Talk:Human Embryo Collections

From Embryology

A consortium is an association of two or more individuals, companies, organizations or governments (or any combination of these entities) with the objective of participating in a common activity or pooling their resources for achieving a common goal.

(Latin, consors = partner; from con = together and sors = fate, meaning owner of means or comrade)

University of Vienna

Institute of Histology and Embryology Collection (Dr V. Patzelt) cited by Sgalitzer (1941) in describing the development of the human thyroid.

Sgalitzer KE. Contribution to the study of the morphogenesis of the thyroid gland. (1941) J Anat. 75(4): 389-405. PMID 17104869

Domenech-Mateu Collection

Josep Maria Domenech Mateu (Valls, 1944) is full professor of human anatomy at the Department of Morphological Sciences at the Autonomous University of Barcelona. Born in Valls in 1944, Domenech Mateu is renowned medical doctor and descendant of John and Giné Partagàs (a sister whose mother was the paternal grandmother, Dolores and Gine Gine). Doctor in 1972 with a thesis directed by Professor Orts Llorca. Member of the Institute of Catalan Studies and academic member of the Royal Academy of Medicine of Catalonia since 1996, when he entered with a speech on Morphogenesis His-Tawara system memory and anatomical fibrous skeleton of the heart. He has received numerous scientific awards, including the National Prize of Cardiology (1981). In 1986 he received the medal Narcís Monturiol and the 1991 international award Emanuel B. Kaplan. In his long career in research published over 150 scientific papers, especially in the field of embryology and anatomy. For his dedication has brought together a wide embrioteca human form Bellaterra Collection.ènech_Mateu


Josep Maria Domènech Mateu (Valls, 1944) és catedràtic numerari d'anatomia humana del Departament de Ciències Morfològiques de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Nascut a Valls el 1944, Domènech Mateu és metge i descendent del prestigiós metge Joan Giné i Partagàs (una germana del qual era mare de l'àvia paterna, Dolors Giné i Giné). Doctor el 1972, amb una tesi dirigida pel professor Orts Llorca. Membre numerari de l'Institut d'Estudis Catalans i acadèmic numerari de la Reial Acadèmia de Medicina de Catalunya des del 1996, quan hi ingressà amb un discurs sobre Morfogènesi del sistema His-Tawara i record anatòmic de l'esquelet fibrós del cor. Ha estat guardonat amb nombrosos premis científics, com el Premio Nacional de Cardiología (1981). L'any 1986 va rebre la medalla Narcís Monturiol i el 1991 el premi internacional Emanuel B. Kaplan. En la seva llarga carrera investigadora ha publicat més de 150 treballs científics, especialment en l'àmbit de l'embriologia i l'anatomia. Per la seva dedicació ha aconseguit reunir una extensa embrioteca humana que forma la Col·lecció Bellaterra.

Kyoto Collection

"Approximately 44,000 human embryos and fetuses have been collected and stored at Kyoto University over the past four decades, with the aid of several hundred obstetricians. In the majority of the cases, pregnancy was terminated for social reasons during the first trimester of pregnancy (the Maternity Protection Law of Japan) and healthy embryo generally were derived from the pregnancies. The pregnancies were mainly terminated by dilatation and curettage. Some specimens were derived from spontaneous or threatened abortions. Because the attending obstetricians did not examine the aborted materials, the collection of embryos was not biased by their outcome (normal or abnormal, live or dead, etc.) and the embryo collection can be considered to be representative of the total intrauterine population in Japan."

Imaging of a large collection of human embryo using a super-parallel MR microscope

Magn Reson Med Sci. 2007;6(3):139-46.

Matsuda Y, Ono S, Otake Y, Handa S, Kose K, Haishi T, Yamada S, Uwabe C, Shiota K. Source Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.


Using 4 and 8-channel super-parallel magnetic resonance (MR) microscopes with a horizontal bore 2.34T superconducting magnet developed for 3-dimensional MR microscopy of the large Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos, we acquired T(1)-weighted 3D images of 1204 embryos at a spatial resolution of (40 microm)(3) to (150 microm)(3) in about 2 years. Similarity of image contrast between the T(1)-weighted images and stained anatomical sections indicated that T(1)-weighted 3D images could be used for an anatomical 3D image database for human embryology.

PMID 18037794 The username is ‘Human’ and password is ‘Embryo’. Detailed instructions for these atlases are available online after logging in.

Graphic and movie illustrations of human prenatal development and their application to embryological education based on the human embryo specimens in the Kyoto collection

Dev Dyn. 2006 Feb;235(2):468-77.

Yamada S, Uwabe C, Nakatsu-Komatsu T, Minekura Y, Iwakura M, Motoki T, Nishimiya K, Iiyama M, Kakusho K, Minoh M, Mizuta S, Matsuda T, Matsuda Y, Haishi T, Kose K, Fujii S, Shiota K. Source Congenital Anomaly Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.


Morphogenesis in the developing embryo takes place in three dimensions, and in addition, the dimension of time is another important factor in development. Therefore, the presentation of sequential morphological changes occurring in the embryo (4D visualization) is essential for understanding the complex morphogenetic events and the underlying mechanisms. Until recently, 3D visualization of embryonic structures was possible only by reconstruction from serial histological sections, which was tedious and time-consuming. During the past two decades, 3D imaging techniques have made significant advances thanks to the progress in imaging and computer technologies, computer graphics, and other related techniques. Such novel tools have enabled precise visualization of the 3D topology of embryonic structures and to demonstrate spatiotemporal 4D sequences of organogenesis. Here, we describe a project in which staged human embryos are imaged by the magnetic resonance (MR) microscope, and 3D images of embryos and their organs at each developmental stage were reconstructed based on the MR data, with the aid of computer graphics techniques. On the basis of the 3D models of staged human embryos, we constructed a data set of 3D images of human embryos and made movies to illustrate the sequential process of human morphogenesis. Furthermore, a computer-based self-learning program of human embryology is being developed for educational purposes, using the photographs, histological sections, MR images, and 3D models of staged human embryos. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID 16317724

Normal and abnormal development of human embryos: first report of the analysis of 1,213 intact embryos

Teratology. 1968 Aug;1(3):281-90.

Nishimura H, Takano K, Tanimura T, Yasuda M. PMID 5759548

Boyd Collection

(Cambridge Collection)

  • Boyd collection Cambridge - Graham Burton
    • mainly placental
  • Hamilton archive - from Charing Cross, kept for some time at St George’s
    • Hamilton collection used to clarify cardiac development (incorporation of the pulmonary veins into the left atrium)

Embryo CR length (mm) Carnegie Stage Gestational Age Plane of Section
Boyd 1 3.8 12 29 days Transverse
Boyd 2 4 12 30 days Transverse
Gerlis 1 4 12 30 days Transverse
Boyd 3 5 13 32 days Transverse
Boyd 4 6 13 33 days Transverse
Hamilton 8 8.5 16 36 days Transverse
Hamilton 10 10 14 /15 36 days Sagittal
Hamilton 9 10 16 37 days Coronal
Hamilton 11 10 16 37 days Transverse
Hamilton 13 13 18 40 days Sagittal
Hamilton 15 16 17 44 days Sagittal
Gerlis 2 16.5 18 45 days Transverse
Hamilton 17 18 20 50 days Sagittal
Hamilton 21 20 20 /21 51 days Coronal
Hamilton 24 24 22 54 days Coronal
Hamilton 31 27 N/A 11 weeks Transverse
Hamilton 38 30 N/A 11 weeks Coronal
Hamilton 44 33 N/A 11 weeks Transverse
Hamilton 49 40 N/A 11 weeks Sagittal
Hamilton 52 42 N/A 11 weeks Sagittal
Hamilton 57 49 N/A 12 weeks Transverse
Hamilton 60 53 N/A 12 weeks Transverse
Hamilton 132 58 N/A 13 weeks Transverse
Hamilton 62 70 N/A 13 weeks Sagittal
Hamilton 74 100 N/A 15 weeks Transverse
Boyd 5 112 N/A 15 weeks Transverse

Johns Hopkins Fetal Skull Collection

The Johns Hopkins Fetal Collection (1918–1951) was commenced by Adolph Hans Schultz (1891–1976) - fetal, stillbirths, newborns, and infants up to approximately one year of age.

