Primordial Germ Cell Development

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Introduction

Primordial Germ Cell
Human embryo primordial germ cell region (Carnegie stage 9)
Primordial Germ Cell (chicken) scanning electron micrograph.[1]

Early in development at the time of gastrulation a small group of cells are "put aside" to later form oocytes and spermatozoa, these cells described as the primordial germ cells (PGCs). The cells migrate initially through the primitive streak into the posterior endoderm that forms the hindgut,[2] and from there later into the genital ridge that will be the site of the developing gonad. The maintenance of pluripotency within this cell population may arise through epigenetic modifications that suppress somatic differentiation programs. Thee cells differentiate at different times in male testis and female ovary development.


This population of cells when transformed is also thought to give rise to testicular germ cell tumours.


Genital Links: genital | Lecture - Medicine | Lecture - Science | Lecture Movie | Medicine - Practical | primordial germ cell | meiosis | Female | X | ovary | oocyte | uterus | vagina | reproductive cycles | menstrual cycle | Male | Y | testis | spermatozoa | penis | prostate | endocrine gonad‎ | Genital Movies | genital abnormalities | Assisted Reproductive Technology | puberty | Category:Genital
Historic Embryology - Genital 
1901 Urinogenital Tract | 1902 The Uro-Genital System | 1904 Ovary and Testis | 1904 Leydig Cells | 1904 Hymen | 1905 Testis vascular | 1909 Prostate | 1912 Prostate | 1912 Urinogenital Organ Development | 1914 External Genitalia | 1914 Female | 1915 Cowper’s and Bartholin’s Glands | 1920 Wolffian tubules | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1921 External Genital | 1927 Female Foetus 15 cm | 1932 Postnatal Ovary | 1935 Prepuce | 1935 Wolffian Duct | 1942 Sex Cords | 1943 Testes Descent | 1953 Germ Cells | Historic Embryology Papers | Historic Disclaimer

