Renal System - Carnegie Stage 22

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Introduction

Stage22-UG-icon.jpg Movies - Embryo Carnegie stage 22 - This embryo animation rotates and show the relative position of internal renal system structures at the end of embryonic development. Compare these with the earlier stage 13 embryo.

The movies are based upon reconstruction of serial slice images shown below.

Urogenital


Renal Links: renal | Lecture - Renal | Lecture Movie | urinary bladder | Stage 13 | Stage 22 | Fetal | Renal Movies | Stage 22 Movie | renal histology | renal abnormalities | Molecular | Category:Renal
Historic Embryology - Renal  
1905 Uriniferous Tubule Development | 1907 Urogenital images | 1911 Cloaca | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1915 Renal Artery | 1917 Urogenital System | 1925 Horseshoe Kidney | 1926 Embryo 22 Somites | 1930 Mesonephros 10 to 12 weeks | 1931 Horseshoe Kidney | 1932 Renal Absence | 1939 Ureteric Bud Agenesis | 1943 Renal Position

Stage 22 Renal Annotated

Stage 22 image 083.jpg E6: R,L adrenal glands under diaphragm.

Stage 22 image 084.jpg E7: Large adrenal glands. Inferior vena cava. Thoracic aorta.

Stage 22 image 085.jpg Stage 22 image 086.jpg Stage 22 image 087.jpg
Fl: Adrenal glands. R. Kidney. Autonomic ganglia (partly the adrenal medulla precursors). F2: Kidneys (note retroperitoneal location). Cortex. Medulla. L. Adrenal gland. Superior mesenteric artery. Inferior vena cava. F3: R testis (note its location relative to the R adrenal). L adrenal. R renal hilus. large channels are branches of ureteric tree.
Stage 22 image 088.jpg Stage 22 image 089.jpg Stage 22 image 090.jpg Stage 22 image 091.jpg
F4: R kidney and R ureter. Inferior vena cava. L. kidney, L renal hilus and L ureter. R testis with R mesonephric duct (precursor of vas deferens). L testis. Umbilical arteries passing into umbilical cord allantois between them. F5: Kidneys. Ureters. Note umbilical arteries and allantois. Also note how R testis and mesonephric structures are attached to parietal peritoneum by a mesogonad. F6: Kidneys. Ureters. Note umbilical arteries and allantois. Also note how R testis and mesonephric structures are attached to parietal peritoneum by a mesogonad. F7: In F7, (dorsal to R testis and liver) note with the distinct lumen of the mesonephric duct, almost solid column of paramesonephric cells and remnants of mesonephric tubules. "mesogonad". Ureters. Bladder with submucosa and detrusor muscle. Umbilical arteries. Division of aorta.
Stage 22 image 092.jpg Stage 22 image 093.jpg Stage 22 image 094.jpg Stage 22 image 095.jpg
G1: Ureters, Bladder. Umbilical arteries. Testis with remains of mesonephros (dorsal), mesonephric duct and paramesonephric cells. Sigmoid colon and mesocolon. G2: Ureters being displaced ventrally, crossing common iliac arteries. Sigmoid colon. Bladder. Mesonephric ducts (lateral) and paramesonephric ducts (smaller, medial) located dorsal to bladder. G3: Ureters (cut twice): descending dorsal to bladder and ascending ventrally to enter the bladder at trigone, through the submucosa). Fusion of paramesonephric ducts. Paired mesonephric ducts. Umbilical arteries looping off common iliac arteries. Pubic symphysis. Colon. G4: Most caudal part of loop of ureters. Urethra emerging from bladder. Mesonephric ducts. Rectocolic junction.
Stage 22 image 096.jpg Stage 22 image 097.jpg Stage 22 image 098.jpg
G5: Urethra (in region of future prostate gland - note crescentic shape). Rectum. Rectovesical pouch. Between G4 and G5, each mesonephric duct (vas deferens) has joined the prostatic urethra (caudal to the ureters), thereby increasing the caliber of the latter. G6: Penile urethra, emerging inferiorly to the glans penis. Scrotal swellings (appear before testis descends). G7: Penile urethra, emerging inferiorly to the glans penis. Scrotal swellings (appear before testis descends). Note F7 MS term: "inebriated Puffin" (dorsal to R testis and liver) lumen of the mesonephric duct (eye), almost solid column of paramesonephric cells (beak) and remnants of mesonephric tubules (body).

