|Embryology - 19 Feb 2017 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Pharyngeal Arch Contributions
- 4 Embryonic
- 5 Fetal
- 6 Tongue Muscles
- 7 Tongue Innervation
- 8 Lingual Frenulum
- 9 Histology
- 10 Abnormalities
- 11 Additional Images
- 12 References
- 13 External Links
- 14 Glossary Links
The tongue's embryonic orgin is derived from all pharyngeal arches contributing different components. As the tongue (Latin, lingua; Greek, glossa) develops "inside" the floor of the oral cavity, it is not readily visible in the external views of the embryonic (Carnegie) stages of development. Tongue muscle cells originate from somite mesoderm, while muscles of mastication derive from the unsegmented somitomeres. This current page gives a brief overview of early tongue development.
The dorsal tongue is covered by a stratified squamous epithelium, with numerous papillae and taste buds. There are also 8 to 12 circumvallate papillae arranged in an inverted V-shape towards the base of the tongue. These notes cover development of the muscular tongue, not the sense of taste.
|Taste Links: Introduction | Student project | Tongue Development | Category:Taste|
|1902 Tongue | 1921 Tongue|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Turan Demircan, Ayşe Elif İlhan, Nilüfer Aytürk, Berna Yıldırım, Gürkan Öztürk, İlknur Keskin A histological atlas of the tissues and organs of neotenic and metamorphosed axolotl. Acta Histochem.: 2016; PubMed 27436816
Kinga Skieresz-Szewczyk, Hanna Jackowiak Morphofunctional study of the tongue in the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica, Anatidae): LM and SEM study. Zoomorphology: 2015, 135;255-268 PubMed 27340332
Marco Di Serafino, Carmela Mercogliano, Gianfranco Vallone Ultrasound evaluation of the enteric duplication cyst: the gut signature. J Ultrasound: 2016, 19(2);131-3 PubMed 27298642
Joan Chepkorir Kiyeng, Abraham Siika, Cornelius Koech, Gerald S Bloomfield Definite hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia in a 60-year-old black Kenyan woman: a case report. J Med Case Rep: 2016, 10(1);126 PubMed 27225226
Xingxing Huang, Haixiao Zou, Xiaoke Guo, Yifang Zhao [Combined surgery and sclerotherapy for massive venous malformations of the tongue]. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi: 2016, 32(1);14-7 PubMed 27197473
Pharyngeal Arch Contributions
The tongue has contributions from all pharyngeal arches which changes with time. The tongue initially begins as swelling rostral to foramen cecum, the median tongue bud.
Animation shows the sequence of development of the tongue. The different colours represents the relative contribution from each pharyngeal arch.
Human embryonic tongue development (mid-sagittal section)
These histology images are from the Carnegie Stage 22 human embryo.
Carnegie Stage 23 oral cavity floor
|Carnegie Stage 23 oral cavity floor|
Week 12 - 24
The following measurements of fetal tongue circumference show linear growth during the second trimester and are based upon multiple (2-10) separate ultrasound measurements.
|Tongue circumference was measured by transvaginal ultrasonography between 14 and 17 GA weeks, and by abdominal ultrasound between 18 and 26 GA weeks of gestation.|
- Tongue muscles originate from the somites.
- Masticatory muscles (MM) originate from the somitomeres. These muscles develop late and are not complete even at birth.
- Tongue muscles develop before masticatory muscles and complete by birth.
Developing muscle fibers within the tongue. Note the multinucleated appearance of each muscle fiber and their overall organization. Muscle goes through the same developmental changes as other skeletal muscle.
See also: Embryonic and postnatal development of masticatory and tongue muscles.
- Links: Skeletal Muscle Histology
The tongue is innervated by a range of cranial nerve connections related to muscles, oral mucosa, taste buds, and minor salivary glands.
- trigeminal nerve (V) - lingual branch
- facial nerve (VII) - chorda tympani branch
- glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
- hypoglossal nerve (XII) - motor components of innervated muscles.
The hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) provides the motor innervation of the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles allowing protrusion, retrusion, and changes in the shape of the tongue. Motor units within the hypoglossal motor system can be categorized as predominantly fast fatigue resistant.
The human tongue innervation has been recently analysed histologically and described as extremely dense and complex. The structure of the motor endplate junctions (neuromuscular junctions) was found to be of the multiple en grappe (grapelike cluster) form. The transverse muscle group that comprises the core of the tongue was found to have the most complex innervation. The pattern of innervation of the human tongue also has specializations not found in other mammalian tongues, this allows for fine motor control of tongue shape.
The pathway of the hypoglossal nerve can be imaged using magnetic imaging (MRI) while computer tomography (CT) can show the bony anatomy of the neurovascular foramina of the skull base. Clinically, the nerve pathway can be divided into three regions: intra-axial, cisternal, skull base and extracranial segments.
- Links: Cranial Nerve Development
Frenulum is a general term for a small fold of integument (skin) or mucous membrane that limits the movements of an organ or part. There are several anatomical frenula associated with the genital system, while the lingual frenulum is associated with the inferior side of the tongue.
The lingual frenulum length (short) and position of insertion (anterior) can lead to speech disorders and may affect postnatal feeding. Interestingly, it is the prevalence of pain in mothers breastfeeding infants with ankyloglossia that presents many problems in breastfeeding.
Children with a frenulum length of more than 2 cm do not show these speech problems. Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is the general clinical term for the short frenulum which limits the range of movement of the tongue, there is still no accurate classification for this condition. Frenotomy, frenectomy, and frenuloplasty are the main surgical treatment options to release or remove an ankyloglossia.
Term means an abnormally large tongue. Macroglossia is more common than microglossia and can be associated with a number of genetic abnormalities including: trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), acromegaly, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, mucopolysaccharidoses and primary amyloidosis. There is also an association with congenital hypothyroidism and diabetes.
