Welcome to the 2014 Embryology Course!
- Each week the individual assessment questions will be displayed in the practical class pages and also added here.
- Copy the assessment items to your own page and provide your answer.
- Note - Some guest assessments may require completion of a worksheet that will be handed in in class with your student name and ID.
|Individual Lab Assessment|
|Lab 12 - Stem Cell Presentation Assessment||More Info|
- 1 Lab Attendance
- 2 Lab Assessment 1 - Fertilization References
- 3 Lab Assesment 2 - Uploading a Research Image
- 4 Lab Assessment 3 - Project Researching
- 5 Lab Assesement 4
- 6 Online photo submission for Group Project (Lab 8)
- 7 Lab Assesment 7
- 8 Lab Assesment 8
- 9 Lab Asssesment 9
Lab Assessment 1 - Fertilization References
- Predictive factors in in vitro fertilization(IVF): a systematic review and meta-analysis
Article focused on acquiring data from previous case studies and research papers, collaborating data to determine the success rate of pregnancy prior In-vitro fertilization and certain factors which play a part in a successful pregnancy from the procedure.
The articles which were used in the data pooling were eligible to be used if they evaluated the association between one or more of the pre-identified factors (listed below) and its effect on pregnancy after the use of IVF in an unselected patient group and were not considered if they reported on a specific patient group within the sub fertile IVF population or if no association was drawn between eh predictive factors and pregnancy or could not be determined. From the data the following factors were carefully analysed to determine if they play a part in the success rate of pregnancy post IVF; Age, Type of Infertility, Duration of Infertility, Basal Follicle stimulating hormones, Oocytes present, Fertilization method and Embryo Quality
From the 14 studies that were used in the data pooling, it was found that ‘women aged 35 years or older had significantly lower pregnancy chances compared with women who were younger than 25’ (Loendersloot et al., 2010) as well as studies showing that women who were aged above 30, in comparison to those in their mid-twenties had a lower chance of pregnancy. Age was recognised as a ‘continuous variable’ throughout the studies which showed decreasing chances of a successful pregnancy as the patients age increases. Further studies showed the relationship between the amount of bFSH (Basal Follicle Stimulating Hormones) and pregnancy. In 2 case studies, it was revealed that pregnancy chances were higher post IVF in patients with a lower level of FSH in comparison to women with a higher level of FSH concentration. Oddity Rates confirmed that ‘increasing bFSH values were associated with lower pregnancy rates after IVF’ 3 of the studies determined the correlation of embryo quality to pregnancy after IVF. It also found that women with embryos with higher development stage and morphology scores had higher pregnancy chances compared to those which scored lower and also, embryos which showed delayed or appropriate development stages had lower pregnancy chances compared to women with advanced development stages.
--Mark Hill - There appears to be only a single article reviewed here? Your summary for this was correct and concise, though you have also not cited the reference correctly. (3/5).
Lab Assesment 2 - Uploading a Research Image
Immunofluroescent labelling of embryo for Immunoreactive 5 - Methylocytosine
--Mark Hill (talk) 16:23, 21 August 2014 (EST) The content is all correct, I have changed the information associated with the file formatting to match the site preferences. Please use this layout in future. The image title is very long, and spelling is incorrect, please reupload with a shorter title and correct spelling. The reference should also appear here where the image appears. (3/5)
Lab Assessment 3 - Project Researching
Historical/Historic Finding for Neural Development
<pubmed>19339620</pubmed> <pubmed>17848161</pubmed> <pubmed>8005032</pubmed> <pubmed>9311417</pubmed> <pubmed>12768653</pubmed>
--Mark Hill These references are appropriate for the project sub-heading, though you could have included a single sentence explain why/how you selected these references. (5/5)
Lab Assesement 4
1. Identify a paper that uses cord stem cells therapeutically and write a brief (2-3 paragraph) description of the paper's findings.
