User:Z3462166

From Embryology

Lab 1

Lab 1 Attendance

--Z3462166 (talk) 13:17, 14 August 2015 (AEST)

Lab 1 Assessment

Research Article 1

Heat Stress During In Vitro Fertilization Decreases Fertilization Success by Disrupting Anti-Polyspermy Systems of the Oocytes [1]

Sakatani, M. Yamanaka, K. Balboula, AZ. Takenouchi, N. Takahashi, M. December 2, 2014. Wiley Online Library. DOI 10.1002/mrd.22441

Heat stress has previously seen a decrease in fertility in dairy cows, whilst similarly, pregnancy rates in women are recorded to be lowest during the summer season, paving way for the postulation that fertilization may be disrupted due to elevated temperatures. (Sakatani et all, 2014)

3 different experiments were performed to determine the underlying mechanism causing the disruption to fertilization due to increase in temperature. Oocytes and Spermatozoa were exposed to physiological temperatures that mirrored those of mammalian organisms. Oocytes were fertilized at 38.5-41ºC with either no-pre-incubated sperm or 38.5 / 41ºC incubated sperm, to investigate the effected on sperm plasma membrane, viability, and penetration, polyspermy, subsequent development of zygote, and embryonic competence. (Sakatani et all, 2014)

The results showed that at elevated temperatures, percentage of motile sperm were reduced, along with altered transcription due to oxidative stress, resulting in an increase in polyspermy. In addition, the zona pellucida of zygotes was sensitive to pronase digestion during heat stress, and exhibited decreased transcription of gene UCHL1, which played the role of preventing polyspermy. Rates of cell cleave and blastocysts formation were also seen to have reduced. (Sakatani et all, 2014)

Because of the results shown, this study reports that the increase in polyspermy is the most likely cause of the reduced blastocyst formation due to the reduced capability of zygotes at elevated temperatures to develop to the next stage. (Sakatani et all, 2014)

Research Article 2

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Using Sperm Exposed to Cyclophosphamide Reduces Preimplantation Embryo Development and Live Birth after Embryo Transfer (ET) [2]

Johnson, M. Lin, CC. Sukhwani, M. Peters, K. Malik S. Orwig, KE. Feburary 2015. Fertility and Sterility, Volume 103, Issue 2, Pg e4-e5

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent most commonly used to treat cancers with other chemotherapy agents. It’s used to quickly control cancerous diseases but is highly toxic. Sperm banking in those prior to cancer treatment have seen to have more effective Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection in In Vitro Fertilization compared to those performing IVF/ICSI after their first dose of chemotherapy. This study tests whether there is correlation between the agent, Cyclophosphamide, and the reduced preimplantation embryo development, birth rate, and genetic integrity of embryos after embryo transfer. (Johnson et all, 2015)

Untreated sperm of adult male B6D2 mice were first collected. They were then administered cyclophosphamide after seven days, and were sacrificed to obtain the treated sperm. Oocytes were collected after controlled ovarian stimulation. Half the oocytes from each female were exposed with Cyclophosphamide exposed sperm and untreated sperm from the same male mice. Embryos were monitored in vitro for 2 days and were then collected for exome sequencing. (Johnson et all, 2015)

Results showed that the average percentage of oocyte survival was 94.8%, whereas for embryos treated with Cyclophosphamide, percentage of survival was significantly lowered to 49%. Birth rates after embryo transfer showed no difference between the two groups but Cyclophosphamide-treated group had lower litter size (0.8 vs 3.8) and pups per embryo transferred (2.7% vs. 14%). (Johnson et all, 2015) This study argues that Cyclophosphamide exposed sperm decreased development in embryo, resulting in lowered numbers of offspring and lower number of offspring survival. Further investigation is needed in order to know the reason and mechanism behind Cyclophosphamide’s influence on male sperm and fertilization. (Johnson et all, 2015)


--Mark Hill (talk) 09:37, 16 September 2015 (AEST) These are good summaries of these research articles. You will later learn how to use the PubMed extension for automatic reference formatting.(5/5)