Some Recent Findings

  • On the origin of the human germline[3] "In mice, primordial germ cells (PGCs), the precursors of eggs and sperm, originate from pregastrulation postimplantation embryos. By contrast, the origin of human PGCs (hPGCs) has been less clear and has been difficult to study because of the technical and ethical constraints that limit direct studies on human embryos. In recent years, however, in vitro simulation models using human pluripotent stem cells, together with surrogate non-rodent mammalian embryos, have provided insights and experimental approaches to address this issue. Here, we review these studies, which suggest that the posterior epiblast and/or the nascent amnion in pregastrulation human embryos is a likely source of hPGCs, and that a different gene regulatory network controls PGCs in humans compared with in the mouse. Such studies on the origins and mechanisms of hPGC specification prompt further consideration of the somatic cell fate decisions that occur during early human development."
  • Primate Primordial Germ Cells Acquire Transplantation Potential by Carnegie stage 23[4] "Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the earliest embryonic progenitors in the germline. Correct formation of PGCs is critical to reproductive health as an adult. Recent work has shown that primate PGCs can be differentiated from pluripotent stem cells; however, a bioassay that supports their identity as transplantable germ cells has not been reported. Here, we adopted a xenotransplantation assay by transplanting single-cell suspensions of human and nonhuman primate embryonic Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaque) testes containing PGCs into the seminiferous tubules of adult busulfan-treated nude mice. We discovered that both human and nonhuman primate embryonic testis are xenotransplantable, generating colonies while not generating tumors." Carnegie stage 23 | Stem Cells
  • Dynamics of male canine germ cell development[5] "Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are precursors of gametes that can generate new individuals throughout life in both males and females. Additionally, PGCs have been shown to differentiate into embryonic germ cells (EGCs) after in vitro culture. Most studies investigating germinative cells have been performed in rodents and humans but not dogs (Canis lupus familiaris). Here, we elucidated the dynamics of the expression of pluripotent (POU5F1 and NANOG), germline (DDX4, DAZL and DPPA3), and epigenetic (5mC, 5hmC, H3K27me3 and H3K9me2) markers that are important for the development of male canine germ cells during the early (22-30 days post-fertilization (dpf)), middle (35-40 dpf) and late (45-50 dpf) gestational periods. ... The PGCs were positive for POU5F1 and H3K27me3 during all assessed developmental periods, including all periods between the gonadal tissue stage and foetal testes development. The number of NANOG, DDX4, DAZL, DPPA3 and 5mC-positive cells increased along with the developing cords from 35-50 dpf. Dog Development
  • MicroRNA dynamics at the onset of primordial germ and somatic cells sex differentiation during mouse embryonic gonad development[6] "In mammals, commitment and specification of germ cell lines implies involves complex programs that include sex differentiation, control of proliferation and meiotic initiation. Regulation of these processes is genetically controlled by fine-tuned mechanisms of gene regulation in which microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved. We have characterized, by small-RNAseq and bioinformatics analyses, the miRNA expression patterns of male and female mouse Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs) and gonadal somatic cells at embryonic stages: E11.5, E12.5 and E13.5. Differential expression analyses revealed differences in the regulation of key miRNA clusters such as miR-199-214, miR-182-183-96 and miR-34c-5p whose targets have defined roles during gonadal sexual determination in both germ and somatic cells." Molecular Development - microRNA
  • Review - Key Signaling Events for Committing Mouse Pluripotent Stem Cells to the Germline Fate[7] "The process of germline development carries genetic information and preparatory totipotency across generations. The last decade has witnessed remarkable successes in the generation of germline cells from mouse pluripotent stem cells, especially induced germline cells with the capacity for producing viable offspring, suggesting clinical applications of induced germline cells in humans. However, to date, the culture systems for germline induction with accurate sex-specific meiosis and epigenetic reprogramming have not been well-established. In this study, we primarily focus on the mouse model to discuss key signaling events for germline induction. We review mechanisms of competent regulators on primordial germ cell induction and discuss current achievements and difficulties in inducing sex-specific germline development. Furthermore, we review the developmental identities of mouse embryonic stem cells and epiblast stem cells under certain defined culture conditions as it relates to the differentiation process of becoming germline cells."
  • Sall4 is Essential for Mouse Primordial Germ Cell Specification by Suppressing Somatic Cell Program Genes[8] "The Sall4 zinc finger protein is a critical transcription factor for pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). ...Given that Sall4 and Prdm1 are known to associate with the histone deacetylase repressor complex, our findings suggest that Sall4 suppresses the somatic cell program possibly by recruiting the repressor complex in conjunction with Prdm1; therefore, it is essential for PGC specification."
More recent papers  
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Primordial Germ Cell

Y H Jin, A Davie, H Migaud Expression pattern of nanos, piwil, dnd, vasa and pum genes during ontogenic development in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Gene: 2018; PubMed 30503393

Zhiyun Shi, Juan Xu, Xuemei Jia [Effect of germ cell Wdr1 deletion on the ovarian function of mice]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi: 2018, 35(6);819-823 PubMed 30512154

Millissia Ben Maamar, Eric Nilsson, Ingrid Sadler-Riggleman, Daniel Beck, John R McCarrey, Michael K Skinner Developmental Origins of Transgenerational Sperm DNA Methylation Epimutations Following Ancestral DDT Exposure. Dev. Biol.: 2018; PubMed 30500333

Yi-Chen Chen, Shau-Ping Lin, Yi-Ying Chang, Wei-Peng Chang, Liang-Yuan Wei, Hsiu-Chou Liu, Jeng-Fang Huang, Bertrand Pain, Shinn-Chih Wu In vitro culture and characterization of duck primordial germ cells. Poult. Sci.: 2018; PubMed 30462334

Kentaro Mochizuki, Yukiko Tando, Tamotsu Sekinaka, Kei Otsuka, Yohei Hayashi, Hisato Kobayashi, Asuka Kamio, Yumi Ito-Matsuoka, Asuka Takehara, Tomohiro Kono, Noriko Osumi, Yasuhisa Matsui SETDB1 is essential for mouse primordial germ cell fate determination by ensuring BMP signaling. Development: 2018; PubMed 30446626

