ANAT2341 Lab 5 - Abnormalities

From Embryology
Lab 5: Introduction | Trilaminar Embryo | Early Embryo | Late Embryo | Fetal | Postnatal | Abnormalities | Online Assessment

Atresia and Stenosis

The gastrointestinal tract can be considered as a simple tube or pipe, anything which blocks the tube (at different levels) can have different effects.

Gastrointestinal tract duplication sites based upon 78 clinical studies.[1]

There are two types of abnormalities that impact upon the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract lumen.

Atresia - interuption of the lumen (esophageal atresia, duodenal atresia, extrahepatic biliary atresia, anorectal atresia)

Stenosis - narrowing of the lumen (duodenal stenosis, pyloric stenosis)

Duplication - incomplete recanalization resulting in parallel lumens, this is really a specialized form of stenosis.

Persistent Vitelline Duct

Meckel's diverticulum 01.jpg Endoderm cartoon.jpg

Meckel's Diverticulum

Abnormal Gut Rotation

Intestinal malrotation.jpg Presents clinically in symptomatic malrotation as:

Neonates - bilious vomiting and bloody stools.

Newborn - bilious vomiting and failure to thrive.

Infants - recurrent abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, malabsorption/diarrhea, peritonitis/septic shock, solid food intolerance, common bile duct obstruction, abdominal distention, and failure to thrive.

Ladd's Bands - are a series of bands crossing the duodenum which can cause duodenal obstruction.

Midgut Volvulus, Situs Inversus

Links: Gastrointestinal Tract - Abnormalities

Organ Abnormalities

Extrahepatic Biliary Atresia, Accessory Pancreatic Tissue, Anular Pancreas, Accessory Spleen

Motility Disorders

Aganglionic colon (Hirschprung's disease) - abnormalities of neural crest migration.

Related Abnormalities

Abdominal Wall Defects

Gastroschisis 01.jpg

Gastroschisis is a developmental abnormality occurs due to an abdominal wall defect, that allows the evisceration of the intestine.

  • Development of gastroschisis: Review of hypotheses, a novel hypothesis, and implications for research. Am J Med Genet A. 2007 Jan 17 PMID17230493


Bilateral cleft palate

Cleft lip and palate can affect postnatal nutrition, due to the inability of the infant to form a liquid seal on the breast during feeding.

Links: Cleft Palate Foundation - feeding your baby

Cleft Lip

An abnormality of face development leading to an opening in the upper lip. Due to failure during the embryonic period of maxillary process fusion with the frontonasal prominence. Clefting of the lip and or palate occurs with 300+ different abnormalities. Depending on many factors, this cleft may extend further into the oral cavity leading to a cleft palate. In most cases clefting of the lip and palate can be repaired by surgery.

Cleft Palate

An abnormality of face development leading to an opening in the palate, the roof of the oral cavity between the mouth and the nose. If it occurs alone, due to failure during the early fetal period of palatal shelves. Clefting of the lip and or palate occurs with 300+ different abnormalities. In most cases clefting of the lip and palate can be repaired by surgery.


A genetic enzyme deficiency disorder, the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase metabolizes galactose in milk sugar. The incidence is approximately 1 in 60,000 births among Caucasians and the rate is different for other groups.

Links: Normal Development - Milk | MedlinePlus - Galactosemia

Meconium Peritonitis

A condition caused by intra-uterine intestinal perforation leading to a sterile inflammatory reaction of the peritoneum.

Abnormalities and Development

  • How these abnormalities may be generated in development.
  • When they first occur.
  • How can we detect these abnormalites.
  • Do the abnormalites have a direct or indirect effect on the GIT.
  • How serious to the embryo, fetus, newborn, child and adult are these conditions.
  • What therapeutics are available for these conditions.

Lab 5: Introduction | Trilaminar Embryo | Early Embryo | Late Embryo | Fetal | Postnatal | Abnormalities | Online Assessment

ANAT2341 Course Timetable  
Week (Mon) Lecture 1 (Mon 1-2pm) Lecture 2 (Tue 3-4pm) Practical (Fri 1-3pm)
Week 2 (1 Aug) Introduction Fertilization Lab 1
Week 3 (8 Aug) Week 1 and 2 Week 3 Lab 2
Week 4 (15 Aug) Mesoderm Ectoderm Lab 3
Week 5 (22 Aug) Early Vascular Placenta Lab 4
Week 6 (29 Aug) Gastrointestinal Respiratory Lab 5
Week 7 (5 Sep) Head Neural Crest Lab 6
Week 8 (12 Sep) Musculoskeletal Limb Development Lab 7
Week 9 (19 Sep) Renal Genital Lab 8
Mid-semester break
Week 10 (3 Oct) Public Holiday Stem Cells Lab 9
Week 11 (10 Oct) Integumentary Endocrine Lab 10
Week 12 (17 Oct) Heart Sensory Lab 11
Week 13 (24 Oct) Fetal Birth and Revision Lab 12

ANAT2341 2016: Moodle page | ECHO360 | Textbooks | Students 2016 | Projects 2016

ANAT2341Lectures - Textbook chapters  
Lecture (Timetable) Textbook - The Developing Human Textbook - Larsen's Human Embryology
Embryology Introduction Introduction to the Developing Human
Fertilization First Week of Human Development Gametogenesis, Fertilization, and First Week
Week 1 and 2 Second Week of Human Development Second Week: Becoming Bilaminar and Fully Implanting
Week 3 Third Week of Human Development Third Week: Becoming Trilaminar and Establishing Body Axes
Mesoderm Fourth to Eighth Weeks of Human Development Fourth Week: Forming the Embryo
Ectoderm Nervous System Development of the Central Nervous System
Early Vascular Cardiovascular System Development of the Vasculature
Placenta Placenta and Fetal Membranes Development of the Vasculature
Endoderm - GIT Alimentary System Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract
Respiratory Respiratory System Development of the Respiratory System and Body Cavities
Head Pharyngeal Apparatus, Face, and Neck Development of the Pharyngeal Apparatus and Face
Neural Crest Nervous System Development of the Peripheral Nervous System
Musculoskeletal Muscular System Development of the Musculoskeletal System
Limb Development of Limbs Development of the Limbs
Renal Urogenital System Development of the Urinary System
Genital Urogenital System Development of the Urinary System
Stem Cells
Integumentary Integumentary System Development of the Skin and Its Derivatives
Endocrine Covered through various chapters (see also alternate text), read head and neck, neural crest and renal chapters.
Endocrinology Textbook - Chapter Titles  
Nussey S. and Whitehead S. Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach (2001) Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers; ISBN-10: 1-85996-252-1.

Full Table of Contents

Heart Cardiovascular System Development of the Heart
Sensory Development of Eyes and Ears Development of the Eyes
Fetal Fetal Period Fetal Development and the Fetus as Patient
Birth and Revision
Additional Textbook Content - The following concepts also form part of the theory material covered throughout the course.
  1. Principles and Mechanisms of Morphogenesis and Dysmorphogenesis
  2. Common Signaling Pathways Used During Development
  3. Human Birth Defect

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, May 18) Embryology ANAT2341 Lab 5 - Abnormalities. Retrieved from

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2024, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G
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