Cleveland Museum of Natural History

Other USA skeletal collections - Huntington, Terry, Hamann-Todd, Cobb

Carnegie Collection

The manifestation of the axes of the human embryo

Ronan O'Rahilly

Modeling Man: The Monkey Colony at the Carnegie Institution of Washington's Department of Embryology, 1925-1971

J Hist Biol. 2011 Apr 19.

Source National Museum of Health and Medicine, 6900 Georgia Ave, NW, Building 54, Washington, DC, 20307, USA,


Though better recognized for its immediate endeavors in human embryo research, the Carnegie Department of Embryology also employed a breeding colony of rhesus macaques for the purposes of studying human reproduction. This essay follows the course of the first enterprise in maintaining a primate colony for laboratory research and the overlapping scientific, social, and political circumstances that tolerated and cultivated the colony's continued operation from 1925 until 1971. Despite a new-found priority for reproductive sciences in the United States, by the early 1920s an unfertilized human ovum had not yet been seen and even the timing of ovulation remained unresolved. Progress would require an organized research approach that could extend beyond the limitations of working with scant and inherently restrictive human subjects or with common lab mammals like mice. In response, the Department of Embryology, under the Carnegie Institution of Washington (CIW), instituted a novel methodology using a particular primate species as a surrogate in studying normal human reproductive physiology. Over more than 40 years the monkey colony followed an unpremeditated trajectory that would contribute fundamentally to discoveries in human reproduction, early embryo development, reliable birth control methods, and to the establishment of the rhesus macaque as a common model organism.

PMID 21503772

Blechschmidt Collection

(University of Goettingen, Germany)

Managing Director Prof. Dr. J. Staiger Phone: 7052 Fax: 14016

Prof. Dr. Jochen Staiger,

  • Professor E. Blechschmidt embryological collection were assigned Carnegie Nos. 10315-10434 in 1972.
  • because Professor Blechschmidt's wish was and is to have his collection combined with the Carnegie Collection.
  • Blechschmidt Collection was housed temporarily in the Department of Anatomy of Louisiana State University, New Orleans, under the care of Dr. Raymond F. Gasser.
  • basis of two important atlases (Blechschmidt, 1963, 1973)
    • Blechschmidt, E. 1963. Der menschliche Embryo. Dokumen- tationen zur kinetiscben Anatomie. Schattauer, Stuttgart.
    • Blechschmidt, E. 1973. Die prdnatalen Organsysteme des Menschen. Hippokrates, Stuttgart.
  • three-dimensional reconstructions are housed in the Anatomisches Institut der Universitat Gottingen.
  • the staging of these embryos has not been completed.


