Neural System - Fetal

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Introduction

Human Fetus (CRL 240 mm) Brain (scale bar 1 cm)
Fetal Brain Fissure Development[1]

During the fetal period there is ongoing growth in size, weight and surface area of the brain and spinal cord. Microscopically there is ongoing: cell migration, extension of processes, cell death and glial cell development.


Cortical maturation (sulcation and gyration) and vascularization of the lateral surface of the brain starts with the insular cortex (insula, insulary cortex or insular lobe) region occurs during the fetal period. This cerebral cortex region in the adult brain lies deep within the lateral sulcus between the temporal lobe and the parietal lobe.


This long development time generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.



Neural Links: neural | ventricular | ectoderm | Stage 22 | gliogenesis | neural fetal | Medicine Lecture - Neural | Lecture - Ectoderm | Lecture - Neural Crest | Lab - Early Neural | neural crest | Sensory | neural abnormalities | folic acid | iodine deficiency | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | Postnatal | Postnatal - Neural Examination | Histology | Historic Neural | Category:Neural
| neural crest | Sensory System Development | Second Trimester | Third Trimester | Category:Fetal

Some Recent Findings

  • Brain growth in the NICU: critical periods of tissue-specific expansion[2] "Utilizing serial MRI to document early brain development in VPT infants, this study documents regional differences in brain growth trajectories ex utero during the period corresponding to the first and second half of the third trimester, providing novel insight into the maturational vulnerability of the rapidly expanding cortical gray matter in the NICU."
  • Exploring the role of white matter connectivity in cortex maturation[3]"We report that the advancement of GM and WM maturation are inter-related and depend on the underlying brain connectivity architecture. Particularly, GM regions and their incident WM connections show corresponding maturation levels, which is also observed for GM regions connected through a WM tract. Based on these observations, we propose a simple computational model supporting a key role for the connectome in propagating maturation signals sequentially from external stimuli, through primary sensory structures to higher order functional cortices."
  • The Lateral Temporal Lobe in Early Human Life[4] "Abnormalities of lateral temporal lobe development are associated with a spectrum of genetic and environmental pathologic processes, but more normative data are needed for a better understanding of gyrification in this brain region. Here, we begin to establish guidelines for the analysis of the lateral temporal lobe in humans in early life. We present quantitative methods for measuring gyrification at autopsy using photographs of the gross brain and simple computer-based quantitative tools in a cohort of 28 brains ranging in age from 27 to 70 postconceptional weeks (end of infancy). ...Analysis of 2 brains with gyral disorders of the lateral temporal lobe demonstrated proof-of-principle that the proposed methods are of diagnostic value. These guidelines are proposed for assessments of temporal lobe pathology in pediatric brains in early life."
More recent papers  
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Search term: Fetal Neural Development

Amanda M Coletti, Deepinder Singh, Saurabh Kumar, Tasnuva Nuhat Shafin, Patrick J Briody, Benjamin F Babbitt, Derek Pan, Emily S Norton, Eliot C Brown, Kristopher T Kahle, Marc R Del Bigio, Joanne C Conover Characterization of the ventricular-subventricular stem cell niche during human brain development. Development: 2018; PubMed 30237244

Olga O Kozanian, David J Rohac, Niusha Bavadian, Alex Corches, Edward Korzus, Kelly J Huffman Long-Lasting Effects of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure on Fear Learning and Development of the Amygdala. Front Behav Neurosci: 2018, 12;200 PubMed 30233337

Wei Zhao, Xinyu Li, Xinghai Xia, Zhengnan Gao, Cheng Han Iodine Nutrition During Pregnancy: Past, Present, and Future. Biol Trace Elem Res: 2018; PubMed 30218312

Daniela Ferrari, Maurizio Gelati, Daniela Celeste Profico, Angelo Luigi Vescovi Human Fetal Neural Stem Cells for Neurodegenerative Disease Treatment. Results Probl Cell Differ: 2018, 66;307-329 PubMed 30209666

Juhyung Lee, Yeon Uk Ko, Yuhyun Chung, Nuri Yun, Myungjin Kim, Kyungjin Kim, Young J Oh The acetylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 at lysine 33 regulates kinase activity and neurite length in hippocampal neurons. Sci Rep: 2018, 8(1);13676 PubMed 30209341

