trochlearis are now shown.
 
 
Fasciculus lateralis (2), and Fasciculus lateralis (3): The numbers are
 
explained in the text.
 
 
PLATE VI.
 
 
View of the lateral surface of the medulla sheet. The view can be related to Plates n, iv and v, by the position of the nucleus N. abducentis.
 
Fasciculus ventrolateralis (1): The number is explained in the text.
 
 
PLATE VII.
 
 
View of the model from a dorsomedian aspect. This view is designed
 
to show the central fibre mass, that is, the medulla, pontal and midbrain sheets, together with the corpus trapezoideum.
 
 
. Fibres running from Lemniscus lateralis to the brachium conjunctivum.
 
 
 
 
DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES AND PLATES 123
 
 
PLATE VIII.
 
 
View of the midbrain from the superior or cerebral aspect. This
 
view can be understood by comparing 1 it with Plates n, iv and v, which
 
show the stratum profundum album, the lemniscus superior and the
 
capsula nuclei rubri from the lateral aspect.
 
 
7 is a space in the model, in the stratum profundum album where
 
fibres of the formatio reticularis alba are related to the substantia
 
centralis grisea.
 
 
Fasciculus ventrolateralis (1) : The number is explained in the text.
 
 
 
 
HORIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 38, 56 and 62.
 
 
 
 
 
(126)
 
 
 
 
HORIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 66, 72 and 74.
 
 
 
 
 
Q26)
 
 
 
 
HORIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 80, 86 and 94.
 
 
 
 
 
(127)
 
 
 
 
HORIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 100, 108, 114 and 116.
 
 
 
 
 
(128)
 
 
 
 
HORIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 122 and 126.
 
 
 
 
 
 
(129)
 
 
 
 
HOKIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 128 and 136.
 
 
 
 
 
J
 
 
~
 
 
 
 
 
(130)
 
 
 
 
HORIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 146 and 162.
 
 
 
 
 
 
(131)
 
 
 
 
HOEIZONTAL (Frontal) SECTIONS 170, 180 and 202.
 
 
 
 
 
 
be
 
 
 
 
CROSS-SECTIONS 20-84.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
be
 
 
 
 
 
CKOSS-SECTIONS 94-146.
 
 
 
 
 
f
 
 
 
 
 
 
(134)
 
 
 
 
CROSS-SECTION 158.
 
 
 
 
 
(135)
 
 
 
 
CEOSS-SECTION 170.
 
 
 
 
 
N_^JJ
 
 
 
 
(136)
 
 
 
 
CROSS-SECTION 182.
 
 
 
 
 
(137)
 
 
 
 
CROSS-SECTION 190.
 
 
 
 
 
p ml
 
 
 
 
(138)
 
 
 
 
CKOSS-SECTIONS 200 and 212.
 
Na.mp.n.T.
 
 
 
 
B.c.
 
 
 
 
 
C.t.
 
 
 
 
Urn.
 
 
 
 
Fig-. 38, Series II, Section No. 200.
 
 
 
 
 
I(SPflS)
 
 
 
 
Lm.,
 
 
 
 
Fig. 39, Series II, Section No. 212.
 
 
(139)
 
 
 
 
CKOSS-SECTIONS 254 and 268.
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 40, Series II, Section No. 254.
 
 
 
 
 
Fig-. 41, Series II, Section No. 268.
 
 
 
 
(140)
 
 
 
 
CROSS-SECTIONS 290 and 304.
 
 
 
 
Nu.
 
 
 
 
St.gr.
 
 
 
 
 
Fig-. 42, Series II, Section No. 290.
 
 
 
 
D.betw.nax.L
 
 
NiLcl.
 
 
 
 
 
11
 
 
 
 
Fig. 43, Series II, Section No. 304.
 
(141)
 
 
 
 
CROSS-SECTIONS 316 and 330.
 
 
 
 
S.CL.p,.
 
 
NU.C.L
 
 
 
 
 
Fig-. 44, Series II, Section No. 316.
 
 
 
 
a
 
 
 
 
 
JS.a.p
 
A.C-.
 
 
 
 
N n
 
 
Ill .J-V
 
 
 
Fig. 45, Series II, Section No. 330.
 
 
 
 
(142)
 
 
 
 
CEOSS-SECT1ONS 338 and 354.
 
 
 
 
 
Bec.Br.Con].
 
J
 
 
 
 
Fig-. 46, Series II, Section No. 338.
 
 
 
 
 
n.m
 
 
 
 
-S.n.
 