This study researched on the safety and efficacy of the use of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 172 patients who had been diagnosed with RA who were not recovering from use of traditional medication were chosen, then divided into two separate groups for different treatments, one group recieving disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) plus medium without UC-MSCs and DMARDs with UC-MSCs via intravenous injection. Serum levels of inflammatiry chemokines.cytokines were measured and lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood were analyzed. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 decreased after the first UC-MSCs treatment (P<0.05). The percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells of peripheral blood was increased (P<0.05). The treatment induced a significant remission of disease.
The therapeutic effects maintained for 3-6 months without continuous administration, correlating with the increased percentage of regulatory T cells of peripheral blood. Repeated infusion after this period can enhance the therapeutic efficacy. In comparison, there were no such benefits observed in control group of DMARDS plus medium without UC-MSCs. In conclusion, there were no benefits recorded in the control group who recieved DMARDS plus medium withouth US-MSCs, indicating that treatments with DMARDs plus US-MSCs provides a safe, significant and persistent clinical benefit for patients with RA.
2.There are a number of developmental vascular "shunts" present in the embryo, that are closed postnatally. Identify these shunts and their anatomical location.
3 developmental vascular ‘shunts’ are present in the embryo which are closed postnatally
1) Foramen Ovale
In the foetal stage, the Foramen Ovale is the opening in the inter-atrial septum which allows the blood to enter the left atrium from the right atrium. This opening closes at birth when lung gains function, the pulmonary pressure decreases and the left atrial pressure exceeds that of the right atrium, forcing the septum primum against the spectrum secundum closing the foramen ovale
2) Ductus Venosus
In the foetus, the ductus venosus shunts blood from the left umbilical vein directly to the inferior vena cava and therefore allows oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the liverIt is critical in shunting oxygenated blood to the fetal brain. The remanent of the ductus venosus is found as ligamentum venosus attached to the left branch of the portal vein
Online photo submission for Group Project (Lab 8)
Arachnoid cyst with Hydrocephalus
Lab Assesment 7
1. Identify and write a brief description of the findings of a recent research paper on development of one of the endocrine organs covered in today's practical.
The journal focuses on the further understanding of genetic aetiology of some of the several forms of adrenal failures which can be present in childhood or infancy. Disorders which affect the adrenal development are termed 'adrenal hypoplasia'.
Conditions occuring in the adrenal glands are grouped into: 1) Secondary form of adrenal hypoplaisa due to panhypopituitarism / abnormality in ACTH synthesis 2) Adrenal hypoplasia as part of an ACTH resistance syndrome 3) Primary defects in the development of the adrenal gland itself
Adrenal hypoplasia is most commonly found occuring in X-linked form due to mutations in the nuclear receptor DAX1.
2. Identify the embryonic layers and tissues that contribute to the developing teeth.
Teeth develop from the ectoderm and the endoderm. Enamel of teeth develops from the ectoderm of the oral cavity whereas all other tissues come from the assosicated mesenchyme. Development of teeth is in continuous stages
1) Dental lamina and bud stage - early in week 6 as U-shaped thickenings of the oral epithelium
2) Cap Stage - Deep surface of ectodermal tooth bud is invaginated by mesenchyme called 'dental papilla' which gives off 'dentin'. Ectodermal cap covering the papilla is called 'enamel organ' as it produces the future enamel of teeth
3) Bell Stage - invagination of the enamel organ where the teeth forms the shape of a bell
Lab Assesment 8
Basic Timeline for Gential Development
Week 3-4: Migration of primordial germ cells during gastrulation
Week 4: Intermdiate mesoderm and pronephros primordium
Week 5: Mesonephros and mesonephric duct
Week6: Ureteric bud, metanephros and Genital ridge
Week 7: Cloacal division, gonadal primordium (indifferent to 1st appearance of testis cords)
Week 8: Paramesonephric duct, clear gonadal differentiation
The differentiation of gonads into testis or ovaries depends only on the chromosomes received from the parents, either the X chromosomes for females and Y chromosome for males. Expression of SRY protein encodes 204 amino acid protein, the transcription factors bind to specific sites of DNA and regulates the transcription of other genes.