Older papers  
  • Local tissue growth patterns underlying normal fetal human brain gyrification quantified in utero[5] "We applied recent advances in fetal MRI motion correction and computational image analysis techniques to 40 normal fetal human brains covering a period of primary sulcal formation (20-28 gestational weeks). ...We detected increased local relative growth rates in the formation of the precentral and postcentral gyri, right superior temporal gyrus, and opercula, which differentiated between the constant growth rate in underlying cerebral mantle and the accelerating rate in the cortical plate undergoing folding. Analysis focused on the cortical plate revealed greater volume increases in parietal and occipital regions compared to the frontal lobe. Cortical plate growth patterns constrained to narrower age ranges showed that gyrification, reflected by greater growth rates, was more pronounced after 24 gestational weeks. Local hemispheric volume asymmetry was located in the posterior peri-Sylvian area associated with structural lateralization in the mature brain. These maps of fetal brain growth patterns construct a spatially specific baseline of developmental biomarkers with which to correlate abnormal development in the human."
  • Development of fetal brain sulci and gyri: assessment through two and three-dimensional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging[6]

Human Neural Timeline

Timeline of events in Human Neural Development

Timeline of events in Normal Human Neural Development[7]

Fetal - Second Trimester

Brain ventricles and ganglia development 03.jpg Brain fissure development 02.jpg
Brain and Ventricular Development[1] Brain Fissure Development[1]


Human brain at three months (median sagittal section) Human brain at four months (inferior surface) Human brain at five months (outer surface)
Three months (median sagittal section) Four months (inferior surface) Five months (outer surface)

PMID 3339373


At about 19 weeks (GA 21 weeks) neuronal migration ends and the radial glial cells that aided the migration now become transformed into astrocytes and astrocytic precursors.[8]

Fetal - Third Trimester

Human Fetus (CRL 240 mm) Brain (scale bar 1 cm)

Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging and image-processing algorithms have been used to quantitate between 29-41 weeks volumes of: total brain, cerebral gray matter, unmyelinated white matter, myelinated, and cerebrospinal fluid (grey matter- mainly neuronal cell bodies; white matter- mainly neural processes and glia).

A study of 78 premature and mature newborns showed that total brain tissue volume increased linearly over this period at a rate of 22 ml/week. Total grey matter also showed a linear increase in relative intracranial volume of approximately 1.4% or 15 ml/week. The rapid increase in total grey matter is mainly due to a fourfold increase in cortical grey matter. Quantification of extracerebral and intraventricular CSF was found to change only minimally.[9]


Fetal brain MRI01.jpg

Cortical surfaces for neonates at 28, 36 and 44 weeks PMA at scan with the labels overlaid.[10]

Thyroid System and Neural Development

Human thyroid system and neural development.jpg

Timeline of human thyroid system and brain development from conception to birth.[11] (Estimation of neurogenesis adapted from Bayer et al.[12])

Links: thyroid

Sulcation and Gyration

Cortical maturation (sulcation and gyration) and vascularization of the lateral surface of the brain starts with the insular cortex (insula, insulary cortex or insular lobe) region during the fetal period. This cerebral cortex region in the adult brain lies deep within the lateral sulcus between the temporal lobe and the parietal lobe.

  • sulcation - The process of brain growth in the second to third trimester which forms sulci, grooves or folds visible on fetal brain surface as gyri grow (gyration). Abnormalities of these processes can lead to a smooth brain (lissencephaly).
  • gyration - The development of surface folds on the brain (singular, gyrus)

Insular Gyral and Sulcal Development

  • 13-17 gestational weeks - appearance of the first sulcus
  • 18-19 gestational weeks - development of the periinsular sulci
  • 20-22 gestational weeks - central sulci and opercularization of the insula
  • 24-26 gestational weeks - covering of the posterior insula
  • 27-28 gestational weeks - closure of the laeteral sulcus (Sylvian fissure or lateral fissure)

(Data from: Afif A, etal., 2007)

Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging and image-processing algorithms have been used to quantitate between 29-41 weeks volumes of: total brain, cerebral gray matter, unmyelinated white matter, myelinated, and cerebrospinal fluid (grey matter- mainly neuronal cell bodies; white matter- mainly neural processes and glia). A study of 78 premature and mature newborns showed that total brain tissue volume increased linearly over this period at a rate of 22 ml/week. Total grey matter also showed a linear increase in relative intracranial volume of approximately 1.4% or 15 ml/week. The rapid increase in total grey matter is mainly due to a fourfold increase in cortical grey matter. Quantification of extracerebral and intraventricular CSF was found to change only minimally.

(Text - modified from Huppi etal., (1998) Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of brain development in premature and mature newborns. Ann Neurol 43(2):224-235.)


Neural development will continue after birth with substantial growth, death and reorganization occuring during the postnatal period.