Older papers  
  • Loss of Lhx1 activity impacts on the localization of primordial germ cells in the mouse[9] "To dissect the specific role of Lhx1 in germ cell development, we studied embryos with conditional inactivation of Lhx1 activity in epiblast derivatives, which, in contrast to completely null embryos, develop normally through gastrulation before manifesting a head truncation phenotype. Initially, PGCs are localized properly to the definitive endoderm of the posterior gut in the conditional mutant embryos, but they depart from the embryonic gut prematurely. The early exit of PGCs from the gut is accompanied by the failure to maintain a strong expression of Ifitm1 in the mesoderm enveloping the gut, which may mediate the repulsive activity that facilitates the retention of PGCs in the hindgut during early organogenesis. Lhx1 therefore may influence the localization of PGCs by modulating Ifitm1-mediated repulsive activity."
  • Dazl functions in maintenance of pluripotency and genetic and epigenetic programs of differentiation in mouse primordial germ cells in vivo and in vitro[10]"We demonstrate that disruption of Dazl results in a post-migratory, pre-meiotic reduction in PGC number accompanied by aberrant expression of pluripotency genes and failure to erase and re-establish genomic imprints in isolated male and female PGCs, as well as subsequent defect in progression through meiosis. Moreover, the phenotypes observed in vivo were mirrored by those in vitro, with inability of isolated mutant PGCs to establish pluripotent EG (embryonic germ) cell lines and few residual Oct-4-expressing cells remaining after somatic differentiation of mESCs carrying a Dazl null mutation. Finally, we observed that even within undifferentiated mESCs, a nascent germ cell subpopulation exists that was effectively eliminated with ablation of Dazl."
  • Steel factor controls primordial germ cell survival and motility from the time of their specification in the allantois, and provides a continuous niche throughout their migration[11] "Steel factor is an essential survival and proliferation factor for primordial germ cells (PGCs) during their migration in the early mouse embryo. ...These data, together with previously published data, show that PGCs are Steel factor dependent from their initial specification until they colonize the genital ridges, and suggest the existence of a ;spatio-temporal niche' that travels with this important pluripotential cell population in the embryo."

Textbooks

Historic-ovary.jpg Historic-testis.jpg

  • Human Embryology (2nd ed.) Larson Chapter 10 p261-306
  • The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (6th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 13 p303-346
  • Before We Are Born (5th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 14 p289-326
  • Essentials of Human Embryology, Larson Chapter 10 p173-205
  • Human Embryology, Fitzgerald and Fitzgerald Chapter 21-22 p134-152
  • Developmental Biology (6th ed.) Gilbert Chapter 14 Intermediate Mesoderm

Primordial Germ Cell Migration

Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs) are thought to be the first population of cells to migrate through the primitive streak in early gastrulation.


Stage7-sem2.jpgStage7 primitive streak labelled.jpg

Human Embryonic Disc (Stage 7 week 3, GA week 5)

Week 3 - GA Week 5

  • Human embryonic disc showing the primitive streak region where gastrulation occurs, generation the trilaminar embryo.
  • Arrows indicate direction of cell migration through the streak.

This population of cells then lie at the hindgut and yolk sac junctional region and later migrate into the germinal ridge in early embryonic development.


Stage9 bf2-primordial germ cell region.jpg

Human Embryo (Stage 9 GA week 5) primordial germ cell region (green)


  • Sacrococcygeal teratomas - Remnant primitive streak cells (most common solid tumor in newborn infants)
  • Germline teratoma - (Germinoma) abnormally differentiated/located PGCs fail to die.


Species Comparison of Migration

Stages of primordial germ cell migration.jpg

Stages of primordial germ cell migration[12]

Mouse Migration Movies

Mouse- E7.5 late bud 01.jpg

Labeled mouse primordial germ cells (E7.5)[13]

Primordial germ cell 003 icon.jpg

Labeled mouse primordial germ cells (E10.5) See Mouse Migration Movies]]

The movies below show labeled primordial germ cells (green) migrating within the mouse embryo between the periods of E9.0 to E10.5 into the genital ridge region that will later form the gonad.