See document - Perry-Arey-MilliganCRLOct14.pdf

Count Rec. Cat Number Stage (est) Age (days) Cat Number Size
(CRL mm)
Sex Section Quality Comment
1 1246-2 13 23 est 1246-2 5 entire fair
2 25 13 23 est 25 5 29-24 all in
3 26 13 23 est 26 5 25-26 one box
4 51 13 23 est 51 5 Sagittal fair
5 14 13 23 est 14 5 good 1 of 2 @ 5mm
14 13 23 est 14 5 good 2 of 2 @ 5mm
6 K 15 37 est K 7 Coronal poor
7 29 15 37 est 29 7 #36 & #37 in 1 box
8 24 15 24 7
9 14 15 37 est 14 7 good 1 of 2 @ 7mm
14 15 37 est 14 7 good 2 of 2 @ 7mm
10 8 15 37 est 8 8 longt.sec Fair-good entire embryo
11 60 16 38 est 60 10 Coronal good
12 87 16 38 est 87 11 Male Coronal good
13 85 17 39 est 85 12 Male Coronal good
14 A 17 39 est A 13 entire good
15 6 17 39 est 6 15 Coronal good
16 6C 17 39 est 6C 13 Transverse good pollack
17 65 18 41 est 65 18 Coronal good
18 36 18 41 est 36 17 good
19 10 18 41 est 10 18 good
20 1 18 41 est 1 18 Sagittal good
1(2) 18 41 est 1(2) 70 Sagittal good 18mm head
21 37 18 41 est 37 70 good 18mm head
22 88 18 41 est 88 18 Male Coronal good
23 2 19 45 est 2 20 good
24 5 19 45 est 5 20 Coronal fair
25 56 19 45 est 56 20 Coronal good
26 86 19 45 est 86 20 Male Coronal good
27 67 19 45 est 67 20 Male Coronal good
28 A-3 19 45 est A-3 20 Male Coronal good
21 48 est 25 fair
29 62 21 48 est 62 25 Coronal fair
30 78(1) 21 48 est 78(1) 25 Male Coronal good
78(2) 78(2) 25 Male Coronal good
31 103 22 50 103 28 Male good
32 97 22 50 97 28 Male Coronal good
?? B-3 (Box 2) 23 B-3 (Box 2) 30 Coronal good
33 98 23 98 30 Female Coronal good
1 B(1) 8 wk B(1) 32 Female Coronal good
B(1) 8 wk B(1) 32 Female Coronal good
2 101 8 wk 101 33 Male good
3 D-3 (Box 2) 8 wk D-3 (Box 2) 33 Coronal good
4 94 8 wk 94 35 Female Coronal good
5 E-3(1) 8 wk E-3(1) 35 Male Coronal good
E-3(2) 8 wk E-3(2) 35 Male Coronal good
6 127 8 wk 127 36 Sagittal good
7 38 8 wk 38 38 Sagittal good
8 126.1 8 wk 126.1 38 Sagittal good
126.2 8 wk 126.2 38 Sagittal good
9 A5(1) 9 wk A5(1) 45 Coronal good
A5(2) 9 wk A5(2) 45 Coronal good
10 68 9 wk 68 45 Coronal good
11 73 9 wk 73 45 Sagittal good
12 55A(1) 9 wk 55A(1) 47 Coronal good
55A(2) 9 wk 55A(2) 47 Coronal good
13 89A 10 wk 89A 59 Male Coronal good
89B(1) 10 wk 89B(1) 59 Male Coronal good
89B(2) 10 wk 89B(2) 59 Male Coronal good
14 83A 10 wk 83A 60 Male Coronal good
83B 10 wk 83B 60 Male Sagittal good
15 17(1) 10 wk 17(1) 60 Sagittal good
17(2) 10 wk 17(2) 60 Coronal good
16 1372(1) 10 wk 1372(1) 64 Sagittal good
1372(2) 10 wk 1372(2) 64 Coronal good
17 58A(1) 10 wk 58A(1) 65 Coronal good
58A(2) 10 wk 58A(2) 65 Coronal good
18 52 10 wk 52 65 Female Sagittal good
19 19 10 wk 19 66 Sagittal good
20 15(1) 10 wk 73 15(1) 67 Coronal good
15(2) 10 wk 73 15(2) 67 Coronal good
21 90B 11 wk 75 90B 70 Male Sagittal good
22 14(1) 11 wk 75 14(1) 70 Coronal good
22 14(2) 11 wk 75 14(2) 70 Coronal good
22 14(3) 11 wk 75 14(3) 70 Sagittal good
23 2001Dec 39.2 11 wk 75 39 70 Coronal good 39 box 1= Sagittal
24 2001Dec 90A(1) 11 wk 75 90A(1) 70 Male Coronal good
24 2001Dec 90A(2) 11 wk 75 90A(2) 70 Male Coronal good
25 54A(1) 11 wk 77 54A(1) 72 Male
25 54A(2) 11 wk 77 54A(2) 72 Male
26 91#1 11 wk 77 91#1 75 Male Coronal good
26 91#2 11 wk 77 91#2 75 Male Coronal good
28 66B{1} 11 wk 77 66B{1} 75 Male Coronal good
28 66B{2} 11 wk 77 66B{2} 75 Male Coronal good
29 69B{1} 11 wk 77 69B{1} 75 Male Sagittal good
29 69B{2} 11 wk 77 69B{2} 75 Male Sagittal good
30 79A{1) 11 wk 77 79A{1) 75 Male Coronal good
30 79A{2) 11 wk 77 79A{2) 75 Male Sagittal good
30 79B 11 wk 77 79B 75 Male Sagittal good
31 1246(1) 11 wk 79 1246(1) 78 Coronal good
31 1246(2) 11 wk 79 1246(2) 78 Coronal good
32 2001Dec 80A(1) 11 wk 79 80A(1) 78 Male Coronal good
32 2001Dec 80A(2) 11 wk 79 80A(2) 78 Male Coronal good
32 2001Dec 80B 11 wk 79 80B 78 Male Sagittal good
33 22 11 wk 79 22 78 Sagittal good
34 20{1} 11 wk 80 20{1} Coronal good
34 20{2} 11 wk 80 20{2} Coronal good
35 2001Dec 74(1) 11 wk 80 74(1) 80 Male Coronal good
35 2001Dec 74(1) 11 wk 80 74(1) 80 Male Coronal good
36 2001Dec 57B(1} 11 wk 80 57B(1} 80 Male Sagittal good
36 2001Dec 57B(2} 11 wk 80 57B(2} 80 Male Sagittal good
36 2001Dec 57A(1} 11 wk 80 57A(1} 80 Male Coronal good
36 2001Dec 57A(2} 11 wk 80 57A(2} 80 Male Coronal good
36 2001Dec 57A(3} 11 wk 80 57A(3} 80 Male Coronal good
37 2001Dec 53A(1} 11 wk 80 53A(1} 80 Male Coronal good
37 2001Dec 53A(2} 11 wk 80 53A(2} 80 Male Coronal good
37 2001Dec 53B(1} 11 wk 80 53B(1} 80 Male Sagittal good
37 2001Dec 53B(2} 11 wk 80 53B(2} 80 Male Sagittal good
38 2001Dec 74B(1} 11 wk 80 74B(1} 80 Male Sagittal good
38 2001Dec 74B(2} 11 wk 80 74B(2} 80 Male Sagittal good
39 2001Dec 1819(1} 11 wk 81 1819(1} 81 Transverse good
39 2001Dec 1819(2} 11 wk 81 1819(2} 81 Transverse good
40 2001Dec 77B{1} 11 wk 82 77B{1} 82 Male Sagittal good
40 2001Dec 77B{2} 11 wk 82 77B{2} 82 Male Sagittal good
41 2001Dec 81B{1} 11 wk 82 81B{1} 82 Male Sagittal good
41 2001Dec 81B{2} 11 wk 82 81B{2} 82 Male Sagittal good
41 2001Dec 81A{1} 11 wk 82 81A{1} 82 Male Coronal good
41 2001Dec 81A{2} 11 wk 82 81A{2} 82 Male Coronal good
42 2001Dec 75A 11 wk 82 75A 82.5 Male Coronal good
43 16 11 wk 83 16 85 Coronal
44 2001Dec 93A (1) 11 wk 83 93A (1) 85 Male Coronal good
44 2001Dec 93A (2) 11 wk 83 93A (2) 85 Male Coronal good
45 2001Dec 12 (1) 11 wk 83 12 (1) 85 Male Coronal good
45 2001Dec 12 (2) 11 wk 83 12 (2) 85 Male Coronal good
45 2001Dec 12 (3) 11 wk 83 12 (3) 85 Male Coronal good
45 2001Dec 12 (4) 11 wk 83 12 (4) 85 Male Coronal good
46 2001Dec 92 (1) 11 wk 83 92 (1) 85 Male Sagittal good
46 2001Dec 92 (2) 11 wk 83 92 (2) 85 Male Sagittal good
47 2001Dec 82B (1) 12 wk 84 82B (1) 90 Female Sagittal good
47 2001Dec 82B (2) 12 wk 84 82B (2) 90 Female Sagittal good
48 2001Dec 8 12 wk 84 8 90 Coronal
48 2001Dec 8 12 wk 84 8 90 Coronal
49 2001Dec 82A(1) 12 wk 84 82A(1) 90 Female Coronal good
49 2001Dec 82A(2) 12 wk 84 82A(2) 90 Female Coronal good
50 2001Dec 49 12 wk 88 49 96 coronal fair
51 2001Dec 14151.1 12 wk 88 14151.1 97
51 2001Dec 14151.2 12 wk 88 14151.2 97
51 2001Dec 14151.3 12 wk 88 14151.3 97
52 2001Nov 11.1 12 wk 90 11.1 100 Male Coronal Exc whole head-MTC
52 2001Nov 11.2 12 wk 90 11.2 100 Male Coronal Exc whole head-MTC
52 2001Nov 11.3 12 wk 90 11.3 100 Male Coronal good whole head-MTC
53 2001Nov 4C 13 wk 96 4C 112 Coronal pollack sta
54 2001Nov 1862 13 wk 97 1862 113
55 2001Nov 1741 13 wk 100 1741 120 Coronal good
56 2001Nov 5C(1) 14 wk 103 5C(1) 124 Coronal good
56 2001Nov 5C(2) 14 wk 103 5C(2) 124 Coronal good pollack sta
57 2001Nov 6C 15 wk 106 6C 130 Transverse good pollack sta
58 2001Nov 7C(1) 17 wk 122 7C(1) 160 Transverse good pollack
58 2001Nov 7C(2) 17 wk 122 7C(2) 160 Transverse good pollack
59 2001Nov 1123 21 wk 1123 206 Coronal good pollack
60 2001Nov 1683 wk 1683 227 Transverse good
61 2001Nov 1731 wk 1731 246 Coronal good pollack
62 2001Nov 1777 26 wk 1777 255 Coronal good pollack
1A(2) 1A(2) no CRL Coronal good
1A(3) 1A(3) no CRL Coronal good
13 13 good 4 different embryos
28 28 10mm ? good label on box says 4.5 mm
5.1 5.1 10mm ? Coronal good head = 7mm
5.2 5.2 good head = 7mm
23 23 Female Coronal good head measure to 13
18 18 Coronal good head measure to 19
70 11 wk est 70 head 27mm Coronal good
2001Nov 100(1) 100(1) head 27mm Sagittal good No CR notes
2001Nov 100(2) 100(2) head 27mm Sagittal good No CR notes
75A 75A ? Male Coronal good No CR notes

Ziegler Models

Book - Embryos in Wax: Models from the Ziegler Studio

Hubrecht Collection

A treasure house of comparative embryology

Int J Dev Biol. 1999;43(7):591-602.

Richardson MK, Narraway J. Source Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, St. George's Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom.


The Embryo Collection of the Hubrecht Laboratory is a treasure house of comparative embryology. It is the largest and most important collection of its kind in the world, and consists of thousands of vertebrate embryos stored in alcohol, or prepared as histological sections. Many elusive species are included in the collection, some represented by complete developmental series. The accompanying archives offer a remarkable insight into the methods used to collect embryos form wild animals, as well as the motives behind the founders of the collection. Carefully maintained, documented and catalogued, the collection is available for study by all interested scientists. We argue that this collection is one of the greatest biodiversity resources in existence.

PMID 10668968

A brief history of the Hubrecht Laboratory

Int J Dev Biol. 1999;43(7):583-90.

Faasse P, Faber J, Narraway J. Source Hubrecht Laboratory, Netherlands Institute for Developmental Biology, Utrecht.

PMID 10668967

Hill Collection

Radlanski Collection

  • Radlanski-Collection, Berlin
  • Ralf J. Radlansk - Charité - Campus Benjamin Franklin at Freie Universität Berlin, Center for Dental and Craniofacial Sciences, Dept. of Craniofacial Developmental Biology, Assmannshauser Str. 4-6, 14197 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:
  • human embryos and foetuses
  • human mandibular alveolar bone during prenatal formation from 19 to 270mm CRL PMID 26921449
  • Prenatal development of the muscles in the floor of the mouth in human embryos and fetuses from 6.9 to 76 mm CRL PMID 11766522
  • parotid gland PMID 9010565

Hinrichsen Collection

Principles of ontogenesis of leg and foot in man.

Ann Anat. 1994 Apr;176(2):121-30.

Hinrichsen KV1, Jacob HJ, Jacob M, Brand-Saberi B, Christ B, Grim M.


Human leg and foot anlagen of different developmental stages were studied by means of light and scanning electron microscopy. The findings were compared with principles of human arm and hand development and results obtained experimentally from chicken limbs. The limbs studied have in common the shaping, cell differentiation, and spatial arrangement of different cells as basic processes of development. On the other hand, upper and lower limbs are very different in human and avian embryos with regard to their position, form, and function. We found that the different positions in relation to the dorsal and ventral surfaces and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) are important factors leading to the different orientations and forms of limbs. The unequal length of the fingers and toes might also be explained in this way. Differences in the position of the most distal muscles in the hand and foot could be a consequence of the cranio-caudal sequence of development. The factors controlling the developmental differences between arm and leg are discussed. PMID 8210047

Morphological aspects of the pharyngeal hypophysis in human embryos. Acta Morphol Neerl Scand. 1986;24(3):235-47.