Lab 2

Lab 2 attendance

--Z3462166 (talk) 13:32, 14 August 2015 (AEST)

Lab 2 Lab Work

Uploading Images in 5 Easy Steps  
First Read the help page Images and Copyright Tutorial.
Hint - This exercise is best done by using separate tabs on your browser so that you can keep all the relevant pages easily available. You can also use your own discussion page to copy and paste links, text. PMIDs etc that you will need in this process.
  1. Find an image .
    1. Search PubMed using an appropriate search term. Note that there is a special library of complete (full online) article and review texts called PubMed Central (PMC). Be very careful, while some of these PMC papers allow reuse, not all do and to add the reference link to your image you will still need to use the PMID.
    2. You can also make your own search term. In this link example PMC is searched for images related to "embryo+implantation" http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/?term=embryo+implantation&report=imagesdocsum. simply replace "embryo+implantation" with your own search term, but remember not everything in PMC can be reused, you will still need to find the "copyright notice" on the full paper, no notice, no reuse.
    3. Where else can I look? BioMed Central is a separate online database of journals that allow reuse of article content. Also look at the local page Journals that provides additional resources.
    4. You have found an image, go to step 2.
  2. Check the Copyright. I cannot emphasise enough the importance of this second step.
    1. The rule is unless there is an obvious copyright statement that clearly allows reuse (there are several different kinds of copyright, some do not) located in the article or on the article page, move on and find another resource. Not complying with this is a serious academic infringement equivalent to plagiarism."Plagiarism at UNSW is defined as using the words or ideas of others and passing them off as your own." (extract from UNSW statement on Academic Honesty and Plagiarism)
    2. You have found the statement and it allows reuse, go to step 3.
  3. Downloading your image.
    1. Download the image to your own computer. Either use the download image on the page or right click the image.
    2. To find the downloaded image you may have to look in your computer downloads folder, or the default location for downloaded files.
    3. The image file will have its own original name, that you will not be using on the wiki. You can rename it now (see renaming below), but you should also make a note of the original name.
    4. Make sure you have everything ready then for the
    5. You have the image file on your computer, go to step 4.
  4. Uploading your image.
    1. First make sure you have all the information you want to use with the file readily available. There is also a detailed description below.
    2. Towards the bottom of the lefthand menuunder “Toolbox” click Upload file. This will open a new window.
    3. In the top window "Source file", click "Choose file" and then navigate to find the file on the computer. and select the image.
    4. If you have done this correctly the upload window will now have your image file shown in choose file and also in the lower window "File description" in "Destination filename:" DO NOT CLICK UPLOAD FILE YET.
    5. Rename your file in "Destination filename:" this should be a brief filename that describes the image. Not any of the following - the original file name, image, file, my image, your ZID, etc. Many of the common embryology names may have already been used, but you can add a number (01, 02, 03, etc) or the PMID number to the filename to make it unique.
    6. If the filename or image has already been used or exists it will be shown on the upload page. If another student has already uploaded that image you will have to find another file. Duplicated images will not receive a mark, so check before you upload as you cannot delete images.
    7. In the "Summary" window for now just paste the PMID. You will come back and edit this information.
    8. Now click "Upload image" at the bottom of the window, go to step 4.
  5. Edit and Add to your page.
    1. Edit - Open the image with the "Edit" tab at the top of its page. You should see the PMID you had pasted earlier in the new edit window. Add the following information to the summary box.
      1. Image Title as a sub-heading. Under this title add the original figure legend or your own description of the image.
      2. Image Reference sub-sub-heading. Use the PMID link method shown in Lab 1 and you can also have a direct link to the original Journal article.
      3. Image Copyright sub-sub-heading. Add the copyright information under this sub-sub-heading exactly as shown in the original paper.
      4. Student Image template, as shown here {{Template:Student Image}} to show that it is a student uploaded image.
    2. Add - Now add your image to your own page under a subheading for Lab 2 Assessment including a description and a reference link. If still stuck with this last step, look at the example on the Test Student page.
    3. Done!

Students cannot delete images once uploaded. You will need to email me with the full image name and request deletion, that I am happy to do with no penalty if done before I assess.