 

Stage 22

Stage 22L serial labeled images
Stage 22 image 085.jpg Stage 22 image 086.jpg Stage 22 image 087.jpg Stage 22 image 088.jpg Stage 22 image 089.jpg Stage 22 image 090.jpg Stage 22 image 091.jpg
F1L F2L F3L F4L F5L F6L F7L
Stage 22 image 092.jpg Stage 22 image 093.jpg Stage 22 image 094.jpg Stage 22 image 095.jpg Stage 22 image 096.jpg Stage 22 image 097.jpg Stage 22 image 098.jpg
G1L G2L G3L G4L G5L G6L G7L

Stage 22 Selected

Stage 22 selected serial labeled images
Stage 22 image 188.jpg Stage 22 image 189.jpg Stage 22 image 190.jpg Stage 22 image 191.jpg
F4 kidney F5 renal pelvis F6 nephron F7 gonad
Stage 22 image 192.jpg Stage 22 image 193.jpg Stage 22 image 194.jpg Stage 22 image 195.jpg Stage 22 image 196.jpg Stage 22 image 197.jpg Stage 22 image 198.jpg
G1 ureter G2 mesonephros G3 testis G4 rete tesits G5 urogenital G6 urogenital G7 urogenital
Renal Terms  
  • bladder exstrophy - A congenital malformation with bladder open to ventral wall of abdomen (between umbilicus and pubic symphysis) and may have other anomolies associated with failure of closure of abdominal wall and bladder (epispadias, pubic bone anomolies).
  • blastema - Term used to describe a mass of undifferentiated cells. (More? Wilm's tumour)
  • Bowman's capsule - (capsula glomeruli, glomerular capsule) Surrounds the glomerulus within the nephron with a vascular and urinary pole and is the beginning of the tubular component. Named in 1842 after Sir William Bowman (1816 – 1892) an English surgeon and anatomist.
  • Brenner hypothesis - a clinical hypothesis that states, individuals with a congenital reduction in nephron number have a much greater likelihood of developing adult hypertension and subsequent renal failure. Developed in the 1980's by Barry Brenner at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, this also fits with the DOHAD hypothesis. (More? PubMed 3063284 | Barry Brenner)
  • capillary loop - (C stage) The third stage in nephron development between 25-29 weeks. (stage sequence: V - S - C - M)
  • diabetes insipidus - The disorder is related to the hormone antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also called vasopressin) its synthesis, secretion, receptors and signaling pathway. In diabetes insipidus there is an excretion of large amounts (up to 30 litres/day) of a watery urine and an unremitting thirst.
  • fenestrated capillary - Specialised capillaries containing circular pores (fenestrae) that penetrate the endothelium, may be closed by a thin diaphragm.
  • glomerulus - The capillary network (tuft) within Bowman's capsule of the nephron enters at the vascular pole (afferent and efferent arteriole).
  • hydronephrosis - (congenital hydronephrosis, Greek, hydro = water) A kidney abnormality due to partial or complete obstruction at the pelvi-ureteric junction. This leads to a grossly dilated renal pelvis causing extensive renal damage before birth.
  • hyperplastic rests - In kidney development, embryonic blastema cells can persist and proliferate to form a pool of cells, which under either genetic or epigenetic influence can then change to become a neoplastic rest. Normally the majority of nephrogenic rests either regress or become dormant.
  • juxtaglomerular cells - Cells located at the vascular pole that secrete renin and form a part of the juxtaglomerular complex.
  • loop of Henle - Nephron region spanning from the proximal convoluted tubule to the distal convoluted tubule. Named after Named after Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle (1809–1885) a German anatomist.
  • macula densa - Columnar cell cluster appearing as a dense row of cell nuclei where the straight portion of the distal tubule contacts the glomerulus. Region also in close contact with the efferent and afferent arterioles of the glomerulus and involved in sodium chloride regulation. (More? image)
  • maturation stage - (M stage) The forth stage in nephron development in infants aged 1-6 months. (stage sequence: V - S - C - M)
  • mesangial cells - Cells in the nephron glomerulus that form the connective tissue giving structural support to podocytes and vessels.