Hinrichsen K1, Mestres P, Jacob HJ.


In human embryos the hypophyseal sac (Rathke's pouch) originates at the roof of the mouth until stage 15 as a broad rim. As the mandibular arch and the maxillary swelling enhance the mesodermal masses in forming the early palatal shelves the rim is reduced to a cleft of about 0.2 mm in broadness in stage 17. From stage 18 up to stage 23 there is a prominent papilla in the midline of the mouth's roof which later on may become recanalized. The different SEM-aspects of the pharyngeal hypophysis are demonstrated. PMID 3425402

Search Pubmed Hinrichsen KV Author

Duke University Comparative Embryology Collection

Necker Collection

The Necker Human Embryo Resource

Service de Cytogénétique & d’Embryologie Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades

M Vekemans

Foetal pathology Embryology Molecular Genetics G Goudefroye H Etchevers S Thomas C Babarit T Attié-Bitach F Encha-Razavi M Bonnière C Esculpavit J Martinovic Slideshare 2008

"Human embryos and fetal tissues were collected from legally terminated pregnancies in agreement with the French law and Ethics Committee recommendations."

Michel Vekemans French TV | CV 2003

Expression of the sonic hedgehog gene in human embryos with neural tube defects

Teratology. 2000 May;61(5):347-54.

Kirillova I1, Novikova I, Augé J, Audollent S, Esnault D, Encha-Razavi F, Lazjuk G, Attié-Bitach T, Vekemans M. Author information Abstract BACKGROUND: To estimate the rate of malformations observed during early human development, a series of 38,913 first-trimester abortions were studied. Neural tube defects (NTD) were found in 57 cases. METHODS: A histological study of serial sections performed in 25 embryos revealed a spectrum of axial structure abnormalities. Expression of the SHH gene was studied by in situ hybridization in one case of CRS and in two cases of SB. RESULTS: A cervical notochord duplication was always found in craniorachischisis (CRS, n = 8), but not in spina bifida (SB, n = 10) or diplomyelia (split cord malformation, n = 3). In the embryo with CRS, expression of SHH was found in both domains, corresponding to the duplicated part of the notochord, whereas a single signal was observed in the nonduplicated part. This expression was associated at the cervical level of the open neural tube with a broad SHH expression domain and with two or even three domains in its lumbar region, suggesting multiple functional floor plates. Similarly, in two embryos with SB, two domains of SHH expression were found in the ventral neural tube. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that notochord splitting in the cervical region might be involved in the pathogenesis of CRS. Interestingly, similar notochord abnormality and altered expression of the shh gene are observed in Lp mice with NTD. This suggests that the Lp gene could be a candidate gene for human CRS. Further studies are needed to establish the primary event responsible for the notochord splitting and for the abnormal expression of the SHH gene in the floor plate in embryos with CRS and SB. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID 10777830 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9926(200005)61:5<347::AID-TERA6>3.0.CO;2-#

London Hospital Anatomy Department

Shute CCD. Nervous pathways in the developing human labyrinth (1951) J. Anat.

The present investigation has been undertaken on serially sectioned human embryos of the London Hospital Anatomy Department collection prepared according to de Castro’s silver impregnation technique.

  • No. H. 214. CRL 15.5 mm., plane of section transverse.
  • No. H. 191. CRL 17.5 mm., plane of section transverse.
  • No. H. 180. CRL 30 mm., plane of section transverse.
  • No. H. 206. CRL 43 mm., plane of section coronal left half of head.
  • No. H. 206. CRL 43 mm., plane of section sagittal right half of head.
  • No. H. 218 CRL 48 mm., plane of section coronal left half of head.
  • No. H. 218. CRL 48 mm., plane of section sagittal right half of head.
  • No. H. 209. CRL 62 mm., plane of section coronal.
  • No. H. 125. CRL 92 mm., plane of section coronal left half of head.
  • No. H. 125. CRL 92 mm., plane of section sagittal right half of head.

University of Manchester

Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom

Neil A Hanley

Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology & Gastroenterology, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom; Endocrinology Department, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom

The collection, use, and storage of human embryonic and fetal tissue was done with ethical approval from the North West Research Ethics Committee, under the codes of practice issued by the Human Tissue Authority and legislation of the U.K. Human Tissue Act 2008.

Specimens for immunohistochemistry were fixed within 1 h in 4% paraformaldehyde before processing and embedding in paraffin wax. Sectioning took place at 5-μm intervals, with every eighth section taken for hematoxylin and eosin staining to confirm morphology and anatomical landmarks.

Harvard Collection

Harvard Collection

Central Laboratory for Human Embryology

[ SDB Workshop held on September 18 and 19 1997]

Collecting Human Embryos And Fetuses: Thirty-Five Years Of Experience

Alan G. Fantel, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington

The Central Laboratory for Human Embryology has collected, studied and analyzed human conceptal tissue for nearly 35 years. During that time, changes in laws, practice, funding and medical technology have significantly affected the condition, types and stages of embryonic and fetal tissues available for research. We will discuss these changing relationships, detailing tissue availability today and present information on obtaining material for biomedical research, including imaging. During the 1960s, most tissue collected by the laboratory was delivered by spontaneous abortion. Despite this designation, the percentage that was actually induced could not be determined. While these specimens enabled studies of abortus morphology and cytogenetics, they were generally too autolyzed for imaging, biochemical or molecular studies. Tissue available for research was largely derived from hysterotomy and hysterectomy and to a lesser extent, from surgical intervention in ectopic pregnancy. Hysterotomy specimens tended to date from mid second through third trimesters and preservation was generally poor. They were often nonviable in utero for days or were exposed to KCl prior to delivery, inducing rapid and severe autolysis. Specimens derived from hysterectomy tended to be in excellent condition but generally dated from relatively late gestation. Ectopic specimens served as a primary source of embryos but massive bleeding and tubal rupture commonly limited successful retrieval. These rare specimens remain an important source of intact, early material. In the 1970s Washington enacted therapeutic abortion on demand. Most terminations were performed by dilatation and manual curettage and it became possible to obtain increasing amounts of well preserved tissue. Embryos tended to be relatively intact and most organs and tissues could be collected. Increasing use of vacuum extraction in the late 1970s made tissue retrieval challenging, since specimens tended to be severely fragmented by exposure to pressure gradients and passage through fine cannulas, long runs of tubing and collection in gauze bags. Most of these specimens date from late first and early second trimesters with increasing availability of late second and third trimester fetuses. In the late 1980s and early 90s, they were often pretreated with KCl, rendering them useless for detailed study.

Today, the Central Laboratory for Human Embryology supplies university and institute-based investigators nationwide with embryonic tissues processed according to the requirements of individual studies. Technicians collect at clinic sites where specimens are obtained within minutes of passage, rapidly assessed and staged. Individual tissues are then identified, separated, processed and delivered to the laboratory from which they are shipped by overnight air express. Information on obtaining embryonic or fetal tissue can be obtained at 800-583-0668.

Paris Embryological Collection

An Acad Bras Cienc. 1990 Mar;62(1):79-84. Development of the coronary arteries in staged human embryos (the Paris Embryological Collection revisited). Mandarim-de-Lacerda CA. Author information


Twenty seven human embryos from stages 15 to 23 (postsomitic period), belonging to the collection of the "UFR Biomédicale des Saints-Pères, Université René Descartes Paris V", were studied. Details of the aorticopulmonary cleavage were analysed specially aortic valve development and origin of the coronary artery. At stage 18 the aortic valve was clearly distinguished (cup-shaped) presenting semilunar valves and aortic sinus (Valsalvae); at this stage the left coronary artery was detected in 66.7 per cent of the cases as an endothelial epicardial invagination. At stage 19, the left and right coronary arteries were detected simultaneously in 100 per cent of the cases. At stage 20, the coronary arteries showed greater structural complexity with a coat of mesenchymal cells. These results agree with previous data from different embryological collections. These findings suggest that the left coronary artery has a tendency to develop earlier than the right. We found no evidence of the coronary origin from the aortic lumen. This work provides additional information about the embryological development of the heart, obtained from the analyses of a French collection of human embryos.