In males, the SRY is expressed in the primordia of support cells which surround germ cells, transforming the support cells into much needed Sertoli cells. Sertoli cells instigate the germ cells and steroid secreting cells to undertake a male development pathway
In the male gonad, the paramesonephric dict degenerates due to the introduction of anti-mullerian hormone which is secreted by sertoli cells, mesonephric duct is maintained and differentiates under the influence of testosterone, they extend out of the gonad to form the ductus deferens
Lab Asssesment 9
The group project has covered a wide angle of the fetal development of Respiratory system. The introduction is very concise and informative, but it would have been better to give us a heads up of what is going to be included in the wiki-page. The different histological diagrams of 'respiratory zones' were good in giving us an idea of what the cells look like, however, none of the diagrams are labelled leaving us to our own imagination of what is what (I'm guessing the first picture in the project represents a zone of respiratory cells?)
The tabulated data makes it easier to understand the different stages of development, splitting it into different stages (including the weeks underneath), I think it would be better to maybe condense the information in the table to key dot points as currently it seems saturated with information. Maybe even include histological diagrams of the different development stages
There are no current models listed in the 'Current Research, Models and Findings' section but there has been extensive research in the Research and Findings. The information in this section is very well laid out allowing easy reading and understanding of the information that has been presented. The diagram used at the end of this subsection is very simple and informative :)
In the 'Conducting System' - the picture does not appear for me (only me?)
Historical findings have also been extensively covered, a well put out timeline with different observation timepoints. Abnormalities have also been extensively covered in the group project, however I think it would be better to employ the use of more diagrams of the different diseases and abnormalities.
Having the references scattered throughout the page seems to break the flow of the group project :/ Maybe have them all grouped up under a separate subheading :)
Great work on your project, a little touch up here and there with some more diagrams will greatly improve this project
The introduction to this group project is informative and explains the basic components and function of the Renal system. It gives us a nice overview of the whole project . Historical section needs to have information put it? (maybe tabulated data or a timeline structure?)
Developmental timeline is laid out simply and basic information which is good for the average readers but not so helpful when it comes to someone who has no idea what the words mean (from an outside point of view) maybe even tabulate the data to clean it up a bit and make it look formal as well as putting in diagrams of the different developmental stages of Renal.
The current research model has a interesting article view added however, it just seems like a condensed wall of words, maybe lay out the section in a way to help readers read the text easily? Its really hard to keep track. Interesting diagram used :) Maybe add more current research papers, more citations? (just a suggestion)
The section with the subheadings of kidney, ureter and bladder is extremely well explained with appropriate diagrams included throughout the descriptions! However it would also be better to split up certain parts of the text as, like the current research model section, it is hard to keep up.
Maybe include more Renal abnormalities in your group project, the ones listed are interesting and some have diagrams to follow on with them, but some of them have just the basic information and nothing else. More diagrams and more information on the abnoralities you have put would greatly help in the project structure.
For referencing, the scattered references throughout the project interrupt with the flow of the project, maybe put all the references in a separate subheading at the bottom of the wiki-page to help with looks :)
Overall great work, some touch-ups to structure and visual aesthetics and you should be good :)
A clear and concise introduction to the group project allows us to know what to expect to see throughout the group project. It clearly outlines what will be covered.
The development overview section is really well laid out, with information split up by breaks to allow for easier reading and for readers to recognize the different stages of development. The tabulated data, timeline and diagrams are extremely well put out! The information in the table description is adequate and explains what needs to be explained about the diagram (week 18 just says example?)
Recent findings section is nice a purple :) Informative and well broken down, however some more uses of paragraphing would help with the overall structure of this section. great use of diagrams with the recent findings. Last 2 Recent finding articles have yet to be explained right?
Historical findings have been covered with lots of good information, use some use of text formatting (bolding words) to help with the different sub-subheadings in this section :) Some in-text citations would be helpful in understanding where the information came from.
Abnormalities have been extensively covered with some interesting information and nice use of diagrams as well as the descriptive text which accompany them. Adding a few more abnormalities and diagrams would help with the project :)
Overall great work on your group project! Looking very good so far! Fix up some citation errors and place all your references at the bottom of the page and you should be all set to go
There is currently no information under the 'introduction' subheading? With no introduction, we arn't given the basic outline of what systems will be covered as well as basic understanding of what the endocrine system comprises of and what its basic functions in our body are. Maybe put up this information when you guys have the chance to as it could help out with the flow of the group project.