Mouse Primordial Germ Cell Migration
Primordial germ cell 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Germ Cell E9.0
Page | Play
Primordial germ cell 002 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Germ Cell E9.5
Page | Play
Primordial germ cell 003 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Germ Cell E10.5
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Links: Mouse Development

Fetal Ovary Meiosis

Fetal ovary meiosis 02.jpg

Fetal ovary meiosis[14]

Ectopic PGCs

Fetal adrenal ectopic germ cells 01.jpg
Ectopic PGC's in human adrenal gland in first trimester male week 8 (GA week 10) and female week 11 (GA week 13).[14]


  • A B - Germ cells were identified by expression of POU5F1 (red) and/or DDX4 (green)
  • C D - DDX4+ (green) germ cells do not express H2AFX (red), however, many H2AFX+ cells were present in the adrenals (white arrows)
  • E F - DDX4+ (red) germ cells were not TUNEL-positive (green), however, many TUNEL+ cells were present in the adrenals (white arrows)



Cell Structure

The images below are scanning electron micrographs of the surface of a chicken primordial germ cell that has been grown in culture.[1]

Chicken- PGC grown in vitro 02.jpg Chicken- PGC grown in vitro 03.jpg

The first image shows the whole cell and the second image shows detail of the cell surface showing extensions.

DNA Methylation

Mouse primordial germ cell DNA methylation[15]

Demethylation

  • Global DNA demethylation occurs in primordial germ cells about the time when they colonize the genital ridges.


Remethylation

  • Male - prospermatogonia methylation occurs during fetal stages.
  • Female - oocytes methylation occurs postnatally.


Links: Molecular Development - Epigenetics
Primordial germ cell DNA methylation 01.jpg

X-linked Gene Expression

Mouse- X-linked gene expression in primordial germ cells.jpg

Mouse- X-linked gene expression during primordial germ cell development.[16]

Each circle graph indicates the ratio of cells that are positive (yellow) and negative (black) for each gene, and biallelically (red) and monoallelically (blue) expressed in cells positive for each gene.


Links: X Inactivation | Mouse Development

Molecular

File:Model of Dazl germ cell function[10]
  • Prdm1 and Prdm14 - PR domain proteins expressed in mouse (E6.25), suppresses somatic differentiation.
  • Sall4 - zinc finger protein, inactivation of this transcription factor in mouse can reduce PGC number.[8]

A study has recently identified 11 genes that are specifically expressed in male and female fetal germ cells, both in vivo and in vitro, but are not expressed in embryonic stem cells.[17]


PGC Markers: alkaline phosphatase-positive, Oct4 (POU5F1), Fragilis (IFITM1)[18], Stella (DPPA3), Dazl, and Vasa (DDX4).

  • Steel factor - (KITLG) a ligand for the KIT tyrosine kinase receptor.
  • DAZL
  • dead end - coding an RNA binding protein mainly expressed in the germ cells of vertebrates.
  • Blimp1 - B-Lymphocyte induced maturation protein-1 (PRDM1)
  • Prmt5 - protein arginine methyltransferase-5
  • Nanog - knockdown induces apoptotic cell death in mouse migrating primordial germ cells.[19]
  • AID - Activation-Induced cytidine Deaminase enzyme required for demethylation (removal of CpG methylation). Within the genome, DNA methylation is associated with epigenetic mechanisms and occurs at cytosine residues that are followed by guanines.[20]
OMIM Links: POU5F1 | DAZL | DPPA3 | IFITM1 | DDX4 | KITLG | PRDM1


Stem Cells

A recent study in chicken has shown that only two key factors are required to convert stem cells into haploid spermatids:[21]

  1. retinoic acid (RA)
  2. stem cell factor (SCF)

Abnormalities

Teratomas

Common group of fetal tumors occuring along the body midline, anywhere from the coccyx to the pineal gland, reflecting the developmental PGC migration pathway (for review see[22]).

  • Histologically classified as either mature or immature.
  • Immature elements consisting principally of primitive neuroglial tissue and neuroepithelial rosettes and have have a generally favorable prognosis.
  • Sacrococcygeal teratomas - most common site (70%–80% of all teratomas).
    • classified into four types based on the amount of mass present externally versus internally.