PMID 2097914


Human Developmental Studies Network (HuDSeN)

Wellcome Human Developmental Biology Resource (

DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01290.x;jsessionid=7D56A296108D4E410AB20D5F7C5624C1.f04t01

The corticofugal neuron-associated genes ROBO1, SRGAP1, and CTIP2 exhibit an anterior to posterior gradient of expression in early fetal human neocortex development

Cereb Cortex. 2011 Jun;21(6):1395-407. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhq219. Epub 2010 Nov 8.

Ip BK1, Bayatti N, Howard NJ, Lindsay S, Clowry GJ. Author information

Abstract Developing neocortical progenitors express transcription factors in gradients that induce programs of region-specific gene expression. Our previous work identified anteriorly upregulated expression gradients of a number of corticofugal neuron-associated gene probe sets along the anterior-posterior axis of the human neocortex (8-12 postconceptional weeks [PCW]). Here, we demonstrate by real-time polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry that 3 such genes, ROBO1, SRGAP1, and CTIP2 are highly expressed anteriorly between 8-12 PCW, in comparison with other genes (FEZF2, SOX5) expressed by Layer V, VI, and subplate neurons. All 3 were prominently expressed by early postmitotic neurons in the subventricular zone, intermediate zone, and cortical plate (CP) from 8 to 10 PCW. Between 12 and 15 PCW expression patterns for ER81 and SATB2 (Layer V), TBR1 (Layer V/VI) and NURR1 (Layer VI) revealed Layer V forming. By 15 PCW, ROBO1 and SRGAP1 expression was confined to Layer V, whereas CTIP2 was expressed throughout the CP anteriorly. We observed ROBO1 and SRGAP1 immunoreactivity in medullary corticospinal axons from 11 PCW onward. Thus, we propose that the coexpression of these 3 markers in the anterior neocortex may mark the early location of the human motor cortex, including its corticospinal projection neurons, allowing further study of their early differentiation.

PMID 21060114

The HUDSEN Atlas: a three-dimensional (3D) spatial framework for studying gene expression in the developing human brain

J Anat. 2010 Oct;217(4):289-99. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01290.x.

Kerwin J1, Yang Y, Merchan P, Sarma S, Thompson J, Wang X, Sandoval J, Puelles L, Baldock R, Lindsay S.

Author information


We are developing a three-dimensional (3D) atlas of the human embryonic brain using anatomical landmarks and gene expression data to define major subdivisions through 12 stages of development [Carnegie Stages (CS) 12-23; approximately 26-56 days post conception (dpc)]. Virtual 3D anatomical models are generated from intact specimens using optical projection tomography (OPT). Using MAPAINT software, selected gene expression data, gathered using standard methods of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, are mapped to a representative 3D model for each chosen Carnegie stage. In these models, anatomical domains, defined on the basis of morphological landmarks and comparative knowledge of expression patterns in vertebrates, are linked to a developmental neuroanatomic ontology. Human gene expression patterns for genes with characteristic expression in different vertebrates (e.g. PAX6, GAD65 and OLIG2) are being used to confirm and/or refine the human anatomical domain boundaries. We have also developed interpolation software that digitally generates a full domain from partial data. Currently, the 3D models and a preliminary set of anatomical domains and ontology are available on the atlas pages along with gene expression data from approximately 100 genes in the HUDSEN Human Spatial Gene Expression Database ( The aim is that full 3D data will be generated from expression data used to define a more detailed set of anatomical domains linked to a more advanced anatomy ontology and all of these will be available online, contributing to the long-term goal of the atlas, which is to help maximize the effective use and dissemination of data wherever it is generated. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2010 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

Our 3D reference models are generated from intact human embryos using the rapid and non-invasive technique of optical projection tomography (OPT; Sharpe et al. 2002). The HUDSEN atlas is based on 12 such OPT models covering the range of Carnegie Stages CS12 (approximately 26 dpc; the closure of the caudal neuropore) to CS23 (approximately 56 dpc; the end of the embryonic period, when all the major organs have developed).

PMID 20979583

Expression of PLA2G6 in human fetal development: Implications for infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy

Brain Res Bull. 2010 Nov 20;83(6):374-9. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2010.08.011. Epub 2010 Sep 9.

Polster B1, Crosier M, Lindsay S, Hayflick S.


Mutations in PLA2G6, which encodes calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) group VIA (iPLA2-VIA), underlie the autosomal recessive disorder infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD). INAD typically presents in the first year of life, and leads to optic atrophy and psychomotor regression. We have examined PLA2G6 expression in early human embryonic development by in situ hybridization. At Carnegie Stage (CS) 19 (approximately 7 post-conception weeks [PCW]), strong expression is evident in the ventricular zone (VZ) of midbrain and forebrain suggestive of expression in neural stem and progenitor cells. At CS23 (8PCW) expression is also detectable in the VZ of the hindbrain and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the developing neocortex, ganglionic eminences and diencephalon. By 9PCW strong expression in the post-mitotic cells of the cortical plate can be seen in the developing neocortex. In the eye, expression is seen in the lens and retina at all stages examined. PLA2G6 expression is also evident in the alar plate of the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, the retina and lens in the eye and several non-neuronal tissues, including developing bones, lung, kidney and gut. These findings suggest a role for PLA2G6 in neuronal proliferation throughout the developing brain and in maturing neurons in the cortical plate and hindbrain. Although widespread PLA2G6 expression is detected in neuronal tissues, the pattern shows dynamic changes with time and indicates that INAD pathogenesis may begin prior to birth. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID 20813170

MRC-Wellcome Trust Human Developmental Biology Resource: enabling studies of human developmental gene expression

Trends Genet. 2005 Nov;21(11):586-90. Epub 2005 Sep 9.

Lindsay S1, Copp AJ. Author information


A striking finding of the human and mouse genome sequencing projects is that, although there are many differences between the two species, they have similar numbers of genes. The differences arise during development and are driven, in part, by changes in gene expression. The MRC-Wellcome Trust Human Developmental Biology Resource (HDBR) is a unique resource that provides human embryonic and foetal tissues to the scientific community, enabling gene-expression studies at these crucial periods of development.

PMID 16154230

3 dimensional modelling of early human brain development using optical projection tomography

BMC Neurosci. 2004 Aug 6;5:27.

Kerwin J1, Scott M, Sharpe J, Puelles L, Robson SC, Martínez-de-la-Torre M, Ferran JL, Feng G, Baldock R, Strachan T, Davidson D, Lindsay S.


BACKGROUND: As development proceeds the human embryo attains an ever more complex three dimensional (3D) structure. Analyzing the gene expression patterns that underlie these changes and interpreting their significance depends on identifying the anatomical structures to which they map and following these patterns in developing 3D structures over time. The difficulty of this task greatly increases as more gene expression patterns are added, particularly in organs with complex 3D structures such as the brain. Optical Projection Tomography (OPT) is a new technology which has been developed for rapidly generating digital 3D models of intact specimens. We have assessed the resolution of unstained neuronal structures within a Carnegie Stage (CS)17 OPT model and tested its use as a framework onto which anatomical structures can be defined and gene expression data mapped. RESULTS: Resolution of the OPT models was assessed by comparison of digital sections with physical sections stained, either with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) or by immunocytochemistry for GAP43 or PAX6, to identify specific anatomical features. Despite the 3D models being of unstained tissue, peripheral nervous system structures from the trigeminal ganglion (approximately 300 microm by approximately 150 microm) to the rootlets of cranial nerve XII (approximately 20 microm in diameter) were clearly identifiable, as were structures in the developing neural tube such as the zona limitans intrathalamica (core is approximately 30 microm thick). Fourteen anatomical domains have been identified and visualised within the CS17 model. Two 3D gene expression domains, known to be defined by Pax6 expression in the mouse, were clearly visible when PAX6 data from 2D sections were mapped to the CS17 model. The feasibility of applying the OPT technology to all stages from CS12 to CS23, which encompasses the major period of organogenesis for the human developing central nervous system, was successfully demonstrated. CONCLUSION: In the CS17 model considerable detail is visible within the developing nervous system at a minimum resolution of approximately 20 microm and 3D anatomical and gene expression domains can be defined and visualised successfully. The OPT models and accompanying technologies for manipulating them provide a powerful approach to visualising and analysing gene expression and morphology during early human brain development.