 
 
 
 
Fig-. 47, Series II, Section No. 354.
 
 
 
 
(143)
 
 
 
 
CKOSS-SECT1ONS 372 and 384.
 
 
 
 
L.S,
 
 
 
 
 
NHL
 
 
Fig. 48, Series II, Section No. 372.
 
 
 
 
Aq.cer.
 
 
 
 
St. gr. c
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 49, Series II, Section No. 384.
 
 
 
 
(144)
 
 
 
 
CROSS-SECTIONS 396 and 420.
 
 
 
 
 
Fig-. 50, Series II, Section No. 396.
 
 
 
 
 
TtM.
 
 
JUL
 
 
Fig-. 51, Series II, Section No. 420.
 
 
 
 
(145)
 
 
 
 
GUIDE TO SECTIONS IN SERIES 1 and 2.
 
 
 
 
 
(146)
 
 
 
 
INFERIOR OLIVE.
 
 
 
 
PLATE I.
 
 
 
 
Lateral Surface.
 
 
 
 
T.i
 
 
 
 
Dorsal
 
 
 
 
 
Veatrul
 
 
 
 
FIG. 1.
 
 
 
 
Ventral Surface.
 
 
 
 
Lateral
 
 
 
 
 
Mesial
 
 
 
 
FIG. 2.
 
 
 
 
LATERAL SURFACE a
 
OF MODEL. |
 
 
!~
 
 
 
 
PLATE II.
 
 
 
 
 
s I
 
 
26
 
 
III
 
 
 
 
i o
 
 
I!
 
 
 
 
I
 
 
6"
 
11
 
 
 
 
DORSAL SURFACE OF MODEL.
 
 
 
 
PLATE III.
 
 
 
 
Stratum album
 
profundum
 
 
 
 
Nucleus N. oculomotor!!
 
 
 
 
Commissurae nuclei coll;
 
 
 
 
Fasciculus retroflexus (Meynerti)
 
 
 
 
Lemniscus medialls...
 
 
 
 
Nucleus colliculi inferloris . .
 
 
 
 
Radix N. trochlearls __
 
A
 
 
Brachium conjunctivum
 
 
Radix descendens
 
 
N. trigemini
 
 
Locus caeruleus.
 
 
Radix N. trigemini (Mot.)
 
Radix N. trigemini (Sens.) ,
 
 
 
 
Nucleus motorius
 
princeps N. trigemini
 
 
 
 
Nucleus N. trigemini (Sens.)
 
 
Nucleus N.
 
 
vestibuli lateralis f|
 
 
Corpus restiforme
 
 
 
 
Nucleus et radix
 
N. vestibuli
 
 
 
 
Nucleus N. cochleae dorsalis
 
 
 
Corpus restiforme
 
 
 
Tractus solitarius et
 
nucleus alae cinereae ""
 
 
 
 
Nucleus funiculj cuneati .-"''
 
 
Fasciculus cuneatus .
 
Nucleus funiculi gracills ....
 
 
Fasciculus gracilis
 
 
 
 
 
Nucleus N.
 
 
 
 
.Substantia fei
 
.Ventriculus qu
 
 
 
 
Brachium con;
 
 
 
 
Corpus restiforme
 
 
 
 
-Radix N. facial!
 
--Nucleus N. abd
 
 
 
 
- fasciculus long
 
 
 
 
--Nucleus olivaris i
 
 
 
 
--Nucleus N. hypog
 
 
 
 
INTERIOR OF MODEL FROM SIDE (one layer removed).
 
 
 
 
PLATE IV.
 
 
 
 
<
 
 
 
 
 
FURTHER DISSECTION OF INTERIOR OF MODEL FROM SIDES.
 
 
 
 
PLATE V.
 
 
 
 
 
LATERAL VIEW OF MEDULLA SHEET.
 
 
 
 
PLATE VI.
 
 
 
 
 
RELATIONS OF LONG TRACTS.
 
 
 
 
Capsula
 
superior
 
nuclei rubri
 
 
 
 
PLATE VII.
 