Non-Table version of this page

Stress Relief....

File:Comparative anatomy.jpg


Comparative Anatomy[3]| PMID 23453622


--Mark Hill (talk) 09:42, 16 September 2015 (AEST) I have had to delete this image as you do not have permission to republish. The image and publication clearly state "Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. ScienceDirect® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V.". This means that you are required to apply for permission to reuse content within the article. Please see me if you are having difficulty understanding the copyright issues. Copyright Tutorial (0/5)

Uploading Images in 5 Easy Steps  
First Read the help page Images and Copyright Tutorial.
Hint - This exercise is best done by using separate tabs on your browser so that you can keep all the relevant pages easily available. You can also use your own discussion page to copy and paste links, text. PMIDs etc that you will need in this process.
  1. Find an image .
    1. Search PubMed using an appropriate search term. Note that there is a special library of complete (full online) article and review texts called PubMed Central (PMC). Be very careful, while some of these PMC papers allow reuse, not all do and to add the reference link to your image you will still need to use the PMID.
    2. You can also make your own search term. In this link example PMC is searched for images related to "embryo+implantation" http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/?term=embryo+implantation&report=imagesdocsum. simply replace "embryo+implantation" with your own search term, but remember not everything in PMC can be reused, you will still need to find the "copyright notice" on the full paper, no notice, no reuse.
    3. Where else can I look? BioMed Central is a separate online database of journals that allow reuse of article content. Also look at the local page Journals that provides additional resources.
    4. You have found an image, go to step 2.
  2. Check the Copyright. I cannot emphasise enough the importance of this second step.
    1. The rule is unless there is an obvious copyright statement that clearly allows reuse (there are several different kinds of copyright, some do not) located in the article or on the article page, move on and find another resource. Not complying with this is a serious academic infringement equivalent to plagiarism."Plagiarism at UNSW is defined as using the words or ideas of others and passing them off as your own." (extract from UNSW statement on Academic Honesty and Plagiarism)
    2. You have found the statement and it allows reuse, go to step 3.
  3. Downloading your image.
    1. Download the image to your own computer. Either use the download image on the page or right click the image.
    2. To find the downloaded image you may have to look in your computer downloads folder, or the default location for downloaded files.
    3. The image file will have its own original name, that you will not be using on the wiki. You can rename it now (see renaming below), but you should also make a note of the original name.
    4. Make sure you have everything ready then for the
    5. You have the image file on your computer, go to step 4.
  4. Uploading your image.
    1. First make sure you have all the information you want to use with the file readily available. There is also a detailed description below.
    2. Towards the bottom of the lefthand menuunder “Toolbox” click Upload file. This will open a new window.
    3. In the top window "Source file", click "Choose file" and then navigate to find the file on the computer. and select the image.
    4. If you have done this correctly the upload window will now have your image file shown in choose file and also in the lower window "File description" in "Destination filename:" DO NOT CLICK UPLOAD FILE YET.
    5. Rename your file in "Destination filename:" this should be a brief filename that describes the image. Not any of the following - the original file name, image, file, my image, your ZID, etc. Many of the common embryology names may have already been used, but you can add a number (01, 02, 03, etc) or the PMID number to the filename to make it unique.
    6. If the filename or image has already been used or exists it will be shown on the upload page. If another student has already uploaded that image you will have to find another file. Duplicated images will not receive a mark, so check before you upload as you cannot delete images.
    7. In the "Summary" window for now just paste the PMID. You will come back and edit this information.
    8. Now click "Upload image" at the bottom of the window, go to step 4.
  5. Edit and Add to your page.
    1. Edit - Open the image with the "Edit" tab at the top of its page. You should see the PMID you had pasted earlier in the new edit window. Add the following information to the summary box.
      1. Image Title as a sub-heading. Under this title add the original figure legend or your own description of the image.
      2. Image Reference sub-sub-heading. Use the PMID link method shown in Lab 1 and you can also have a direct link to the original Journal article.
      3. Image Copyright sub-sub-heading. Add the copyright information under this sub-sub-heading exactly as shown in the original paper.
      4. Student Image template, as shown here {{Template:Student Image}} to show that it is a student uploaded image.
    2. Add - Now add your image to your own page under a subheading for Lab 2 Assessment including a description and a reference link. If still stuck with this last step, look at the example on the Test Student page.
    3. Done!