Testicular germ cell tumours (seminoma)

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Choi JW, Kim S, Kim TM, Kim YM, Seo HW, Park TS, Jeong JW, Song G & Han JY. (2010). Basic fibroblast growth factor activates MEK/ERK cell signaling pathway and stimulates the proliferation of chicken primordial germ cells. PLoS ONE , 5, e12968. PMID: 20886037 DOI.
  2. Fujimoto T, Miyayama Y & Fuyuta M. (1977). The origin, migration and fine morphology of human primordial germ cells. Anat. Rec. , 188, 315-30. PMID: 900520 DOI.
  3. Kobayashi T & Surani MA. (2018). On the origin of the human germline. Development , 145, . PMID: 30037844 DOI.
  4. Gallinat A. (1995). [Ambulatory endoscopic surgery--ovary and leiomyoma]. Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. , 257, 17-21. PMID: 8579394
  5. de Souza AF, Pieri NCG, Roballo KCS, Bressan FF, Casals JB, Ambrósio CE, Perecin F & Martins DS. (2018). Dynamics of male canine germ cell development. PLoS ONE , 13, e0193026. PMID: 29489867 DOI.
  6. Fernández-Pérez D, Brieño-Enríquez MA, Isoler-Alcaraz J, Larriba E & Del Mazo J. (2018). MicroRNA dynamics at the onset of primordial germ and somatic cell sex differentiation during mouse embryonic gonad development. RNA , 24, 287-303. PMID: 29187591 DOI.
  7. Wang JQ & Cao WG. (2016). Key Signaling Events for Committing Mouse Pluripotent Stem Cells to the Germline Fate. Biol. Reprod. , 94, 24. PMID: 26674564 DOI.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Yamaguchi YL, Tanaka SS, Kumagai M, Fujimoto Y, Terabayashi T, Matsui Y & Nishinakamura R. (2015). Sall4 is essential for mouse primordial germ cell specification by suppressing somatic cell program genes. Stem Cells , 33, 289-300. PMID: 25263278 DOI.
  9. Tanaka SS, Yamaguchi YL, Steiner KA, Nakano T, Nishinakamura R, Kwan KM, Behringer RR & Tam PP. (2010). Loss of Lhx1 activity impacts on the localization of primordial germ cells in the mouse. Dev. Dyn. , 239, 2851-9. PMID: 20845430 DOI.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Haston KM, Tung JY & Reijo Pera RA. (2009). Dazl functions in maintenance of pluripotency and genetic and epigenetic programs of differentiation in mouse primordial germ cells in vivo and in vitro. PLoS ONE , 4, e5654. PMID: 19468308 DOI.
  11. Gu Y, Runyan C, Shoemaker A, Surani A & Wylie C. (2009). Steel factor controls primordial germ cell survival and motility from the time of their specification in the allantois, and provides a continuous niche throughout their migration. Development , 136, 1295-303. PMID: 19279135 DOI.
  12. Richardson BE & Lehmann R. (2010). Mechanisms guiding primordial germ cell migration: strategies from different organisms. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. , 11, 37-49. PMID: 20027186 DOI.
  13. Cao L, Shitara H, Sugimoto M, Hayashi J, Abe K & Yonekawa H. (2009). New evidence confirms that the mitochondrial bottleneck is generated without reduction of mitochondrial DNA content in early primordial germ cells of mice. PLoS Genet. , 5, e1000756. PMID: 19997484 DOI.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Heeren AM, He N, de Souza AF, Goercharn-Ramlal A, van Iperen L, Roost MS, Gomes Fernandes MM, van der Westerlaken LA & Chuva de Sousa Lopes SM. (2016). On the development of extragonadal and gonadal human germ cells. Biol Open , 5, 185-94. PMID: 26834021 DOI.
  15. Abe M, Tsai SY, Jin SG, Pfeifer GP & Szabó PE. (2011). Sex-specific dynamics of global chromatin changes in fetal mouse germ cells. PLoS ONE , 6, e23848. PMID: 21886830 DOI.
  16. Sugimoto M & Abe K. (2007). X chromosome reactivation initiates in nascent primordial germ cells in mice. PLoS Genet. , 3, e116. PMID: 17676999 DOI.
  17. Sabour D, Araúzo-Bravo MJ, Hübner K, Ko K, Greber B, Gentile L, Stehling M & Schöler HR. (2011). Identification of genes specific to mouse primordial germ cells through dynamic global gene expression. Hum. Mol. Genet. , 20, 115-25. PMID: 20940145 DOI.
  18. Lange UC, Saitou M, Western PS, Barton SC & Surani MA. (2003). The fragilis interferon-inducible gene family of transmembrane proteins is associated with germ cell specification in mice. BMC Dev. Biol. , 3, 1. PMID: 12659663
  19. Yamaguchi S, Kurimoto K, Yabuta Y, Sasaki H, Nakatsuji N, Saitou M & Tada T. (2009). Conditional knockdown of Nanog induces apoptotic cell death in mouse migrating primordial germ cells. Development , 136, 4011-20. PMID: 19906868 DOI.
  20. Sanz LA, Kota SK & Feil R. (2010). Genome-wide DNA demethylation in mammals. Genome Biol. , 11, 110. PMID: 20236475 DOI.
  21. Ji M, Tang S, Pei W, Ning M, Ma Y, Li X & Guan W. (2018). Generation of haploid spermatids from chicken embryonal primordial germ cells. Int. J. Mol. Med. , , . PMID: 29620249 DOI.
  22. Woodward PJ, Sohaey R, Kennedy A & Koeller KK. (2005). From the archives of the AFIP: a comprehensive review of fetal tumors with pathologic correlation. Radiographics , 25, 215-42. PMID: 15653597 DOI.


