|Embryology - 26 Sep 2017 Expand to Translate|
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|Educational Use Only - Embryology is an educational resource for learning concepts in embryological development, no clinical information is provided and content should not be used for any other purpose.|
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Musculoskeletal Abnormalities
- 4 Renal Abnormalities
- 5 Gastrointestinal Tract Abnormalities
- 6 Gene Tests
- 7 References
- 8 Additional Images
- 9 External Links
- 10 Glossary Links
There are a number of different neonatal screening (newborn screening) programs in different countries testing for various "common" congenital abnormalities and infections. Perinatally the infant is tested physically for hip displasia and may have an x-ray to establish the extent of musculoskeletal abnormality. There are also a number of other systems (renal, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, endocrine and genital) that can be assessed postnatally by x-ray alone or in combination with tracers or contrast agents.
Radiation is a known teratogen and can affect development, but there is ongoing discussion as to the associated fetal risk and that to maternal health of a range of conditions that are detected or analysed using x-radiation.
|Neonatal Diagnosis: APGAR test | Guthrie test | Hearing test | Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG) | X-ray | Tandem mass spectrometry | Classification of Diseases|
- Prenatal diagnosis - number of different techniques (non-invasive, invasive) for determining normal development
- Neonatal diagnosis (APGAR test, Guthrie test, Hearing test)
- Maternal diagnosis - often pregnancy will expose maternal health problems
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Committee Opinion No. 723: Guidelines for Diagnostic Imaging During Pregnancy and Lactation. Obstet Gynecol: 2017, 130(4);e210-e216 PubMed 28937575
Committee Opinion No. 723 Summary: Guidelines for Diagnostic Imaging During Pregnancy and Lactation. Obstet Gynecol: 2017, 130(4);933-934 PubMed 28937570
Wee-Shian Chan Diagnosis of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy. Thromb. Res.: 2017; PubMed 28935434
Robert Gagnon No. 231-Guidelines for the Management of Vasa Previa. J Obstet Gynaecol Can: 2017, 39(10);e415-e421 PubMed 28935064
Lucie Morin, Kenneth Lim No. 260-Ultrasound in Twin Pregnancies. J Obstet Gynaecol Can: 2017, 39(10);e398-e411 PubMed 28935062
Congenital Hip Dislocation
(>>) right hip dysplasia is shown.
Fetal bowing and hypoplasia of the femur, tibia and fibula, and talipes equinovarus.
- X-ray Links: Fetal skeleton | Fetal skeleton abnormal | Fetal skeleton abnormal | Musculoskeletal Abnormal | Musculoskeletal | X-ray
Gastrointestinal Tract Abnormalities
A new site developed by NIH "GeneTests" provides medical genetics information resources available at no cost to all interested persons. It contains educational information, a directory of genetic testing laboratories and links to other databases such as OMIM.
Links: Gene Tests
- Kenneth Hodson, Jason Waugh, Catherine Nelson-Piercy Early life radiation exposure. Withholding imaging in pregnancy may be hazardous. BMJ: 2011, 342;d1486 PubMed 21406518
- Eduardo L Franco, Guy-Anne Turgeon Radiodiagnostic imaging in pregnancy and the risk of childhood malignancy: raising the bar. PLoS Med.: 2010, 7(9);e1000338 PubMed 20838652 | PLoS Med.
- Joel G Ray, Michael J Schull, Marcelo L Urquia, John J You, Astrid Guttmann, Marian J Vermeulen Major radiodiagnostic imaging in pregnancy and the risk of childhood malignancy: a population-based cohort study in Ontario. PLoS Med.: 2010, 7(9);e1000337 PubMed 20838660 | PLoS Med.
- Clemens Dasenbrock, Thomas Tillmann, Heinrich Ernst, Wolfgang Behnke, Rupert Kellner, Gerd Hagemann, Volkhard Kaever, Manfred Kohler, Susanne Rittinghausen, Ulrich Mohr, Lorenzo Tomatis Maternal effects and cancer risk in the progeny of mice exposed to X-rays before conception. Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.: 2005, 56(6);351-60 PubMed 15945274
- Clara Mariquita Antoinette ten Broek, Jessica Bots, Irma Varela-Lasheras, Marianna Bugiani, Frietson Galis, Stefan Van Dongen Amniotic fluid deficiency and congenital abnormalities both influence fluctuating asymmetry in developing limbs of human deceased fetuses. PLoS ONE: 2013, 8(11);e81824 PubMed 24312362 | PLoS One.
Kevin W Southern, Marieke M E Mérelle, Jeannette E Dankert-Roelse, A D Nagelkerke Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev: 2009, (1);CD001402 PubMed 19160197
Renate Schulze-Rath, Gaël P Hammer, Maria Blettner Are pre- or postnatal diagnostic X-rays a risk factor for childhood cancer? A systematic review. Radiat Environ Biophys: 2008, 47(3);301-12 PubMed 18528700
Małgorzata M Dobrzyńska, Urszula Czajka Male-mediated developmental toxicity in mice after 8 weeks'exposure to low doses of X-rays. Int. J. Radiat. Biol.: 2005, 81(11);793-9 PubMed 16484148
R RUGH Fetal x-irradiation and fertility. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.: 1952, 80(2);388-95 PubMed 14949062
W L RUSSELL X-ray-induced mutations in mice. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol.: 1951, 16;327-36 PubMed 14942747
T L FISHER Excessive x-ray exposure. Can Med Assoc J: 1950, 63(2);185-6; French transl, 186-7 PubMed 15434757
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- NIH PubMed Health Newborn Screening
- Nemours Foundation Newborn Screening Tests
- The Children's Hospital at Westmead NSW Newborn Screening
- Secondary School Resource biotechnology online
- PBS How the World Discovered the X-Ray
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology X-ray. Retrieved September 26, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/X-ray
- © Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G