 
 
 
Radix N. oculomotor! i
 
Nucleus ruber
 
 
 
 
Fasciculus retroflexus (Meynerti)
 
 
 
 
Lemniscus lateralis*
 
 
 
 
Fasciculus longitudinalis medialis-
 
Formatio reticularis alba -,Nucleus olivaris superior^
 
 
Radix N. facialiSx \
 
 
Nucleus N. abducentis -s^.-l
 
 
 
 
Striae acusticseNucleus N. cochleae dorsalis
 
 
 
Radix N. vestibuli
 
 
Corpus trapezoideum'' ,*'*'
 
 
Radix N. cochleae- '
 
Nucleus olivaris inferior -;'''
 
 
Nucleus funiculi cuneati
 
 
 
 
Fasciculus cuneatus to
 
formatio reticularis
 
 
 
 
Nucleus funiculi gracilis
 
 
 
 
 
Lemniscus
 
 
medialis
 
 
 
 
Corpus
 
,- 'trapezoideu
 
 
 
 
^Nucleus oli'
 
' superior
 
 
 
 
Stratum interolivare lemnis
 
--- Nucleus N. hypoglossi
 
 
 
 
Nucleus olivaris accessorius rr
 
"Decussatio lemniscorum
 
 
 
 
Canalis centralis
 
Substantia gelatinosa (Rolandi)
 
 
 
 
THE MIDBRAIN FROM ABOVE.
 
 
 
 
PLATE VIII.
 
 
 
 
Commissure between Bechterew's nuclei
 
Corpus trapezoideum and nucleus olivaris superior,
 
 
 
 
Brachium conjunctivum (dorsal bundle)
 
 
 
 
Brachium conjunctivum
 
 
 
 
Decussatio
 
tegmenti dorsalis .
 
 
 
 
Capsula dorsalis nuclei rubri
 
 
 
 
Decussatio tegmenti dorsalis
 
 
 
 
Decussatio tegmenti ventralis
 
 
 
 
 
Nucleus N. abducentis
 
 
 
 
Fasciculus longitudinalis medialis
 
 
Nucleus reticularis Kucleus colliculi inferioris
 
 
 
 
Capsula nuclei
 
colliculi inferioris
 
 
 
 
Position of nucleus
 
N. trochlearis
 
Lemniscus superior
 
V
 
 
Position of nucleus
 
N. oculomotor!!
 
^Stratum album profundui
 
 
7' Lemniscus medialis
 
Commissura posterior
 
 
 
 
Fasciculus retroflexus
 
(Meynerti)
 
 
 
 
tiapsula superior nuclei rubrl
 
 
 
 
/ Nucleus
 
Fasciculus longitudinalis medialis fasciculi
 
 
longitudinalis
 
medialis
 
 
 
 
Lectus nuclei rubri
 
 
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[[Category:Florence Sabin]]
 

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Sabin FR. and Knower H. An atlas of the medulla and midbrain, a laboratory manual (1901) Baltimore: Friedenwald.

Online Editor  
Mark Hill.jpg
This 1901 book by Florence Rena Sabin (1871 - 1953) and her collaborator presents one of the very earliest atlases of the human central nervous system, describing the midbrain and brainstem. This atlas was extremely useful for later researchers attempting to both understand the development and mapping of the midbrain and medulla. Florence Sabin later work was as a key historic researcher in early 1900's establishing our early understanding of both vascular and lymphatic development in the embryo.



Modern Notes: Medulla | Mesencephalon | Florence Sabin

Neural Links: ectoderm | neural | neural crest | ventricular | sensory | Stage 22 | gliogenesis | neural fetal | Medicine Lecture - Neural | Lecture - Ectoderm | Lecture - Neural Crest | Lab - Early Neural | neural abnormalities | folic acid | iodine deficiency | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | neural postnatal | neural examination | Histology | Historic Neural | Category:Neural


Neural Tube Development
Neural Tube Primary Vesicles Secondary Vesicles Adult Structures
week 3 week 4 week 5 adult
neural plate
neural groove
neural tube

Brain
prosencephalon (forebrain) telencephalon Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, hippocampus, cerebrum (cortex), hypothalamus‎, pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles
diencephalon epithalamus, thalamus, Subthalamus, pineal, posterior commissure, pretectum, third ventricle
mesencephalon (midbrain) mesencephalon tectum, Cerebral peduncle, cerebral aqueduct, pons
rhombencephalon (hindbrain) metencephalon cerebellum
myelencephalon medulla oblongata, isthmus
spinal cord, pyramidal decussation, central canal
Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


AN ATLAS OF THE MEDULLA AND MIDBRAIN

By Florence R. Sabin


A LABORATORY MANUAL

ILLUSTRATED WITH SEVEN COLORED PLATES, ONE BLACK PLATE AND FIFTY-TWO FIGURES


EDITED BY


Henry McE. Knower, PH.D.

Instructor in Anatomy in the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.


BALTIMORE, MD., U. S. A.

