ANAT2241 Glandular Epithelia

From Embryology

ANAT2241 course banner.jpg

ANAT2241 This practical support page content is not part of the virtual science practical class and provides additional information for student self-directed learning purposes. All practical class pages are located on Moodle - 2019 ANAT2241

General Objective

To recognise exocrine and endocrine glandular epithelium.

Specific Objectives

  1. To know the morphological characteristics of mucous and serous secretory cells.
  2. To identify the following types of exocrine glands: unicellular (Goblet cell), secretory sheet, simple tubular (straight and coiled), simple and branched alveolar (acinar) glands, compound tubular and tubulo-alveolar (tubulo-acinar) glands.
  3. To recognise the different arrangement of endocrine glands when compared to exocrine glands.

Learning Activities

  • The arrangement of the gland cells and the presence or absence of branched ducts.
  • Examine the following virtual slides, identify draw and label the following types of glands.

Glandular Epithelia | Histology Drawings

Histology Stains

Common Histology Stains  
Histology Stains - Common Stains and Their Reactions
Stain
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Collagen
RBCs
Other
Haematoxylin
blue
-
-
-
mucins - light blue
Eosin
-
pink
pale pink
bright red
colloid - pinkmuscle - red
Iron Haematoxylin
blue/black
-
-
-
Van Gieson
-
brown/yellow
red
yellow
muscle: yellow/browncartilage - pink
Verhoeff's Elastin
black
-
-
-
elastic fibres - black
Tartrazine
-
yellow
yellow
yellow
Silver Impregnation
-
-
grey/brown
-
reticular fibres - black
Methyl Green
dark green
light green
light green
green
Nuclear Fast Red
red
pink
pink
pink
Gomori's Trichrome
purple/red
purple
green
red
keratin - redmuscle - purple/red
Heidenhain's Azan
red
purple/red
deep blue
red
muscle - red
Osmium Tetroxide
-
-
brown
brown
myelin, lipids - black
Alcian Blue
-
-
-
-
mucins, - blue
Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)
-
-
pink
-
mucins, glycogen, glycocalyx - magenta
Phosphotungstic Acid-Hematoxylin (PTAH)
blue
-
red
blue
muscle bands - blue
Masson's Trichrome
blue/black
red
green/blue
red
cartilage, mucins - blue or green; muscle - red
Luxol Fast Blue
-
-
-
variable
myelin - blue
Aldehyde Fuchsin
-
-
-
-
elastic fibres, mast cells - deep purple
Light Green
-
-
light green
-
Gallocyanin
dark blue
-
-
-
nucleic acids, Nissl granules - dark blue
Romanowsky (e.g. Leishman's)
blue
pink
acidophils - red, basophils - blue, azurophilic - purple
Aldehyde Pararosanilin elastic fibres - purple
Haematoxylin and Eosin
One of the most common staining techniques in pathology and histology. Acronym "H and E" stain. (H&E, HE).


Haematoxylin
  • Stains nuclei blue to dark-blue.
  • Stains the matrix of hyaline cartilage, myxomatous, and mucoid material pale blue.
  • Stains myelin weakly but is not noticeable if combined with eosin stain.
  • combined with Orange G (H & Or. G.) instead of eosin, specifically stains the granules of acidophilic cells of the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary).
Eosin
  • Stains cytoplasm pink to red; red blood cells are also bright red.
  • Common counterstain to hematoxylin.
  • Stain intensity varies with the formula as well as the fixative.

Gland Secretion Mechanisms

Merocrine secretion animation.gif Apocrine secretion animation.gif Holocrine secretion animation.gif
Merocrine (eccrine) secretion Apocrine secretion Holocrine secretion

Respiratory Epithelium

Respiratory histology 11.jpg

Pseudostratified columnar and ciliated. This type of epithelium is characteristic for all conductive passages dedicated to the respiratory system and therefore also called respiratory epithelium.

Stomach

Secretory sheath (sheet)

Stomach histology 001.jpgStomach histology 006.jpg

Salivary Glands

Parotid gland histology

Large salivary glands form 3 paired groups:

  1. sublingual glands (beneath the tongue and embedded in oral cavity connective tissue)
  2. submandibular glands
  3. parotid glands (lie outside the oral cavity)



Tubuloacinar Glands

  • have secretory acini
  • also the first part of the duct system from the acini participates in secretory process
  • salivary glands are divided by connective tissue septa into lobes
    • further subdivided into lobules