PMID 15298700

Professor Susan Lindsay

Embryonal Serial Section Registry (ESR)

Registry of Congenital Malformation (RCM) and Children’s Hospital for Autopsy (CHA) registry of Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH)

Suk Keun Lee, DDS Department of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, Gangnueng-Wonju National University, 7, Jukheon-gil, Gangneung 25457, Korea Tel: +82-33-640-2228 Fax: +82-33-642-6410

<pubmed> 26471340 </pubmed>| J Pathol Transl Med.

Human embryos used in this study

Embryonal Streeter’s No_ of ESR or ROM

age (day) stage

28-30 13 5 (E49, E77, E83, E95, E176)

31-32 14 4 (E9, E27, E89, E94)

33-36 15 8 (E5, E45, E48, E82, E93, E113, E142, E180) 37-40 16 4 (E59, E61, E68, E183)

41-43 17 9 (E1, E8, E26, E30, E35, E37, E63, E72, E108) 44-46 18 3 (E12, E24, E168)

47-48 19 2 (E13, E48)

49-51 20 6 (E4, E18, E28, E31, E43, E92)

52-53 21 3 (E17, E67, E70)

54-55 22 4 (E25, E85, E96, R448)

2 56 23 8 (E2, E6, E55, E80, E84, E87, E96, E140)

Total 56

Human fetuses used in this study

GeSta”°”"‘ No. of ESR, RCM, or CHA

age (wk)

10 4(E11,E41,E81,E156)

11 3 (E111, R1057, R1532)

12 1 (E123)

13-14 3 (E50, E98, R1529)

15-16 3 (R308, R1526, R1533)

17-18 1 (R1524)

19-20 7 (R291, R293, R379, R398, R414, R567, A89-2)

21-22 6 (R299, R326, R422, R738, R1419, A89-54)

23-24 12 (R247, R248, R263, R285, R301, R318, R352, R353, R437, R727, R733, R736)

25-26 8 (R281, R284, R287, R300, R399, R403, R737, R1483)

27-28 11 (R249, R250, R253, R267, R270, R375, R406, R438, R506, R739, R1535)

29-30 9 (R259, R309, R316, R349, R388, R390, R409, R429, R507)

31-32 9 (R252, R297, R303, R311, R358, R362, R382, R424, R451)

33-34 6 (R266, R289, R366, R407, R416, A80-34)

35-36 4 (R355, R402, R1480, A80-20)

37-38 9 (R298, R347, R354, R361, R364, R365, R389, R451, A88-76)

3940 6 (R294, R295, R319, R356, R370, R408)

241 4 (R423, A87-87, A88-72, A87-94)

Total 106

Multiple Collections

Towards a 3-Dimensional Atlas of the Developing Human Embryo: the Amsterdam Experience

Reprod Toxicol. 2012 May 25. [Epub ahead of print]

de Bakker BS, de Jong KH, Hagoort J, Oostra RJ, Moorman AF. Source Department of Anatomy, Embryology & Physiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


Knowledge of complex morphogenetic processes that occur during embryonic development is essential for understanding anatomy and to get insight in the pathogenesis of congenital malformations. Understanding these processes can be facilitated by using a three-dimensional (3D) developmental series of human embryos, which we aim to create in this project. Digital images of serial sections of 34 human embryos of the Carnegie Collection between Carnegie stages 7 (15-17d) and 23 (56-60d) are used to create 3D reconstructions of different organ systems. The software package Amira is used to align the sections and to create the 3D reconstructions. In this midway evaluation we show the first results of the atlas, containing 34 embryos with more than 13.500 manually annotated sections. The 3D models can be interactively viewed within a 3D-pdf. This will be the first complete digital 3D human embryology atlas of this size, containing all developing organ systems. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

PMID 22640940

Serial sections of 34 human embryos between Carnegie stages 7 (15-17 days) and 23 (56-60 days) were used to create 3D reconstructions of all the different organs and organ systems. Two specimens per Carnegie stage were incorporated in this atlas. Digital images of a first series of sections from embryos of the Carnegie Collection and one embryo from the Cambridge University, were kindly provided by the Computer Imaging Laboratory of the Louisiana State University in New Orleans [26] and a stage 20 (51-53 days) embryo of our own collection was captured at the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam. Additional images of a second series of sections were captured at the Carnegie Collection at the Human Developmental Anatomy Center of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington D.C. and digital images of one stage 9 (19-20 days) embryo from the Boyd Collection were provided by the Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience at the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom. Additional information about the specimens can be found in Table 1.

  • Elizabeth Lockett of the Human Developmental Anatomy Center at the National Museum of Health and Medicine in Silver Spring, DC for our privilege to use the valuable material of the Carnegie Collection.
  • Professor Graham Burton for providing the digital images of a stage 9 embryo of the Boyd Collection.
  • Professor Robert J. Cork and Professor Raymond F. Gasser of the DREM project provide pictures of the first series of sections of human embryos of the Carnegie Collection.

Steding’s collection of human embryos

Centre of Anatomy, University of Goettingen, Germany



--Mark Hill (talk) 12:47, 3 May 2015 (AEST) This study cites the following French human embryo collections.

Developmental anatomy of the liver from computerized three-dimensional reconstructions of four human embryos (from Carnegie stage 14 to 23)

Ann Anat. 2015 Mar 20;200:105-113. doi: 10.1016/j.aanat.2015.02.012.

Lhuaire M1, Tonnelet R2, Renard Y3, Piardi T4, Sommacale D4, Duparc F5, Braun M2, Labrousse M6.


Some aspects of human embryogenesis and organogenesis remain unclear, especially concerning the development of the liver and its vasculature. The purpose of this study was to investigate, from a descriptive standpoint, the evolutionary morphogenesis of the human liver and its vasculature by computerized three-dimensional reconstructions of human embryos. Serial histological sections of four human embryos at successive stages of development belonging to three prestigious French historical collections were digitized and reconstructed in 3D using software commonly used in medical radiology. Manual segmentation of the hepatic anatomical regions of interest was performed section by section. In this study, human liver organogenesis was examined at Carnegie stages 14, 18, 21 and 23. Using a descriptive and an analytical method, we showed that these stages correspond to the implementation of the large hepatic vascular patterns (the portal system, the hepatic artery and the hepatic venous system) and the biliary system. To our knowledge, our work is the first descriptive morphological study using 3D computerized reconstructions from serial histological sections of the embryonic development of the human liver between Carnegie stages 14 and 23. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. PMID 25866917

Atrioventricular valves development in human heart: the Paris embryological collection revisited

Gegenbaurs Morphol Jahrb. 1989;135(6):947-55.

Mandarim-de-Lacerda CA1.


29 human embryos staging from stage 15 to stage 23 (post-somitic period, collection of the UER Biomedicale des Saints-Péres, Université René Descartes Paris V) have been studied. The most important morphological events of the atrioventricular valves development have been reinvestigated and photographed. This is a complementary information about cardiac development analysing this french collection of human embryos (Mandarim-de-Lacerda, in press). At stage 15, we can observe the gelatinous reticulum well organized when cardiac valves will become established; progressively the fused endocardial cushions and right and left lateral cushions encircle the atrioventricular channels indicating the site of the tricuspid valves. These cushions, however, have a temporary influence being replaced gradually by atrial and ventricular myocardium. At stage 23, the heart presents a complete atrioventricular valvular structure. PMID 2628147

Computerized three-dimensional reconstruction of the retrohepatic segment of inferior vena cava of a 20 mm human embryo

[Article in French]

Morphologie. 2013 Jun;97(317):59-64. doi: 10.1016/j.morpho.2013.04.002. Epub 2013 Jun 4.

Abid B1, Douard R, Hentati N, Ghorbel A, Delmas V, Uhl JF, Chevallier JM.