THE FRIEDENWALD COMPANY

PUBLISHERS

1901


COPYRIGHT, 1901, BY FLORENCE R. SABIN


THE FRIEDENWALD COMPANY BALTIMORE, MD M U. S. A.

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Editor's Preface

This Atlas is planned to meet the practical need of some quick and simple, yet full and reliable, means of aiding the student to obtain, from a few sections (or from a series of sections), a reasonably clear idea of the important central relay-station of the brain here presented. (Though representing the human brain, the atlas can be applied to the study of the brains of lower mammals.)

The time allotted to a course in Neurology is generally so short; the sections to be studied exhibit such great special complexity of structure, due to the presence and association of many different centres in the narrow limits of the region; and the descriptions in text-books or lectures are commonly so detailed, or so general or diagrammatic; that many students get but hazy ideas of what is shown in their preparations, without spending more time in the effort than is reasonable.

We believe, and a number of well-known teachers in several of our large universities have agreed in this opinion, that this little Atlas will offer a valuable and new remedy for the difficulties stated above; and will save the student much time for real study, now often spent in getting started.

Supplied with these excellent drawings of the reconstruction, showing for the first time accurately and satisfactorily structures to be studied, the student can quickly compare his own sections with the figures of the Atlas and find the parts there clearly designated and explained.

Again, if, as is usually the case, a student has only a few cross -J-Tiio -narnrvn + Vi a A+laa with if.a 4-8 fiomrPS of


At the urgent solicitation of Professor Ph. Stohr, of Wiirzburg, Germany, Dr. F Ziegler, of Freiburg, Germany, is considering the reduplication of the model on which this atlas is based. It is expected that such models, from his studio, will be available within the year .



Florence R. Sabin, M. D


May 31, 1901.



Editor's Preface

This Atlas is planned to meet the practical need of some quick The need of and simple, yet full and reliable, means of aiding the student to obtain, from a few sections (or from a series of sections), a reasonably clear idea of the important central relay-station of the brain here presented. (Though representing the human brain, the atlas can be applied to the study of the brains of lower mammals.)

The time allotted to a course in Neurology is generally so short; the sections to be studied exhibit such great special complexity of structure, due to the presence and association of many different centres in the narrow limits of the region; and the descriptions in text-books or lectures are commonly so detailed, or so general or diagrammatic; that many students get but hazy ideas of what is shown in their preparations, without spending more time in the effort than is reasonable.

We believe, and a number of well-known teachers in several of our large universities have agreed in this opinion, that this little Atlas will offer a valuable and new remedy for the difficulties stated above; and will save the student much time for real study, now often spent in getting started.

Supplied with these excellent drawings of the reconstruction, its use with , sections.

showing for the first time accurately and satisiactorily structures to be studied, the student can quickly compare his own sections with the figures of the Atlas and find the parts there clearly designated and explained.

Again, if, as is usually the case, a student has only a few crosssections through this region, the Atlas, with its 48 figures of sections cut in two planes and drawn to resemble actual preparations, furnishes a good supplementary series of sections for comparison.

It is thus easy to understand the many sections which are not through particularly well-marked points usually figured in textbooks; and it is possible to get a very satisfactory idea of any structure, by turning to the two series figured, to the colored plates and to the index, with sections of Tracts in the Spinal Cord may be more readily understood and Spinal Cord. 'traced forward into the brain with the aid of this manual. The arrangement The text not only describes, in a convenient manner and fully, ' everything figured in the reconstruction; but the paragraphs of small print, and others referred to in the headings and index, explain just how to compare sections with the model, and how to trace nerve-fibre tracts or masses of gray matter, from section to section through this region.

The importance When it is realized that this model represents that part of the f the Braku brain in which the nuclei of origin of all the true cranial nerves are found; that association tracts between these centres are here included; that the cells and fibre-tracts are brought into intimate association, from their central position, with those of the Spinal Cord, Cerebellum, and Forebrain; the usefulness of the Atlas to the Anatomist, Physiologist, Pathologist, and Psychologist, whether in the laboratory or in connection with lectures and demonstrations, may be seen.

supplementary A short list of text-books and journals has been included, to " permit the tracing of certain tracts of nerve-fibres further up into the higher brain centres or down into the cord, and to encourage the student to seek information as to the many and varied sides of Neurology from reliable sources where more extensive references are to be found.

The Editor wishes to explain that his participation in this Atlas is confined to the suggestion of publishing the original research in the present modified new form, and to assistance in a considerable rearrangement of the text and index to facilitate ready reference. He has urged this publication in order to furnish the student, in a new and especially available form, a valuable guide to the ready

interpretation of his preparations.