Students cannot delete images once uploaded. You will need to email me with the full image name and request deletion, that I am happy to do with no penalty if done before I assess.

Non-Table version of this page

Stress Relief....

Lab 3

Lab 3 attendance

--Z3462166 (talk) 13:58, 21 August 2015 (AEST)

Lab 3 Assessment

Female Infertility : Diagnosis

MR imaging of disorders associated with female infertility: use in diagnosis, treatment, and management.[4]

MR imaging has extended its use to evaluating and diagnosing disorders related to female infertility, including ovulatory, fallopian tube, and uterine disorders, and also pelvic enometiosis. It is used in a variety of clinical settings by providing a clear vizualization of the pelvic region and is now useful in conjunction with other diagnostic techniques like laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, and hysterosalpinogography.

PMID 14615553

Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, and hysterosalpingography in evaluation of female infertility. [5]

In a group of 77 women evaluated, Laparoscopy confirmed 84% evidence of tubal disease and hysteroscopy confirmed 69% radiographic evidence of intrauterine abnormalities. IN contrast HS gave a false-positive rate of 16% and 31% respectively. Data suggests that laparoscopy is best detecting previously unsuspected tubal disease, and hysteroscopy with information of managing abnormalities. But for optimum evaluation, a combined approach of all three procedures is best.

PMID 6232154

Diagnosis and Management of Female Infertility. [6]

Earlier assessment is best in women who have history of oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea, with key objective of assessment and diagnosis to rule out azoospermia, anovulation, or tubal obstruction. In order to do so an assesment of ovulatory function, uterine cavity, and tubal patency by HSG/laparoscopyis needed. Assessments like post coital tests, endometrial biopsies, and basal bdy temperature records are no longer a routine investigation.

PMID 14519712


--Mark Hill (talk) 09:44, 17 September 2015 (AEST) These articles relate to your group project topic. I hope that you are able to use in the final project page. (5/5)

Lab 4

Lab 4 attendance

--Z3462166 (talk) 13:53, 28 August 2015 (AEST)

Lab 4 Online Assignment

--Mark Hill (talk) 09:45, 17 September 2015 (AEST) ANAT2341 Lab 4 - Online Assessment Where are your 3 online questions for this assessment?
--Z3462166 (talk) 14:25, 19 September 2015 (AEST)sorry I was sick for a month straight!

1

Which of the following does not belong within a follicle:

oocyte
zona pellucida
antrum
morula

2

What hormone maintains the corpus luteum during pregnancy?

Estrogen
Progesterone
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG)
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

3

How many pharyngeal arches are formed?

1
2
3
4
5


--Mark Hill (talk) 12:45, 6 November 2015 (AEST) (3/5) The correct answers need more complete descriptions. (3/5)

Lab 5

Lab 5 attendance

absent

Lab 5 Online Assessment

Select one of the topics shown below and write 3 paragraphs (with referenced sources) on that specific topic.

  • Cleft Lip and cleft palate are associated with many different environmental and genetic causes. Identify and describe one cause of these abnormalities.
  • Discuss how aganglionic colon is a gastrointestinal tract abnormality related to neural crest migration.
  • What is the difference between gastroschisis and omphalocele?

What is the difference between gastroschisis and omphalocele?

Lab 6

Lab 6 attendance

absent

Lab 6 Online Assessment

<group project>


Lab 7

Lab 7 attendance

absent

Lab 7 Online Assessment

Identify and write a brief description of the findings of a recent research paper on development of one of the endocrine organs covered in today's practical. Identify the embryonic layers and tissues that contribute to the developing teeth.

Lab 8

Lab 8 attendance

absent

Lab 9

Online Assessment

Group 1

The topic of three person’s embryo was outlined and described well, with good choice of headings, separating the different key points and areas that you’ve discussed on your page. It’s evident you’ve done extensive research on your topic, and especially going through your reference list, all your research data were extremely recent, which is excellent!