  • mesonephros - The second temporary stage of kidney development (pro-, meso-, meta-). The intermediate mesonephros develops and disappears with the exception of its duct, the mesonephric duct, which will form the male reproductive duct system. In males, the mesonephric tubules go on to form the ducts of the testis. In females, these degenerate. A few mesonephric tubules remain as efferent ductules in the male and vestigial remnants in the female.
  • mesonephric duct - (= Wollfian duct) An early developing urogenital duct running the length of the embryo that will differentiate and form the male reproductive duct system. In females this duct degenerates (some remnants may remain associated in broad ligament).
  • metanephros - The adult kidney, third stage of mammalian kidney (pro-, meso-, meta-) development within the intermediate mesoderm.
  • metanephric cap - (metanephric blastema) The intermediate mesoderm which surrounds the ureteric bud and will contribute most of the adult nephron.
  • multicystic kidney - There is no functional kidney tissue present in the kidney and it is replaced by a multilocular cyst. This is non-familial and is produced by atresia of a ureter and is always unilateral.
  • neoplastic rest - In kidney development, a neoplastic rest can develop under either genetic or epigenetic influence from a hyperplastic rest, originating from an embryonic blastema cell. Normally the majority of nephrogenic rests either regress or become dormant.
  • nephrin - protein of the slit diaphragm of renal filtration barrier, located at the cell surface in the area between two podocytes. NPHS1 gene location 19q13.12, mutations in this gene are associated with Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome (Nephrotic syndrome). (More? renal abnormalities)
  • nephrogenic rest - Used to describe the embryonic blastema cells which persist and under either genetic or epigenetic can change to become a neoplastic rest. These neoplastic rests can develop postnatally as a benign form (adenomatous rest) or a malignant Wilm's tumour form. The rests are further characterised by the time of generation leading to different anatomical kidney locations: early intralobar nephrogenic rests (within the renal lobe) and late pelilobar nephrogenic rests (periphery of the renal lobe)
  • nephron - (Greek, nephros = kidney) The functional unit of the adult kidney.
  • nephros - (Greek, nephros = kidney) Term used to describe features associated with the kidney. (pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros, nephric, nephron, nephroblastoma).
  • Nephrotic syndrome - (CNS, Nephrotic syndrome) rare kidney disorder characterized by heavy proteinuria, hypoproteinemia, and edema starting soon after birth. Most cases are caused by genetic abnormalities in the components of the glomerular filtration barrier, especially nephrin and podocin. (More? renal abnormalities)
  • parietal layer - Cells of the outer of Bowman's capsule that form a simple squamous epithelium. The inner layer is the visceral layer.
  • podocin - protein of the slit diaphragm of renal filtration barrier, located at the cell surface in the area between two podocytes. NPHS2 gene location 1q25.2, mutations in this gene are associated with Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome (Nephrotic syndrome). (More? renal abnormalities)
  • podocyte - (visceral epithelial cell) kidney glomerulus cell forming the main component of the glomerular filtration barrier. (glomerular podocyte) Kidney epithelial cell type in the nephron (kidney functional unit) located in the glomerulus. Podocytes form the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule and are at the filtration barrier between capillary blood and the nephron tubular system and function to ultrafiltrate blood, and support glomerular capillary pressures. The differentiation of podocytes involves the formation of cellular foot processes and then the slit membrane. (More? image)
  • podocyte specific proteins - podocalyxin, glomerular epithelial protein-1, podocin, nephrin, synaptopodin, and alpha-actinin-4), podocyte synthesized proteins (vascular endothelial growth factor and novH), transcription factors (WT1 and PAX2).