Abstract The subdiaphragmatic venous drainage of the embryo is provided by the two caudal cardinal veins to which is added the subcardinal vein system, draining the mesonephros, the perispinal supracardinal veins and the umbilical and vitelline venous system. The anastomosis of certain segments of the embryonic venous structures and the disappearance of others are at the origin of the inferior vena cava. Since the 19th century, three-dimensional reconstruction of solid models from histological sections were developed. At present, the development of computerized three-dimensional reconstruction techniques allowed to operate a multitude of techniques of image processing and modeling in space. Three-dimensional reconstruction is a tool for teaching and research very useful in embryological studies because of the obvious difficulty of dissection and the necessity of introducing time as the fourth dimension in the study of organogenesis. This method represents a promising alternative compared to previous three-dimensional reconstruction techniques including Born technique. The aim of our work was to create a three-dimensional computer reconstruction of the retrohepatic segment of the inferior vena cava of a 20mm embryo from the embryo collection of Saints-Pères institute of anatomy (Paris Descartes university, Paris, France) to specify the path relative to the liver and initiate a series of computerized three-dimensional reconstruction that will follow the evolution of this segment of the inferior vena cava and this in a pedagogical and morphological research introducing the time as the fourth dimension. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. KEYWORDS: Digital pedagogy; Embryologie de la veine cave inférieure; Inferior vena cava embryology; Pédagogie numérique; Reconstruction tridimensionnelle informatisée; Retrohepatic segment of the inferior vena cava; Segment rétrohépatique de la veine cave inférieure; Three-dimensional computerized reconstruction PMID 23756024

Human embryonic larynx morphogenesis: three-dimensional and multiplanar study (918.26)

Marc Labrouse3, Romain Tonnelet5, Yohann Renard3, Emilien Micard1, Fabrice Duparc4, Vincent Delmas6 and Marc Braun2

1CIC-IT, CHU de Nancy Brabois NANCY France 2Department of Anatomy Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital, Nancy, Université de Lorraine Vandoeuvre les Nancy France 3Department of Anatomy Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital, Université de Reims REIMS France 4Department of Anatomy Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital, Université de Rouen, France ROUEN France 5IADI, INSERM U947, Université de Lorraine Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy France 6Department of Anatomy URDIA EA4465, Saints-Pères Faculty of Medicine, Université Paris Descartes PARIS France


The purpose of this study was to describe the human larynx embryology, using three-dimensional reconstructions from seven human embryos histological sections, and to compare our results with literature. Seven human embryos from two historic French collections (Paris-Descartes University's Delmas-Rouvière collection and Rouen University's Tardif collection) stained with hematoxylin & eosin or Masson's trichrome were reclassified according to the Carnegie Atlas criteria (CS (Carnegie stages) 17, 18, 19, 21 and 22). A local made computer software developed by IADI lab (INSERM U947, Nancy) allowed automatic slices selection, automatic rigid registration, and dust filtering. Once registration had been completed, DICOM files were used with ORS Visual software (v1.5, Montreal), which allowed multiple display and post-processing possibilities (3D VR; orthogonal/curved multiplanar reformation). Due to large size files, image processing was performed on PC with Windows 7 (64 bit) and 20 GB RAM. Three-dimensional and multiplanar study of the larynx morphogenesis was possible with appropriate thresholding. In the first stages of this study, the early laryngeal aditus was visible. Two posterior elevations, the arytenoid swellings, one anterior, the epiglottis, and the vocal folds were seen in the last stages. Human embryonic larynx morphogenesis works are very rare because of the smallness of this anatomical structure. Our study, using historic human embryos histological sections has shown the larynx growth. This demonstration was completely novel and had never been published previously, to our knowledge. Indeed, our method is fully respectful towards the microscopic structure unlike methods using Amira© segmentation and triangulation process. The precise knowledge of this morphogenesis will help to better understand congenital malformations.

Rouvière-Delmas Collection

  • The human embryos collection of the Laboratoire d'Anatomie of the UER Biomedicale des Saints-P6res, a collection
  • Since 1913 by Nicolas, Augier, Rouviere and Delmas
Rouvière-Delmas Collection
Human embryo Length (mm) Stain Section thickness (um) Plane
HE 97 3.5 Loyez Eosin 5 frontal
HE 180 3.5 Loyez 5 frontal
HE 75 5 - 6 Loyez 5 frontal
HE 198 8 Trichrom Loyez van Campenhout 5 sagittal
HE 92 8 Trichrom 5 frontal
HE 44 8 5 frontal
HE 79 10 Loyez 10 frontal
HE 164 10 Loyez 10 frontal
HE 177 12 Loyez 5 sagittal
HE 173 14 Trichrom Loyez 5 sagittal
HE 190 14 Loyez 5 frontal
HE 108 15 Loyez 10 sagittal
HE 68 16 Loyez 10 sagittal
HE 208 21 5 transverse
HE 147 22 Trichrom 10 sagittal
R1 23.5 10 sagittal
HE 16 25 Trichrom 10 transverse
S1 27 Eosin 10 transverse
R2 31 HES 10 transverse
S2 37 HES 10 transverse

Virtual Anatomy Unit

  • Dr. Jean-François UHL - (surgeon)
  • Prof. Vincent Delmas -

Human embryos in the Anatomy department of Saints-Pères of the University René Descartes Paris V. Transverse serial histological sections of 10 􏰁micron thickness of the whole embryo from the vertex to the coccyx. Each embryo was stained using Masson’s trichrome.

Google Translate - "The museum, known since 1847 under the name Orfila museum, is a set of rich collections and bringing together human and animal anatomical preparations, reconstruction of embryological and neuroanatomical, anthropological pieces, various brains castings origins, prepared, assembled or collected for nearly two centuries by a succession of museum curators. The importance, variety and quality of these materials far exceed the interest that had the Orfila Street museum housed the School of Medicine. The current museum occupies since 1953 the vast exhibition halls and galleries of the eighth floor of the Faculty of Medicine of the Rue des Saints-Peres."

2011 Virtual Anatomy - MSBM 2000-01 (

11 students: Alexandre RADOVANOVIC, Vincent ESTRADE Mustapha AZZOUZ, Marc-Antoine Rousseau, Olivier CHATAIGNER, Sassia bedda, Thao SOURIGNAVONG, FI RANDRIANARIMALA Philippe Rapp, Alexandra DERVIN Ayman BOUATTOUR.

1- Construction of a 3D anatomical model for the first renal lodge by lumboscopy (Vincent Estrade, Jean-François UHL, V. Delmas) 2 Morphometry kidney during embryogenesis (69 mm embryo) Thao SOURIGNAVONG 3- kidney morphometry during embryogenesis (6 mm embryo) FI RANDRIANARIMALA 4- kidney morphometry during embryogenesis (embryo 22mm) Philippe RAPP 5- kidney morphometry during embryogenesis (embryo 42 mm) Alexander RADOVANOVIC 6- Morphometry kidney during embryogenesis (embryo 17 mm) Mustafa AZZOUZ 7- Morphometry kidney during embryogenesis (embryo 14 mm) Alexandra DERVIN 8- Reconstruction 3D lateral ventricles and choroids plexus. Ayman BOUATTOUR


A study in organogenesis: the arterial supply of the anorectal region in the human embryo and fetus. Anatomic and embryologic bases of anorectal malformations.

Surg Radiol Anat. 1988;10(1):37-51.

Bourdelat D1, Labbé F, Pillet J, Delmas P, Hidden G, Hureau J.


The development of the anorectal region is based on differentiation of the terminal portion of the hindgut. The origin of anorectal malformations is still unknown but seems to occur very early in the embryologic period. To gain a better understanding of their development, a study of the arterial supply of the anorectal region was made in 26 embryos and 50 fetuses. PMID 3131897

  • 30-day embryo (CR length 5 mm) a transverse septum, the urorectal septum, descends in a caudal direction and divides the cloaca into 2 parts, 1 anterior, the primitive urogenital sinus, the other posterior, the anorectal canal.
  • 6 weeks the cloaca is partitioned, the eloacal membrane being transformed into a urogenital mem- brane in front and an anal membrane behind. The anal membrane becomes surrounded by mesenchyme and is situated at the base of an ectodermal depression, the proctodeum. Invagination of the proctodeum into the hindgut leads to rupture of the anal membrane.
  • ascularization of the anorectum - 2 distinct origins. One is alimentary represented by the superior rectal artery, which supplies the upper rectum. The other is parietal, represented by the median sacral artery in the embryo; its development is less after the phenomenon of caudal regression, with the progressive appearance of the medial and inferior rectal arteries which supply the perineal rectum. The umbilical artery is to the upper rectum what the median sacral artery is to the lower rectum.

DELMAS André. Le Musée Orfila et le Musée Rouvière. In : PECKER André. La Médecine à Paris du XIIIè au XXè siècle.Paris, Editions Hervas, Fondation SINGER-POLIGNAC, 1984, pp 289-294.