HENRY Mo E. KNOWER. ANATOMICAL LABORATORY,

JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY.


AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

A description and the plates of a reconstruction of the medulla oblongata of the new-born babe was published in the " Contributions to the Science of Medicine," dedicated to William Henry Welch. 1 The model was built in the Anatomical Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University at the suggestion of Dr. Franklin P. Mall and Dr. Lewellys F. Barker. It was the original thought that such a reconstruction would not only show graphically for the first time the form and relations of the tracts and nuclei, but that it would simplify for the student of anatomy a region both complex and difficult. The shape of the tracts in the cord was well known, the forms of the internal capsule in the brain could be fairly well imagined, but the tracts between the cord and brain were too complex to give mental pictures without the aid of a model. The suggestion has been made by Dr. H. Me E. Knower, of the Anatomical Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins Medical School, that the description of the model be put into a more convenient form for the student; by means of fuller references to the plates and sections; by a rearrangement of contents to make the location in the model of any set of serial sections or any single section of the region an easy matter; by adding a full index; and by a list of literature containing a few of the most important references valuable to the student at the beginning of a study of the central nervous system of man or the mammals. I am indebted to him for the arrangements for this edition.

I wish to thank Dr. John Hewetson for the material which made the model possible. Both series were unbroken, and so admirably prepared that any omissions in the model are due not to the material, but to the nature of the structures in question. I am greatly indebted to Mr. Max Broedel for the beautiful illustrations of the model. They are so accurate and clear as to be equal in value to the model itself. It is through the kindness of Dr. Henry M. Hurd that the plates of these drawings can be used for the present edition. Dr. Franklin P. Mall controlled the construction of the model, Dr. Lewellys F. Barker its study. I acknowledge with thanks their unfailing help and interest.


1 Model of the Medulla, Pons and Midbrain of a New-born Babe, by Florence R. Sabin. Contributions to the Science of Medicine, and vol. ix of the Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports.


Contents

Chapter I.

Introductory

Method Of Using Atlas

Chapter Ii. The Long Tracts.

A. In The Medulla (Medulla Sheet)

B. In The Pons And Midbrain (Lemnisci And Formatio Reticularis)

Chapter Iii. The Columns Of The Spinal Cord.

A. Ventrolateral Column

(A) Ventral Part

(&) Dorsal Part

B. Dorsal Column

Chapter Iv. Cerebellar Peduncles.

Inferior Peduncle, Or Corpus Restiforme

Superior Peduncle, Or Brachium Conjunctivum

Chapter V. The Cerebral Nerves And Their Nuclei. Median Group (Red In Model).

(A) N. Hypoglossus, XII

Nucleus N., XII

(&) N. Abducens, VI

Nucleus N., VI

(C) N. Trochlearis, IV

Nucleus N., Iv 56

(D) N. Oculomotorius, III

Nucleus N., III

Chapter Vi. The Cerebral Nerves And Their Nuclei (Continued). Lateral Group.

A. Motor Nerves (Red In Model)

(A) N. Accessprius, XI

Nucleus N., XI.


(B) N. Glossopharyngeus Et N. Vagus, Ix And X

Nucleus N., Ix And X

(C) N. Facialis, VII

Nucleus N., VII

(D) N. Trigeminus, V

Nucleus N., V

B. Sensory Nerves (Blue In Model)

(A) N. Glossopharyngeus Et N. Vagus, Ix And X

Nucleus N. , Ix And X

(&) N. Trigeminus, V

Nucleus N., V

(C) N. Vestibuli, Viii

Nuclei N. Vestibuli

(D) N. Cochleae, Viii

Nuclei N. Cochlese

Chapter Vii. The Inferior And Accessory Olives 86

Chapter Viii. The Midbrain.

1. Relation Of Its Structures To The Central Fibre Mass

2. The Nucleus Ruber (Red Nucleus) And Its Capsule

3. The Fasciculus Retroflexus (Meynerti)

4. The Decussatio Tegmenti Dorsalis (Meynerti)

5. The Decussatio Tegmenti Ventralis Of Forel

6. Stratum Album Prof Undum (Deep White Layer)

7. Substantia Centralis Grisea (Central Gray Matter)

8. The Pyramidal Tract

9. Substantia Nigra

Chapter Ix. The Formatio Reticularis Alba And Grisea

General Summary of what Is shown In Reconstruction

References To Literature