Ducts

Gland duct histology cartoon.jpg
  • Interlobular and interlobar ducts - embedded in the connective tissue surrounding the lobes and lobules of the glands
    • stratified cuboidal or stratified columnar epithelium
    • stratified squamous epithelium at the oral cavity opening
  • Intralobular ducts - in between the secretory acini within the lobules
  • Intercalated ducts - difficult to identify in mucous glands
  • Striated ducts - absent in purely mucous glands
Parotid Ducts
Parotid gland histology 05.jpg Parotid histology stratified columnar 01.jpg Parotid gland histology 03.jpg
Interlobar duct Interlobar duct epithelium Intercalated duct

Serous and Mucous

Serous acini Mucous acini
  • round or slightly ovoid nucleus placed basally
  • (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) - apical cytoplasm appears pinkish/red containing reddish granules
  • flattened nuclei "pressed" against basal surface
  • secretory vesicles fill the apical cytoplasm
  • apical cytoplasm appears "spongy"
    • secretory product dissolved during staining process or remains unstained
Parotid gland histology 06.jpg Parotid gland histology 04.jpg Sublingual gland histology 02.jpg
Serous acini and interlobular ducts Serous acini secretory granules (zymogen granules) Serous demilune

Integumentary Glands

Pancreas - Exocrine and Endocrine

Exocrine Endocrine
Pancreas histology 002.jpg Pancreas histology 003.jpg
Pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans)



Course Links

Moodle - ANAT2241 - 2019

Histology Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ANAT2241 Support | Histology | Histology Stains | Embryology Glossary


Common Histology Stains  
Histology Stains - Common Stains and Their Reactions
Stain
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Collagen
RBCs
Other
Haematoxylin
blue
-
-
-
mucins - light blue
Eosin
-
pink
pale pink
bright red
colloid - pinkmuscle - red
Iron Haematoxylin
blue/black
-
-
-
Van Gieson
-
brown/yellow
red
yellow
muscle: yellow/browncartilage - pink
Verhoeff's Elastin
black
-
-
-
elastic fibres - black
Tartrazine
-
yellow
yellow
yellow
Silver Impregnation
-
-
grey/brown
-
reticular fibres - black
Methyl Green
dark green
light green
light green
green
Nuclear Fast Red
red
pink
pink
pink
Gomori's Trichrome
purple/red
purple
green
red
keratin - redmuscle - purple/red
Heidenhain's Azan
red
purple/red
deep blue
red
muscle - red
Osmium Tetroxide
-
-
brown
brown
myelin, lipids - black
Alcian Blue
-
-
-
-
mucins, - blue
Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)
-
-
pink
-
mucins, glycogen, glycocalyx - magenta
Phosphotungstic Acid-Hematoxylin (PTAH)
blue
-
red
blue
muscle bands - blue
Masson's Trichrome
blue/black
red
green/blue
red
cartilage, mucins - blue or green; muscle - red
Luxol Fast Blue
-
-
-
variable
myelin - blue
Aldehyde Fuchsin
-
-
-
-
elastic fibres, mast cells - deep purple
Light Green
-
-
light green
-
Gallocyanin
dark blue
-
-
-
nucleic acids, Nissl granules - dark blue
Romanowsky (e.g. Leishman's)
blue
pink
acidophils - red, basophils - blue, azurophilic - purple
Aldehyde Pararosanilin elastic fibres - purple
Haematoxylin and Eosin
One of the most common staining techniques in pathology and histology. Acronym "H and E" stain. (H&E, HE).


Haematoxylin
  • Stains nuclei blue to dark-blue.
  • Stains the matrix of hyaline cartilage, myxomatous, and mucoid material pale blue.
  • Stains myelin weakly but is not noticeable if combined with eosin stain.
  • combined with Orange G (H & Or. G.) instead of eosin, specifically stains the granules of acidophilic cells of the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary).
Eosin
  • Stains cytoplasm pink to red; red blood cells are also bright red.
  • Common counterstain to hematoxylin.
  • Stain intensity varies with the formula as well as the fixative.

Practical Support

Pages can be accessed from any internet connected computer.

ANAT2241 Support Links: The Virtual Microscope | Covering and Lining Epithelia | Glandular Epithelia | CT Components | CT Types | Bone, Bone Formation and Joints | Muscle | Nervous | Blood | Eye | Cardiovascular | Respiratory | Integumentary | Gastrointestinal | Gastrointestinal Organs | Lymphatic and Immune | Endocrine | Urinary | Female Reproductive | Male Reproductive | Histology Stains | Histology Drawings | Practicals Health and Safety 2013 | Moodle - 2019


ANAT2241 This practical support page content is not part of the science practical class and provides only background information for student self-directed learning purposes.


Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, August 18) Embryology ANAT2241 Glandular Epithelia. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/ANAT2241_Glandular_Epithelia

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G