Tardif Collection

Human embryos in the Anatomy department of the University of Rouen. Transverse serial histological sections of 10 􏰁micron thickness of the whole embryo from the vertex to the coccyx. Each embryo was stained using Masson’s trichrome.

Pillet Collection

Human embryos in the Anatomy department of the University of Angers. Transverse serial histological sections of 10 􏰁micron thickness of the whole embryo from the vertex to the coccyx. Each embryo was stained using Masson’s trichrome.

  • HE 5 mm (crown-rump): scale x 220 (Pillet J (1969) Reconstruction des organes pelviens d'un embryon de 5 mm (Stade XV de Streeter). CR Assoc Anat 54 : 705-715)
  • HE 7.5 mm (crown-rump): scale x 220 (Pillet J (1967) Reconstruction d'un embryon humain de 7,5 mm (Stare XVI, de Streeter) CR Assoc Anat 52 : 1013-1023)
  • HE 12.5 mm (crown-rump): scale x 100 (Pillet J (1966) Reconstruction des organes pelviens d'embryons humains de 12,5 mm et 25 mm. CR Assoc Anat 51 : 819-827)
  • HE 25 mm (crown-rump): scale x 100 (Pillet J (1966) Reconstruction des organes pelviens d'embryons humains de 12,5 mm et 25 mm. CR Assoc Anat 51 : 819-827)

Carnegie - Developmental stages in human embryos (1987) p306

Pillet, J. 1966. Reconstruction des organes pelviens d'embryons humains de 12,5 et de 25 mm. (Reconstruction of the pelvic organs of human embryos 12.5 and 25 mm.) Bull. Ass. Anat., 51, 819-827.

Pillet, J. 1968. Reconstruction du pelvis d'un embryon humain de 7,5 mm (stade XVI de Streeter). C.R. Ass. Anat., 52, 1013-1023.

Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes (Nancy) French Quarterly (every three months)


University of Pisa

Institute of Normal Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pisa.

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Conte, Istituto di Anatomia Umana Normale, FacoltA di Medicina e Chirurgia detl'Universit/~di Pisa, Via Roma, 55, 56100 Pisa, Italy

On the development of the coronary arteries in human embryos, stages 14-19

Every embryo was the result of a spontaneous abortion and was well preserved. The embryos were fixed in Zenker's fluid, stained in toto with carmalum, embedded in paraffin wax and serially sectioned, in a sagittal or in a transverse direction, at a thickness of 10 gm. The 33 embryos (in the 4tll to 9th week of gestation) that we studied correspond to the developmental stages from 11 to 23.

UMAC Worldwide Database of University Museums & Collections

Museum of Anatomy and Human Embryology

Musée d'anatomie et d'embryologie humaines

Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium, Europe

Faculté de Médecine, bâtiment G, niveau 2, route de Lennik 808, 1070 Bruxelles

Opening Hours: By appointment only.

Contact: Mme C. Tilmant Phone: +32(0)2 555 63 76 Fax: +32(0)2 555 63 78


Musée d'anatomie et d'embryologie humaines Université Libre de Bruxelles

Description: The Museum presents anatomical preparations from the Faculty of Medicine covering several aspects of human anatomy, as well as a collection of embryos and foetuses. The Museum holds also a collection of ostheological pathologies.

Collection of Histology & Embryology- University of Pavia=

Collezione di Istologia e embriologia- Università di Pavia

University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy, Europe

Museum or Collection Type: Medicine Institutional Type: Collection Subject: Embryology, Histology Address: Collection di Istologia ed Embriologia, Dipartimento di Medicina sperimentale, Sezione di Istologia ed Embriologia generale, via Forlanini, 10 - Pavia- ITALY

Opening Hours: The collection is closed to the public. Those with a research interest in the collection may visit by appointment.

Contact: Prof. Alberto Calligaro Phone: +39 (0)382987273 Links:

Collezione di Istologia e embriologia- Università di Pavia

Collection di Istologia ed Embriologia Dipartimento di Medicina sperimentale Sezione di Istologia ed Embriologia generale, via Forlanini, 10 - Pavia Tel. +39.0382.987273 e-mail. alberto.calligaro (at)

University of Pavia


The collection is built from materials prepared in the past for teaching and research in the Histology and Embryology section of the Medical faculty and includes: slides, consisting of histological sections of various tissues and organs, which date mostly from the first half of the twentieth century, wax embryological models and preparations from the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, microscopes and other instruments dating to the first half of the twentieth century.

Collection: 10.000 items

Museum of Anatomy - Leiden University

Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands, Europe

Museum of Anatomy, University Medical Center/University Hospital

Museum or Collection Type: Medicine Institutional Type: Museum Subject: Anatomy, Embryology, Forensic Medicine, History of Medicine, Medicine, Osteology Opening Hours: By appointment

Links: Leiden University

Description: 5,000 anatomical specimens; 4.700 embryological specimens; 4,300 pathological specimens; 3,000 neuroanatomical specimens; 100 parasitological specimens; 5,000 microscopical embryological and 15,000 neuroanatomical specimens; extensive optometry collection. Further Reading: Dam, Andries J. van 2000. The interactions of preservative fluid, specimen container, and sealant in a fluid collection. Collection Forum 14 (1-2): 78-92.

Dam, Andries J. van 2000. The warping and cracking of Plexiglas™ specimen containers . Collection Forum 14 (1-2): 47-56.

Mulder, W. J. (ed.) Guide to the Museum of Anatomy and Embryology of the Leiden University. Anatomical Embryologycal Laboratory, Leiden.

Anonymous 2000. Leidse anatomie in Museum Boerhaave. Museum Boerhaave, Leiden.

Medical Museum Copenhagen

Medicinsk Museion Medical Museion

Museum or Collection Type: Medicine Institutional Type: Museum Subject: Anaesthesiology, Anatomy, Dentistry, Dermatology, Embryology, Endoscopy, Histology, History of Health Care, History of Medicine, History of Pharmacy, Medicine, Medicine Technology, Microbiology, Microscopy, Nursing Science, Obstetrics, Odontology Address: Fredericiagade 18, DK-1310 Copenhagen K (administration, collections and staff),, Bredgade 62, DK-1260 Copenhagen K (exhibitions)

Opening Hours: Wed, Thu, Fri and Sun 13-17h For more detailed information, see http://

Contact: Head of Collections, Ion Meyer Phone: +4535323804 Fax: +4535323816

Additional information: For questions about research and teaching, please contact the Director of Medical Museion, Prof. Thomas Söderqvist, For questions about public access, please contact public outreach officer Bente Vinge Pedersen, For questions about exhibitions, please contact Head of Exhibitions, Camilla Mordhorst, Online: Biomedicine on Display: Museionblog:

Links: Medicinsk Museion University of Copenhagen

Description: Medical Museion is a department at the University of Copenhagen that integrates research, teaching, collections and exhibitions.

The collections contain approx. 200.000 items, including ophtalmological, odontological, radiological, surgical, etc. instruments, a large pharmaceutical collection, an anatomical (+ teratological) and an obstetric/gynaecological collection, and a paleoosteological collection (medieval leprosy skeletons).

In addition the department has a rare book collection and an archive.

Virtual Microscopy

Open Access Software

Google Earth

Virtual microscopy with Google-Earth: a step in the way for compatibility


  • OpenLayers makes it easy to put a dynamic map in any web page. It can display map tiles and markers loaded from any source.


Used on BEST network.

The Open Microscopy Environment


Links: Talk:Embryo Virtual Slides

Virtual microscopy with Google-Earth: a step in the way for compatibility

NYU Virtual Microscope

The NYU Virtual Microscope uses the Google Maps API to display, annotate, and navigate scanned slides.


Appears to have died.

Commercial software

Leica (Aperio)

SOMS UNSW Aperio ScanScope XT Slide Scanner




  • PathScan Enabler IV ($2,195.00)
    • 7200 dpi resolution, 3.5 microns per pixel
    • scanner scans an area of 1.42 x 0.85 inches (36.14 x 21.59 mm)
    • resulting in useable images up to 10,248 x 6,120 pixels, uninterpolated.
    • File size can be as large as 188 megabytes.
    • Produces image files which can be saved in a variety of formats including TIFF, PICT, BMP, GIF, etc. Compatible with PC Windows based computers.


  • restriction of jpg files to a maximum size of 65,000 pixels (216)