Macroglossia associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.
Term means an abnormally small tongue. A recent study has identified cranial neural crest fibroblasts non-canonical transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) regulation of FGF and BMP signalling can cause similar tongue muscle developmental defects.
Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is the general clinical term for the short lingual frenulum (less than 2 cm), that limits the range of movement of the tongue, prevalence ranges between 4.2% and 10.7%. This is associated with speech development disorders and has been suggested as also associated with feeding disorders. There is still no accurate classification for this condition. Frenotomy, frenectomy, and frenuloplasty are the main surgical treatment options to release or remove an ankyloglossia, though there is still discussion about surgical intervention.
A short lingual frenulum is also associated with a number of genetic syndromes such as: ROR2-Related Robinow Syndrome, Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa, Oral-Facial-Digital Syndrome Type I, Opitz Syndrome (X-Linked Opitz G/BBB Syndrome) and Van der Woude syndrome.
- Links: Medline Plus - Tongue tie | ROR2-Related Robinow Syndrome | Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa | Oral-Facial-Digital Syndrome Type I | X-Linked Opitz G/BBB Syndrome
|Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages|
|Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)|
Human Embryology and Morphology. Keith, A. (1902) London: Edward Arnold.
Anatomy of the Human Gray, H. (1918) Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.
- Jun-ichi Iwata, Akiko Suzuki, Richard C Pelikan, Thach-Vu Ho, Yang Chai Noncanonical transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling in cranial neural crest cells causes tongue muscle developmental defects. J. Biol. Chem.: 2013, 288(41);29760-70 PubMed 23950180
- Zhongchen Song, Chao Liu, Junichi Iwata, Shuping Gu, Akiko Suzuki, Cheng Sun, Wei He, Rong Shu, Lu Li, Yang Chai, YiPing Chen Mice with Tak1 deficiency in neural crest lineage exhibit cleft palate associated with abnormal tongue development. J. Biol. Chem.: 2013, 288(15);10440-50 PubMed 23460641
- Kayoko Aoyama, Akira Yamane, Takeo Suga, Erika Suzuki, Tadayoshi Fukui, Yoshiki Nakamura Bone morphogenetic protein-2 functions as a negative regulator in the differentiation of myoblasts, but not as an inducer for the formations of cartilage and bone in mouse embryonic tongue. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2011, 11;44 PubMed 21736745
- Jae-Young Kim, Min-Jung Lee, Kyoung-Won Cho, Jong-Min Lee, Yeun-Jung Kim, Ji-Youn Kim, Hye-In Jung, Je-Yoel Cho, Sung-Won Cho, Han-Sung Jung Shh and ROCK1 modulate the dynamic epithelial morphogenesis in circumvallate papilla development. Dev. Biol.: 2009, 325(1);273-80 PubMed 19014928
- Soo Jeong Hong, Bong Geun Cha, Yeon Sook Kim, Suk Keun Lee, Je Geun Chi Tongue Growth during Prenatal Development in Korean Fetuses and Embryos. J Pathol Transl Med: 2015; PubMed 26471340 | J Pathol Transl Med.
- R Achiron, A Ben Arie, U Gabbay, S Mashiach, Z Rotstein, S Lipitz Development of the fetal tongue between 14 and 26 weeks of gestation: in utero ultrasonographic measurements. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol: 1997, 9(1);39-41 PubMed 9060129
- A Yamane Embryonic and postnatal development of masticatory and tongue muscles. Cell Tissue Res.: 2005, 322(2);183-9 PubMed 16041600
- J Chadwick Smith, Stephen J Goldberg, Mary Snyder Shall Phenotype and contractile properties of mammalian tongue muscles innervated by the hypoglossal nerve. Respir Physiol Neurobiol: 2005, 147(2-3);253-62 PubMed 16087149
- Liancai Mu, Ira Sanders Human tongue neuroanatomy: Nerve supply and motor endplates. Clin Anat: 2010, 23(7);777-91 PubMed 20607833
- Pedro Alves Imaging the hypoglossal nerve. Eur J Radiol: 2010, 74(2);368-77 PubMed 20347541
- Irene Queiroz Marchesan Lingual frenulum: classification and speech interference. Int J Orofacial Myology: 2004, 30;31-8 PubMed 15832860
- Lauren M Segal, Randolph Stephenson, Martin Dawes, Perle Feldman Prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of ankyloglossia: methodologic review. Can Fam Physician: 2007, 53(6);1027-33 PubMed 17872781
- Valérie G A Suter, Michael M Bornstein Ankyloglossia: facts and myths in diagnosis and treatment. J. Periodontol.: 2009, 80(8);1204-19 PubMed 19656020
Igor Adameyko, Kaj Fried The Nervous System Orchestrates and Integrates Craniofacial Development: A Review. Front Physiol: 2016, 7;49 PubMed 26924989
C Parada, D Han, Y Chai Molecular and cellular regulatory mechanisms of tongue myogenesis. J. Dent. Res.: 2012, 91(6);528-35 PubMed 22219210
Inbal Michailovici, Tamar Eigler, Eldad Tzahor Craniofacial Muscle Development. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol.: 2015, 115;3-30 PubMed 26589919
Drew M Noden, Philippa Francis-West The differentiation and morphogenesis of craniofacial muscles. Dev. Dyn.: 2006, 235(5);1194-218 PubMed 16502415
R Achiron, A Ben Arie, U Gabbay, S Mashiach, Z Rotstein, S Lipitz Development of the fetal tongue between 14 and 26 weeks of gestation: in utero ultrasonographic measurements. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol: 1997, 9(1);39-41 PubMed 9060129
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Tongue Development. Retrieved February 19, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Tongue_Development
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