Renal System - Fetal
|Embryology - 11 Dec 2018 Expand to Translate|
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Note that much of the development of the nephron occurs during the fetal period. The images below show the early fetal post-fertilization age (Week 10) (gestational age (GA Week 12) renal development. The nephron commences as a mesenchymal condensation that becomes epithelial going through a number of specific stages including later vascularization.
In humans, nephrogenesis only occurs before birth, though nephron maturation continues postnatally. Mean glomerular number shown to level at 36 weeks, increasing from about 15,000 at 15 weeks to 740,000 at 40 weeks.
Nephron development has four identifiable developmental stages:
- Vesicle (V) stage (13-19 weeks, second trimester)
- S-shaped body (S) stage ( 20-24 weeks, second trimester)
- Capillary loop (C) stage (25-29 weeks, third trimester)
- Maturation (M) stage (infants aged 1-6 months, neonatal and postnatal)
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Patricia Genovese, Emiliano Herrera, Victoria Riaño, Alejandro Bielli Subnutrition Effects During Pregnancy and Lactation on Mitosis, Apoptosis, and Androgen Receptor Expression in the Rat Testis. Reprod. Domest. Anim.: 2018; PubMed 30499612
Siamak Kazemi-Darabadi, Ghasem Akbari Evaluation of magnesium sulfate effects on fetus development in experimentally induced surgical fetal growth restriction in rat. J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.: 2018;1-141 PubMed 30486703
Mark Hann, Stephen A Roberts, Stephen W D'Souza, Peter Clayton, Nick Macklon, Daniel R Brison The growth of assisted reproductive treatment-conceived children from birth to 5 years: a national cohort study. BMC Med: 2018, 16(1);224 PubMed 30482203
Masood Bazrgar, Hamid Gourabi, Anis Karimpour-Fard, Parnaz Borjian Boroujeni, Khadije Anisi, Bahar Movaghar, Mojtaba Rezazadeh Valojerdi Origins of Intraindividual Genetic Variation in Human Fetuses. Reprod Sci: 2018;1933719118808919 PubMed 30453833
Lushan Li, Fang Fu, Ru Li, Zequn Liu, Can Liao Prenatal diagnosis and pregnancy outcome analysis of thickened nuchal fold in the second trimester. Medicine (Baltimore): 2018, 97(46);e13334 PubMed 30431620
- Fetal Renal Links: fetal kidney histology 01 | fetal kidney histology 02 | fetal kidney histology 03 | fetal kidney histology 04
Fetal Urethra Histology
These images are a series of cross-sections through the fetal penis showing the developing urethra.
Fetal to Newborn Nephron Development
After nephron development has completed and concomitant with the development of the renal papilla in the newborn, the thin ascending limb of Henle’s loops is generated as an outgrowth from the S3 segment of the proximal tubule and from the distal tubule anlage of the nephron. (birds and mammals)
|Renin||increase angiotensin-aldosterone system||paracrine, renin is released by juxtaglomerular cells|
|Prostaglandins||decrease sodium (Na+) reabsorption||paracrine, (PGE2) vasodilator regulate renal vascular reactivity|
|Erythropoietin||increase Erythrocyte production||endocrine, promotes red blood cell formation in bone marrow|
|1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D||Calcium homeostasis||endocrine, biologically active form of vitamin D|
|Prekallikreins||increase Kinin production||paracrine, act locally to induce vasodilation and contraction of smooth muscle|
- Paola Romagnani, Laura Lasagni, Giuseppe Remuzzi Renal progenitors: an evolutionary conserved strategy for kidney regeneration. Nat Rev Nephrol: 2013, 9(3);137-46 PubMed 23338209
- Developmental Biology by Gilbert, Scott F. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, Inc.; c2000 Chapter 14 Intermediate Mesoderm | Figure 14.18. General scheme of development in the vertebrate kidney | Figure 23-23. Mechanism of mesenchymal inductive effect on the ureteric bud | Figure 14.21. Ureteric bud growth is dependent on GDNF and its receptor
- Molecular Cell Biology by Lodish, Harvey; Berk, Arnold; Zipursky, S. Lawrence; Matsudaira, Paul; Baltimore, David; Darnell, James E. New York: W. H. Freeman & Co.; c1999 Reciprocal Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions Regulate Kidney Development | Figure 23-21. Embryonic development of the kidney
- Bookshelf intermediate mesoderm | kidney development | renal development | ureteric bud | nephron development | bladder development
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 11) Embryology Renal System - Fetal. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Renal_System_-_Fetal
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G