Historic Embryology Vignette

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Introduction

Mark Hill.jpg

This page shows the brief historic vignettes that appear on various notes pages introduction and other sections. These are intended to give some historic background to Embryology. These can also appear as a collapsible table.

The links shown below are to full versions of historic embryology textbooks and papers.

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


History Links: Historic Embryology Papers | Historic Embryology Textbooks | Embryologists | Historic Vignette | Historic Periods | Historic Terminology | Human Embryo Collections | Carnegie Contributions | 17-18th C Anatomies | Embryology Models | Category:Historic Embryology
Historic Papers: 1800's | 1900's | 1910's | 1920's | 1930's | 1940's | 1950's | 1960's | 1970's | 1980's


Cerebellum

Historic Embryology
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Much of the basic structure of the cerebellum comes the historic histological studies and staining of Ramón Cahal (1852 - 1934) and Camillo Golgi (1843 - 1926). Cahal was a Spanish researcher who used the then new histology Golgi staining techniques to identify the cerebellum cellular structure. His work was a turning point in our understanding of the structure of the brain, that until then had been described as a "syncytium" and not consisting of discrete cellular elements. For this research and other work on defining the structure of the brain he, along with Camillo Golgi (1843 - 1926), received the 1906 Nobel Prize in Medicine.
Camillo Golgi  
Camillo Golgi.jpg
Camillo Golgi (1843 - 1926) developed the histology silver staining technique, though is best known today for the cellular organelle that bears his name, the Golgi apparatus.

History - Embryologists

See also the early descriptive studies:

Gray0706.jpg

Transverse section of a cerebellar folium.

Corpus Luteum

Historic Embryology
Regnier de Graaf.jpg

Regnier de Graaf (1641 – 1673) first observed histologically the corpus luteum in the ovary of a cow by its defining yellow structure. The yellow colour is caused by the accumulation of steroidal hormones.

Catchpole HR. Regnier De Graaf 1641-1673 (1940) Bull. Hist. Med. 8(9): 1261 - 1300. Corpus lutem

Ductus Deferens

Historic Embryology
Caspar Friedrich Wolff (1734-1794)
Theoria Generationis 1774.jpg

Caspar Friedrich Wolff (1734-1794) was a German embryologist and anatomist best known today for identifying the Wolffian duct (mesonephric duct; ductus deferens, epididymis), Wolffian body (mesonephros) and Wolffian cyst (mesonephric origin uterine broad ligament cyst) that bear his name. Thought also to be a founder of the germ layer theory. His doctorate dissertation Theoria generationis (1774) discarded the developmental theory of preformation. Later in his career, his teaching in Berlin was opposed by the professors of the Medical-Surgical College, who had guild privileges to teach medicine.

Gastrulation

Historic Embryology
Hans Spemann (1869 - 1941)

Hans Spemann (1869 - 1941) identified this region in amphibia, also called the "Spemann's organiser". The same region in birds it is known as "Hensen's node" named for Victor Hensen (1835 – 1924) and is also known generally as the primitive node or knot. In humans, it is proposed that similar mechanisms regulate gastrulation to those found in other vertebrates. Currently, the molecular and physical mechanisms that regulate patterning and migration during this key event are being investigated in several different animal models.

Male Genital

Historic Embryology
Caspar Friedrich Wolff (1734-1794)
Theoria Generationis 1774.jpg

Caspar Friedrich Wolff (1734-1794) was a German embryologist and anatomist best known today for identifying the Wolffian duct (mesonephric duct; ductus deferens, epididymis), Wolffian body (mesonephros) and Wolffian cyst (mesonephric origin uterine broad ligament cyst) that bear his name. Thought also to be a founder of the germ layer theory. His doctorate dissertation Theoria generationis (1774) discarded the developmental theory of preformation. Later in his career, his teaching in Berlin was opposed by the professors of the Medical-Surgical College, who had guild privileges to teach medicine.

Neural Crest

Historic Embryology
Arthur Milnes Marshall.jpg
Arthur Milnes Marshall (1852–1893) at Cambridge in 1879 historically first described this embryonic region. In his study of dogfish and chicken brain development, and identified it as "neural crest".[1]

See neural crest history and the original 1879 article.

Ovary

Historic Embryology
Nelsen1953 fig001.jpg
Meyer1932history3 fig02.jpg
Regnier de Graaf (1641 – 1673) was a Dutch anatomist and physician who described the anatomy of the uterine tube and the development of follicles in the ovary. He was first to describe the "Graafian follicle" (preovulatory follicle) in the ovary of mammals, but erroneously believed the entire follicle to be the mammalian oocyte (egg).

Pituitary

Historic Embryology
Martin Heinrich Rathke (1793 – 1860) During pituitary development, the boundary surface ectoderm placode epithelium on the roof of the pharynx forms a transient epithelial pocket (Rathke's pouch) that comes into contact with the ectoderm of developing brain.


Rathke's pouch is named after the German embryologist and anatomist Martin Heinrich Rathke (1793 -1860).

Spleen

Historic Embryology
Marcello Malpighi
Spleen white pulp
The Malpighian bodies or Malpighian bodies of the spleen is the historic name for spleen white pulp or splenic lymphoid nodules. Named after Marcello Malpighi (1628 – 1694) an Italian biologist and physician. A spleen lymphoid region, organized as lymphoid sheaths with both T-cell and B-cell compartments, around the branching arterial vessels (resembles lymph node structure).

The term should not be confused with the renal structure, a Malpighian corpuscle (renal corpuscle).

Tooth

Historic Embryology
Oscar Hertwig (1849-1922)

Oscar Hertwig (1849-1922) was a German embryologist and anatomist who first identified in amphibia tooth development, and was subsequently named Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS). In amphibia, this is a permanent structure. In mammals, this is a transient structure, assembled during early tooth root formation and elongation. Later the HERS becomes fenestrated and reduced to the epithelial rests of Malassez (ERM).[2]

Uterus

Historic Embryology
Johannes Muller.jpg Johannes Peter Müller (1801 - 1858) in 1830 was the first to describe the female genital duct that develops as the uterus and vagina, historically named after him as the "Müllerian duct". The current terminology is the "paramesonephric duct".

X Inactivation

Historic Embryology
Mary Lyon

Mary Lyon (1925-2014) was a UK geneticist who proposed in 1961 the theory of X inactivation, where one of the two X chromosomes in the cells of female mammals is randomly inactivated during early development. In deference to her, this process is also referred to as "Lyonisation". She also worked on other X-linked genetic diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and haemophilia.

References

  1. Marshall A. The morphology of the vertebrate olfactory organ. (1879) Quarterly Journal of Microscopic Science. 19: 300–340.
  2. Luan X, Ito Y & Diekwisch TG. (2006). Evolution and development of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath. Dev. Dyn. , 235, 1167-80. PMID: 16450392 DOI.

Glossary Links

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, September 19) Embryology Historic Embryology Vignette. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Historic_Embryology_Vignette

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G