Links: Neuroscience - Regional specification of the developing brain

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Huang H, Xue R, Zhang J, Ren T, Richards LJ, Yarowsky P, Miller MI & Mori S. (2009). Anatomical characterization of human fetal brain development with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. J. Neurosci. , 29, 4263-73. PMID: 19339620 DOI.
  2. Matthews LG, Walsh BH, Knutsen C, Neil JJ, Smyser CD, Rogers CE & Inder TE. (2018). Brain growth in the NICU: critical periods of tissue-specific expansion. Pediatr. Res. , 83, 976-981. PMID: 29320484 DOI.
  3. Friedrichs-Maeder CL, Griffa A, Schneider J, Hüppi PS, Truttmann A & Hagmann P. (2017). Exploring the role of white matter connectivity in cortex maturation. PLoS ONE , 12, e0177466. PMID: 28545040 DOI.
  4. Goldstein IS, Erickson DJ, Sleeper LA, Haynes RL & Kinney HC. (2017). The Lateral Temporal Lobe in Early Human Life. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. , 76, 424-438. PMID: 28498956 DOI.
  5. Rajagopalan V, Scott J, Habas PA, Kim K, Corbett-Detig J, Rousseau F, Barkovich AJ, Glenn OA & Studholme C. (2011). Local tissue growth patterns underlying normal fetal human brain gyrification quantified in utero. J. Neurosci. , 31, 2878-87. PMID: 21414909 DOI.
  6. Rolo LC, Araujo Júnior E, Araujo E, Nardozza LM, de Oliveira PS, Ajzen SA & Moron AF. (2011). Development of fetal brain sulci and gyri: assessment through two and three-dimensional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. , 283, 149-58. PMID: 20878170 DOI.
  7. Report of the Workshop on Acute Perinatal Asphyxia in Term Infants, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH Publication No. 96-3823, March 1996.
  8. Kadhim HJ, Gadisseux JF & Evrard P. (1988). Topographical and cytological evolution of the glial phase during prenatal development of the human brain: histochemical and electron microscopic study. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. , 47, 166-88. PMID: 3339373
  9. Hüppi PS, Warfield S, Kikinis R, Barnes PD, Zientara GP, Jolesz FA, Tsuji MK & Volpe JJ. (1998). Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of brain development in premature and mature newborns. Ann. Neurol. , 43, 224-35. PMID: 9485064 DOI.
  10. Makropoulos A, Aljabar P, Wright R, Hüning B, Merchant N, Arichi T, Tusor N, Hajnal JV, Edwards AD, Counsell SJ & Rueckert D. (2016). Regional growth and atlasing of the developing human brain. Neuroimage , 125, 456-478. PMID: 26499811 DOI.
  11. Howdeshell KL. (2002). A model of the development of the brain as a construct of the thyroid system. Environ. Health Perspect. , 110 Suppl 3, 337-48. PMID: 12060827
  12. Bayer SA, Altman J, Russo RJ & Zhang X. (1993). Timetables of neurogenesis in the human brain based on experimentally determined patterns in the rat. Neurotoxicology , 14, 83-144. PMID: 8361683

Journals

Online Textbooks

Developmental Biology (6th ed) Gilbert, Scott F. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, Inc.; c2000. Formation of the Neural Tube | Differentiation of the Neural Tube | Tissue Architecture of the Central Nervous System | Neuronal Types | Snapshot Summary: Central Nervous System and Epidermis

Neuroscience Purves, Dale; Augustine, George J.; Fitzpatrick, David; Katz, Lawrence C.; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; McNamara, James O.; Williams, S. Mark. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, Inc. ; c2001 Early Brain Development | Construction of Neural Circuits | Modification of Brain Circuits as a Result of Experience

Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th Edn) Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander; Lewis, Julian; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith; Walter, Peter. New York: Garland Publishing; 2002. Neural Development | The three phases of neural development

Health Services/Technology Assessment Text (HSTAT) Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), 2003 Oct. Developmental Disorders Associated with Failure to Thrive

Search NLM Online Textbooks- "neural development" : Developmental Biology | The Cell- A molecular Approach | Molecular Biology of the Cell | Endocrinology

Reviews

Götz M & Huttner WB. (2005). The cell biology of neurogenesis. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. , 6, 777-88. PMID: 16314867 DOI.

Greene ND & Copp AJ. (2009). Development of the vertebrate central nervous system: formation of the neural tube. Prenat. Diagn. , 29, 303-11. PMID: 19206138 DOI.

Articles

Saitsu H & Shiota K. (2008). Involvement of the axially condensed tail bud mesenchyme in normal and abnormal human posterior neural tube development. Congenit Anom (Kyoto) , 48, 1-6. PMID: 18230116 DOI.

Search PubMed

Search Pubmed: Fetal Brain Development | Fetal Spinal Cord Development | Fetal Neural Development

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, September 22) Embryology Neural System - Fetal. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_System_-_Fetal

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© Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G