There is nice information on the different parts of the Endocrine system (a typo for 'abnormalities' in the Pineal Gland section) but no in-text citations as of now, it would greatly clarify where the information came from as well as save you from having all the references under your body of text in that subheading :)
Under Hypothalamus subheading, the table is not complete yet, but once filled in would look great. Maybe even put the tables description in bold (yes I saw the text above it) Good use of diagrams throughout the project.
Although all the different parts of the system are thoroughly covered, there is no information no subheading which marks Current research models and findings as well as Historical findings? It might be good to add such information into the group project as they are two of the main subheadings Mark put out for us on the initial assignment release :)
Also for the references, place all the references in the subheading you guys have made at the bottom of the page as well as putting in-text citations to help with the overall flow of the group project.
Great job overall, there is loads and loads of information on this system and its clear you guys are doing it well so far!
The introduction to your page is extremely funny, but this is completely irrelevant to the project and should be taken out before you submit the assignment. There are long blocks of texts on the page, with no tables or any pictures sadly. There should be a some images/digarams/videos for each heading. There is a number of good headings, with information within that needs to be further developed. There is great potential for this group project to develop further.
There is a Heading labelled, 'Muscle development general timeline' however, underneath this section, there is only a small paragraph with no timeline whatsoever. If you don't want to have a timeline in this section of your project, then remove the word 'timeline from this heading'. However, I think a timeline would be a great way to show an overview of the key events of the muscoskeletal system.
There is an broad, and long section of information under "background embryonic development". Just remember that our projects are about fetal development and not the embryonic stage of the system our project is about. The time spent on writing this section could have been spent on working on other parts of the assignment that require greater attention.
Towards the end of the references list, there are references that have not properly been citied. There also exists a format error in your reference list that would need to be fixed before the final group submission.
Identify a recent research paper on sensory development (not hearing) and write a brief summary (several paragraphs) of the research methods and findings. Include at the need a link to the relevant wiki sensory notes page
This research article focused on understanding where the external stimuli shape the cortical architecture and initial genetic roadmap during Post-natal sensory development. The Nervous structures which are responsible for initial stimulus processing and evidence from previous studies suggested that even before the onset of vision, activity as well as genetic factors during development form the basis for refinement of functional networks driven by experiences, this is understood further by Vaidya and Gordon’s studies; genetic and experience dependant maturational processes shape intrinsic connectivity networks. Through the research, relationships are drawn through the relationship between eye movements and functional activity in ‘utero’ to identify the corresponding functional networks before birth.
In the research, subjects who were studied were singleton foetuses between the gestational weeks 30-36 with the average age of mothers (at time of Magnetic Resonance Imagery) bring 32 years. The mothers to be studied were examined in a supine position with no sedatives or foreign agents being administered. All measurements were recorded and undertaken using a ‘Single shot gradient-recalled echo-planar imaging’ (EPI) method.
Foetal eyes were tracked computationally based of the information from MRI slices containing eyes of the foetuses, eye positions are relative eye angles were calculated for each time frame in the MRI resulting in a sequence of relative angles for both eyes in MRI frames. Each eye movement events were defined as time points when eye movement was initiated (obtained by marking peaks of derivative of the absolute value of the first derivative of relative eye angles
Results showed the relationships between fetal eye movement and activation in visual areas, motor areas and orbitofrontal areas in utero. Presence and relationships of the reported functional networks between visual and frontal areas in foetus prepare the developing brain for the processing of visual patterns as a precursor for subsequent postnatal stimulus driven development of visual perception. 4 types of movements were recorded throughout the experiment. Type 1 movements were single transient deviations consisting of a bulb deviation. Type 2 actions were slower return movements back to the resting position. Type 3 movements were complex sequences of eye movements to different directions with periodicity and Type 4 was recorded as repetitive nystagmoid eye movements