Pros

  • I loved that you put an introductory video in the beginning, which is a personal account rather than a scientific stimulation video, giving it a more personal touch on the page, and highlighting the importance of this breakthrough in 3 person’s embryos.
  • Because your topic isn’t a disease but a medical breakthrough, your own chosen headings were fantastic and on point, giving a well-rounded and detailed wiki page
  • The format of the page is also really good. Its good to use more subheadings than main headings, and you’ve formatted the page really well
  • You’ve used very current research, making your page much more credible and updated with the newest information
  • The “further reading” section was really good, it extended beyond the normal “teaching” topics, giving the reader a better insight of the topic, if they choose to.

Cons

  • The introduction looked a bit short. A more detailed explanation will make the reader understand a lot more on how it works and how the page looks, without the reader having to watch the video if they choose to just skim the page.
  • Your heading and subheading of “History” and “Timeline” could’ve been merged into one, as that was your only subheading of that heading,it would’ve looked more readable that way
  • Timeline information could be extended more, in terms of date (if found) and details on what occurred on that date
  • The heading of “Benefits” also needs to be extended VERY much more, two subheadings an 3 sentences under one, with a link under the other, does not explain any benefits at all
  • Pictures in “Technical Progression” could be skewed to the right, so the words all flow, with the HELP of the diagram, instead of the focus being on the photos
  • Current research also needs to be expanded more. PMID wouldn’t be needed either if you had expanded the current research, and referenced it in your reference list; section looks a bit messy with bullet points starting with hyperlink
  • “Technical Progression” needs to be greatly edited and to have information added
  • “Ethics” also needs to be expanded, and again, don’t lead with PMID
  • “Glossary” is not really needed if you explain those terms in each words occurrence instead of at the end, but this is a minute point

Group 2

The topic of OHSS was outlined very well, with very good choice of headings, separating the different key points and areas that you’ve discussed on your page. It’s evident you’ve done extensive research on your topic, and all your information is very concise and very readable. You’ve also extended your topic beyond the general symptoms, diagnosis, causes etc like “animal models” “effect on the newborn”, it is very extensive! Pros

  • Extensive research evident, a lot of information is provided
  • Introduction is short and concise, but also extremely informative, highlighting the aim of the page as well!
  • Statistics of the disease is also given, numerical data is always good
  • Good use of a table in “Symptoms”, making it very readable and engaging
  • The presence and position of the drawing in “Pathophysiology” is prenominal, you’ve gone out of your way to draw a diagram to illustrate the topic
  • Good use of bullet points in “Treatment”, very concise and readable and there isn’t a jumble of words

Cons

  • A photo or video in your introduction could be used to illustrate what the topic is better
  • There’s a lot of technical jargon already in your introduction, words like neoangiogenesis and iatrogenic. Readers who come to your page may not necessarily understand those words. These words can be defined in your glossary, but readers read in logical flow, they won’t scroll all the way to the bottom of your page because they didn’t understand the word to find the meaning then come back to the introduction to continue. These words don’t have to be replaced, but an explanation might ease your cause
  • A graph or table or pie chart representing epidemiology will make the heading more informative
  • Photos showing symptoms will substantially help, especially when they’re separated into mild, moderate, and sever.
  • Diagnosis needs to be expanded more. The bold type words should be made into subheadings so you can expand on each more, defining how and why they are performed
  • Headings of “effect on the newborn” and “animal models” need to be completed
  • You have a lot of information on your page but only a few are referenced, a lot more in text referencing and references are needed for the amount of information you have

Group 4

  • The structure of your page is extremely excellent! It flows very well, all headings and subheadings were chosen really well, the use of tables and diagrams are incredible!
  • The heading of “Background information” is VERY extensive, and also concise! The diagram placement is also excellent, and their use is also extremely excellent
  • The use of the video to explain the cause of infertility is absolutely amazing, it makes your page look good, keeps your explanation short, concise, and readable, and it also engages the audience
  • Each subheading under “Causes” is also very well outlined and explained, there is a lot of information there, and it is sure whatever information the reader may need would be found on your page as it has covered and explained a lot

Overall, all I have for your group are good comments, as I couldn’t think of anything else that you will might need to add or change on it at all! Your information extends beyond what is expected, but also extensive, concise, and, most importantly, extremely readable and engaging! GOOD WORK!

