Hamburger Hamilton Stages

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Introduction

Viktor Hamburger
Viktor Hamburger (1900 – 2001)

The 1951 Hamburger Hamilton Stages[1] are most commonly used for chicken staging. The complete original paper[1](and all data) was republished in 1992.[2]


Note that for chicken development there was an alternative Witschi staging system[3] and an even older 1900 Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbeltiere - Gallus domesticus. [4]

Chicken Links: Introduction | Chicken stages | Hamburger Hamilton Stages | Witschi Stages | Placodes | Category:Chicken
Historic Chicken Embryology  
1883 History of the Chick | 1900 Chicken Embryo Development Plates | 1904 X-Ray Effects | 1910 Somites | 1920 Chick Early Embryology | 1933 Neural | 1948 Limb | Movie 1961 | Historic Papers
HH Links: stage 1-4 | stages 5-10 | stages 11-14 | stages 15-18 | stages 19-21 | stages 22-25 | stages 26-28 | stages 29-32 | stages 33-35 | stages 36-37 | stages 38-39 | stages 40-41 | stages 42-43 | stages 44-45 | Hamburger Hamilton Stages


Hamburger Hamilton Stages
Age
Identification of Stages
Image
Before Laying
Early cleavage
3.5-4.5 hr Shell membrane of egg formed in isthmus of oviduct
During cleavage
Germ wall formed from marginal periblast
Late cleavage
4.5-24.0 hr Shell of egg formed in uterus
After Laying
1
Preprimitive streak (embryonic shield)
2
6-7 hr Initial primitive streak, 0.3-0.5 mm long
3
12-13 hr Intermediate primitive streak
4
18-19 hr Definitive primitive streak, ±1.88 mm long
5
19-22 hr Head process (notochord)
6
23-25 hr Head fold
7
23-26 hr 1 somite; neural folds
7 to 8-
ca. 23-26 hr 1-3 somites; coelom
8
26-29 hr 4 somites; blood islands
9
29-33 hr 7 somites; primary optic vesicles
9+ to 10-
ca. 33 hr 8-9 somites; anterior amniotic fold
10
33-38 hr 10 somites; 3 primary brain vesicles
11
40-45 hr 13 somites; 5 neuromeres of hindbrain
12
45-49 hr 16 somites; telencephalon
13
48-52 hr 19 somites; atrioventricular canal
13+ to 14-
ca. 50-52 hr 20-21 somites; tail bud
14
50-53 hr 22 somites; trunk flexure; visceral arches I and II, clefts 1 and 2
14+ to 15-
ca. 50-54 hr 23 somites; premandibular head cavities
15
50-55 hr 24-27 somites; visceral arch III, cleft 3
16
51-56 hr 26-28 somites; wing bud; posterior amniotic fold
17
52-64 hr 29-32 somites; leg bud; epiphysis
18
3 da 30-36 somites extending beyond level of leg bud; allantois
19
3.0-3.5 da 37- 40 somites extending into tail; maxillary process
20
3.0-3.5 da 40-43 somites; rotation completed; eye pigment
21
3.5 da 43-44 somites; visceral arch IV, cleft 4
22
3.5-4.0 da Somites extend to tip of tail
23
4 da Dorsal contour from hindbrain to tail is a curved line
24
4.5 da Toe plate
25
4.5-5.0 da Elbow and knee joints
26
5 da 1st 3 toes
27
5.0-5.5 da Beak
28
5.5-6.0 da 3 digits, 4 toes
29
6.0-6.5 da Rudiment of 5th toe
30
6.5-7.0 da Feather germs; scleral papillae; egg tooth
31
7.0-7.5 da Web between 1st and 2nd digits
32
7.5 da Anterior tip of mandible has reached beak
33
7.5-8.0 da Web on radial margin of wing and 1st digit
34
8 da Nictitating membrane
35
8.5-9.0 da Phalanges in toes
36
10 da Length of 3rd toe from tip to middle of metatarsal joint = 5.4 ±0.3 mm; length of beak from anterior angle of nostril to tip of bill = 2.5mm; primordium of comb; labial groove; uropygial gland
37
11 da Length of 3rd toe = 7.4 ±0.3mm; length of beak = 3.0 mm
38
12 da Length of 3rd toe = 8.4 ± 0.3 mm; length of beak = 3.1 mm
39
13 da Length of 3rd toe = 9.8 ± 0.3 mm; length of beak = 3.5 mm
40
14 da Length of beak = 4.0 mm; length of 3rd toe = 12.7 ± 0.5 mm
41
15 da Length of beak from anterior angle of nostril to tip of upper bill = 4.5 mm; length of 3rd toe = 14.9 ± 0.8 mm
42
16 da Length of beak = 4.8 mm; length of 3rd toe = 16.7 ± 0.8 mm
43
17 da Length of beak = 5.0 mm; length of 3rd toe = 18.6 ± 0.8 mm
44
18 da Length of beak = 5.7 mm; length of 3rd toe = 20.4 ± 0.8 mm
45
19-20 da Yolk sac half enclosed in body cavity; chorio-allantoic membrane contains less blood and is "sticky" in living embryo
46
20-21 da Newly-hatched chick