Reviews

Saitou M & Yamaji M. (2010). Germ cell specification in mice: signaling, transcription regulation, and epigenetic consequences. Reproduction , 139, 931-42. PMID: 20371640 DOI.

Richardson BE & Lehmann R. (2010). Mechanisms guiding primordial germ cell migration: strategies from different organisms. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. , 11, 37-49. PMID: 20027186 DOI.

Matsui Y. (2010). The molecular mechanisms regulating germ cell development and potential. J. Androl. , 31, 61-5. PMID: 19875497 DOI.

De Felici M, Farini D & Dolci S. (2009). In or out stemness: comparing growth factor signalling in mouse embryonic stem cells and primordial germ cells. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther , 4, 87-97. PMID: 19442193

Hayashi K, de Sousa Lopes SM & Surani MA. (2007). Germ cell specification in mice. Science , 316, 394-6. PMID: 17446386 DOI.

Matsui Y & Okamura D. (2005). Mechanisms of germ-cell specification in mouse embryos. Bioessays , 27, 136-43. PMID: 15666347 DOI.

Watson CM & Tam PP. (2001). Cell lineage determination in the mouse. Cell Struct. Funct. , 26, 123-9. PMID: 11565804

De Felici M. (2000). Regulation of primordial germ cell development in the mouse. Int. J. Dev. Biol. , 44, 575-80. PMID: 11061420

Articles

Cantú AV & Laird DJ. (2017). A pilgrim's progress: Seeking meaning in primordial germ cell migration. Stem Cell Res , 24, 181-187. PMID: 28754603 DOI.

West JA, Viswanathan SR, Yabuuchi A, Cunniff K, Takeuchi A, Park IH, Sero JE, Zhu H, Perez-Atayde A, Frazier AL, Surani MA & Daley GQ. (2009). A role for Lin28 in primordial germ-cell development and germ-cell malignancy. Nature , 460, 909-13. PMID: 19578360 DOI.

Durcova-Hills G, Tang F, Doody G, Tooze R & Surani MA. (2008). Reprogramming primordial germ cells into pluripotent stem cells. PLoS ONE , 3, e3531. PMID: 18953407 DOI.

Fujimoto T, Miyayama Y & Fuyuta M. (1977). The origin, migration and fine morphology of human primordial germ cells. Anat. Rec. , 188, 315-30. PMID: 900520 DOI.

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Search Pubmed: Primordial Germ Cell Migration | Primordial Germ Cell | Testicular germ cell tumours

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 11) Embryology Primordial Germ Cell Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Primordial_Germ_Cell_Development

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