  • pronephros - (Greek, pro = before) The first temporary stage of kidney development (pro-, meso-, meta-). This forms the kidney of primitive fish and lower vertebrates. Kidney development occurs within the intermediate mesoderm interacting with endoderm. In humans, this very rudimentary kidney forms very early at the level of the neck. It is rapidly replaced by the mesonephros, intermediate stage kidney, differentiating in mesoderm beneath.
  • proteinuria - The abnormal presence of protein in the urine and an indicator of diesease including diabetic kidney disease (DKD, diabetic nephropathy).
  • proximal tubule - Portion of the nephron duct between Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle, divided into the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) and the proximal straight tubule (PST).
  • renal - (Latin, renes = kidney) Term used in relation to the kidney and associated structures (renal pelvis, renal artery)
  • S-shaped body - (S stage) The second stage in nephron development between 20-24 weeks. (stage sequence: V - S - C - M)
  • transitional epithelium - (urothelium) Histological term to describe the epithelium lining the ureters and urinary bladder. (More? image)
  • trigone - refers to the urinary bladder triangular region formed by the two ureters and the urethra.
  • ureter - The two ureters are hollow tubes that link the kidney and the bladder and carry urine. They develop from the ureteric bud and are lined by a transitional epithelium with an outer muscular wall.
  • urethra - The single muscular tube that links and carries urine from the bladder to the exterior. In humans, the urethral length differs between the sexes (male longer, female shorter).
  • vascular pole - The side of nephron Bowman's capsule where the afferent arteriole and efferent arteriole enter the glomerulus. image
  • visceral layer - Cells (podocytes) of the inner of Bowman's capsule that form extremely complex shapes. Cytoplasm form a fenestrated epithelium around the fenestrated capillaries of the glomerulus. The outer layer is the parietal layer.
  • vesicle stage - (V stage) The first stage in nephron development between 13-19 weeks. (stage sequence: V - S - C - M)
  • urinary - Term used to describe all components of the kidney system including the bladder, ureters and urethra.
  • urinary pole - The side of nephron Bowman's capsule where the proximal convoluted tubule starts. image
  • urine - Term used to describe the liquid waste produced by the kidney, stored in the bladder and excreted from teh body through the urethra.
  • urorectal septum - (URS) The structure which develops to separate the cloaca (common urogenital sinus) into an anterior urinary part and a posterior rectal part.
  • Wilms' tumour - A form of kidney/renal cancer (nephroblastoma) named after Dr Max Wilms who first described the tumor. This childhood kidney cancer is caused by the inactivation of a tumour suppressor gene (BRCA2) or Wilms tumor-1 gene (Wt1) and is one of the most common solid tumors of childhood, occurring in 1 in 10,000 children and accounting for 8% of childhood cancers. Wt1 also required at early stages of gonadal development. (More? OMIM - Wilm's tumour | Dr Max Wilms)
  • Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein - (WTAP) protein expressed in extraembryonic tissues and required for the formation of embryonic mesoderm and endoderm.
  • Wolffian duct - (= mesonephric duct, preferred terminology), runs from the mesonephros to cloaca, differentiates to form the male vas deferens and in the female regresses. Named after Caspar Friedrich Wolff (1733-1794), a German scientist and early embryology researcher and is said to have established the doctrine of germ layers. (More? Caspar Friedrich Wolff)
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, December 4) Embryology Renal System - Carnegie Stage 22. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Renal_System_-_Carnegie_Stage_22

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© Dr Mark Hill 2020, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G