Individual Stages

Plates


Hamburger Hamilton Stages (1951)  
Hamburger Hamilton Stages
Age
Identification of Stages   (Chicken Development)
Before Laying
Early cleavage
3.5-4.5 hr Shell membrane of egg formed in isthmus of oviduct
During cleavage
Germ wall formed from marginal periblast
Late cleavage
4.5-24.0 hr Shell of egg formed in uterus
After Laying
1
Preprimitive streak (embryonic shield)
2
6-7 hr Initial primitive streak, 0.3-0.5 mm long
3
12-13 hr Intermediate primitive streak
4
18-19 hr Definitive primitive streak, ±1.88 mm long
5
19-22 hr Head process (notochord)
6
23-25 hr Head fold
7
23-26 hr 1 somite; neural folds
7 to 8-
ca. 23-26 hr 1-3 somites; coelom
8
26-29 hr 4 somites; blood islands
9
29-33 hr 7 somites; primary optic vesicles
9+ to 10-
ca. 33 hr 8-9 somites; anterior amniotic fold
10
33-38 hr 10 somites; 3 primary brain vesicles
11
40-45 hr 13 somites; 5 neuromeres of hindbrain
12
45-49 hr 16 somites; telencephalon
13
48-52 hr 19 somites; atrioventricular canal
13+ to 14-
ca. 50-52 hr 20-21 somites; tail bud
14
50-53 hr 22 somites; trunk flexure; visceral arches I and II, clefts 1 and 2
14+ to 15-
ca. 50-54 hr 23 somites; premandibular head cavities
15
50-55 hr 24-27 somites; visceral arch III, cleft 3
16
51-56 hr 26-28 somites; wing bud; posterior amniotic fold
17
52-64 hr 29-32 somites; leg bud; epiphysis
18
3 da 30-36 somites extending beyond level of leg bud; allantois
19
3.0-3.5 da 37- 40 somites extending into tail; maxillary process
20
3.0-3.5 da 40-43 somites; rotation completed; eye pigment
21
3.5 da 43-44 somites; visceral arch IV, cleft 4
22
3.5-4.0 da Somites extend to tip of tail
23
4 da Dorsal contour from hindbrain to tail is a curved line
24
4.5 da Toe plate
25
4.5-5.0 da Elbow and knee joints
26
5 da 1st 3 toes
27
5.0-5.5 da Beak
28
5.5-6.0 da 3 digits, 4 toes
29
6.0-6.5 da Rudiment of 5th toe
30
6.5-7.0 da Feather germs; scleral papillae; egg tooth
31
7.0-7.5 da Web between 1st and 2nd digits
32
7.5 da Anterior tip of mandible has reached beak
33
7.5-8.0 da Web on radial margin of wing and 1st digit
34
8 da Nictitating membrane
35
8.5-9.0 da Phalanges in toes
36
10 da Length of 3rd toe from tip to middle of metatarsal joint = 5.4 ±0.3 mm; length of beak from anterior angle of nostril to tip of bill = 2.5mm; primordium of comb; labial groove; uropygial gland
37
11 da Length of 3rd toe = 7.4 ±0.3mm; length of beak = 3.0 mm
38
12 da Length of 3rd toe = 8.4 ± 0.3 mm; length of beak = 3.1 mm
39
13 da Length of 3rd toe = 9.8 ± 0.3 mm; length of beak = 3.5 mm
40
14 da Length of beak = 4.0 mm; length of 3rd toe = 12.7 ± 0.5 mm
41
15 da Length of beak from anterior angle of nostril to tip of upper bill = 4.5 mm; length of 3rd toe = 14.9 ± 0.8 mm
42
16 da Length of beak = 4.8 mm; length of 3rd toe = 16.7 ± 0.8 mm
43
17 da Length of beak = 5.0 mm; length of 3rd toe = 18.6 ± 0.8 mm
44
18 da Length of beak = 5.7 mm; length of 3rd toe = 20.4 ± 0.8 mm
45
19-20 da Yolk sac half enclosed in body cavity; chorio-allantoic membrane contains less blood and is "sticky" in living embryo
46
20-21 da Newly-hatched chick

Hamburger V. and Hamilton HL. A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. (1951) J Morphol. 88(1): 49-92. PMID 24539719 PDF

Original 1951 paper (and all data) was republished in 1992. V Hamburger, H L Hamilton A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. 1951. Dev. Dyn.: 1992, 195(4);231-72 PubMed 1304821

PDF

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Hamburger V. and Hamilton HL. A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. (1951) J Morphol. 88(1): 49-92. PMID 24539719 PDF
  2. Hamburger V & Hamilton HL. (1992). A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. 1951. Dev. Dyn. , 195, 231-72. PMID: 1304821 DOI.
  3. Witschi E. Development of Vertebrates. (1956) Saunders, Philadelphia.
  4. Keibel F. and Abraham K. Normal Plates of the Development of the Chicken Embryo (Gallus domesticus). (1900) Vol. 2 in series by Keibel F. Normal plates of the development of vertebrates (Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbelthiere) Fisher, Jena., Germany.


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, April 24) Embryology Hamburger Hamilton Stages. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Hamburger_Hamilton_Stages

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© Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G