Group 5

Your information extends beyond what is expected, but also extensive and readable and engaging. The page is formatted really well. Pros

  • The structure of your page is really good. It flows well, all headings and subheadings were chosen really well, the use of diagrams keeps it engaging
  • Each subheading is chosen and highlighted well
  • A very extensive reference list, making it evident that you have researched your topic thoroughly!

Cons

  • Use of diagrams and photos in the introductory parts of your page will make your page much more engaging
  • You may have extensive information but its not too concise. At a glance of your page, all you see are huge jumbles of words, and if you read the information, it needs to be summarized a lot more
  • Photos in Surgery and Fertility Drugs can make it more interesting and it can help you explain them more on what it looks like and whats involved using a single image
  • The use of the video explanation is also very good, but keep in mind that this page isn’t really aimed for people with minimal knowledge on cancer cells, but those trying to extend their knowledge, so they would already know about cancer cells. (Less is more)
  • Use a table in Chemotherapy Drugs can make long lists look much better
  • Reserve subheadings for your bold keywords underneath “Fertility preservation in women” instead of just bold type, it will look much more organized

Group 6

To start with, just looking at your table of contents alone, it looks extremely thorough. Your choice of headings and choice of subheadings are very extensive, and your subheadings and sub-subheadings are very diverse, making it easy to spot and read when specific information is required when reading your page. Pros

  • Your information and research is extremely thorough, exceeding the basic requirement of the assessment, which is really good and informative
  • Nice summary in “biopsy method”, especially in a section with a lot of writing in it

Cons

  • A short explanation in the introduction would help, and if possible, give it a video, to capture your audience at first glance.
  • In your genetic techniques, “PCR” “Advantages and Disadvantages” would look better if it was placed in a table. For long lists and dot points, tabulation would make it look more organized and readable
  • Watch out with your headings, sub headings, sub-sub headings, and sub-sub-sub headings, in “genetic techniques” they look all meshed together, its hard to distinguish, which sub-sub-sub heading and sub-sub headings belong to which section; it can look a bit messy and all over the place.


--Mark Hill (talk) 12:45, 6 November 2015 (AEST) (17/20)

References

  1. Sakatani, M. Yamanaka, K. Balboula, AZ. Takenouchi, N. Takahashi, M. December 2, 2014. Wiley Online Library. DOI 10.1002/mrd.22441. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mrd.22441/pdf
  2. Johnson, M. Lin, CC. Sukhwani, M. Peters, K. Malik S. Orwig, KE. Feburary 2015. Fertility and Sterility, Volume 103, Issue 2, Pg e4-e5. http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(14)02503-5/fulltext
  3. <pubmed>23453622</pubmed>|Science Direct
  4. <pubmed>14615553</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed>6232154 </pubmed>
  6. <pubmed>14519712</pubmed>
2015 Course: Week 2 Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lab 1 | Week 3 Lecture 3 Lecture 4 Lab 2 | Week 4 Lecture 5 Lecture 6 Lab 3 | Week 5 Lecture 7 Lecture 8 Lab 4 | Week 6 Lecture 9 Lecture 10 Lab 5 | Week 7 Lecture 11 Lecture 12 Lab 6 | Week 8 Lecture 13 Lecture 14 Lab 7 | Week 9 Lecture 15 Lecture 16 Lab 8 | Week 10 Lecture 17 Lecture 18 Lab 9 | Week 11 Lecture 19 Lecture 20 Lab 10 | Week 12 Lecture 21 Lecture 22 Lab 11 | Week 13 Lecture 23 Lecture 24 Lab 12 | 2015 Projects: Three Person Embryos | Ovarian Hyper-stimulation Syndrome | Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome | Male Infertility | Oncofertility | Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis | Students | Student Designed Quiz Questions | Moodle page