Neural Crest - Cranial Nerve Development
|Embryology - 29 Jun 2017 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Neural Crest Migration
- 4 Textbooks
- 5 Objectives
- 6 Neural Crest Derivatives
- 7 Development Overview
- 8 Skin Melanocytes
- 9 References
- 10 Additional Images
- 11 Terms
- 12 Glossary Links
The neural crest are bilaterally paired strips of cells arising in the ectoderm at the margins of the neural tube. These cells migrate to many different locations and differentiate into many cell types within the embryo. This means that many different systems (neural, skin, teeth, head, face, heart, adrenal glands, gastrointestinal tract) will also have a contribution fron the neural crest cells.
In the body region, neural crest cells also contribute the peripheral nervous system (both neurons and glia) consisting of sensory ganglia (dorsal root ganglia), sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia and neural plexuses within specific tissues/organs.
In the head region, neural crest cells migrate into the pharyngeal arches (as shown in movie below) forming ectomesenchyme contributing tissues which in the body region are typically derived from mesoderm (cartilage, bone, and connective tissue).General neural development is also covered in Neural Notes.
Draft Page (Notice removed when complete)
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Guang Wang, En-Ni Chen, Chang Liang, Jianxin Liang, Lin-Rui Gao, Manli Chuai, Andrea Münsterberg, Yongping Bao, Liu Cao, Xuesong Yang Atg7-Mediated Autophagy Is Involved in the Neural Crest Cell Generation in Chick Embryo. Mol. Neurobiol.: 2017; PubMed 28509082
Silvia Perin, Conor J McCann, Osvaldo Borrelli, Paolo De Coppi, Nikhil Thapar Update on Foregut Molecular Embryology and Role of Regenerative Medicine Therapies. Front Pediatr: 2017, 5;91 PubMed 28503544
Robert E Poelmann, Adriana C Gittenberger-de Groot, Marcel W M Biermans, Anne I Dolfing, Armand Jagessar, Sam van Hattum, Amanda Hoogenboom, Lambertus J Wisse, Rebecca Vicente-Steijn, Merijn A G de Bakker, Freek J Vonk, Tatsuya Hirasawa, Shigeru Kuratani, Michael K Richardson Outflow tract septation and the aortic arch system in reptiles: lessons for understanding the mammalian heart. Evodevo: 2017, 8;9 PubMed 28491275
Xin Cheng, He Li, Yu Yan, Guang Wang, Zachary Berman, Manli Chuai, Xuesong Yang Usage of dexamethasone increases the risk of cranial neural crest dysplasia in the chick embryo. Toxicol. Sci.: 2017; PubMed 28453788
Meagan G Grant, Victoria L Patterson, Daniel T Grimes, Rebecca D Burdine Modeling Syndromic Congenital Heart Defects in Zebrafish. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol.: 2017, 124;1-40 PubMed 28335857
Neural Crest Migration
Movie Source: Original Neural Crest movies kindly provided by Paul Kulesa.
|Neural crest migration Chicken Head (movies overview)|
- Neural Crest Movies: Migration 01 | Migration 02 | Migration 03 | Migration 04 | Migration 05 | Migration 06 | Migration 07
|Hill, M.A. (2017). UNSW Embryology (17th ed.) Retrieved June 29, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au|
|Moore, K.L. & Persuad, T.V.N. (2008). The Developing Human: clinically oriented embryology (8th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.|
| Schoenwolf, G.C., Bleyl, S.B., Brauer, P.R. and Francis-West, P.H. (2009). Larsen’s Human Embryology (4th ed.). New York; Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
- Understand the structures derived from ectoderm.
- Understand the formation of neural folds.
- Identify the initial location of neural crest cells in the trilaminar embryo.
- Identify pathways of neural crest migration throughout the embryo.
- To know the major tissues to which neural crest cells contribute.
- To know how abnormalities in development that result from abnormal neural crest cell migration.
- Understand how neural crest cells contribute to the pharyngeal arches and the head structures they form.
Neural Crest Derivatives
A key feature of neural crest is the migration into other embryonic tissues to form specific neural and non-neural populations and structures.
Cranial neural crest
- migration - dorsolaterally and into pharyngeal arches
- craniofacial mesenchyme - cartilage, bone, cranial neurons, glia, and connective tissues of the face
- pharyngeal arches and pouches - thymic cells, tooth odontoblasts, middle ear bones (ossicles) and jaw (mandible)
Cardiac neural crest
- migration - located between the cranial and trunk neural crests, overlapping the anterior portion of the vagal neural crest.
- pharyngeal arches - (3,4,6) melanocytes, neurons, cartilage, and connective tissue
- heart outflow tract - aortic arch/pulmonary artery septum, large arteries wall musculoconnective tissue
Trunk neural crest
- migration - two major pathways over somites (dorsolaterally) and between somite and neural tube (ventrolaterally)
- dorsolateral - skin melanocytes
- ventrolaterally - dorsal root ganglia, sympathetic ganglia, adrenal medulla, aortic nerve clusters
Vagal and sacral neural crest
- migration - ventrally into surrounding splanchnic mesenchyme of gastrointestinal tract
- splanchnic mesenchyme - parasympathetic (enteric) ganglia of the gut
The following cranial and trunk data is based upon 185 serially sectioned staged (Carnegie) human embryos.
Cranial Neural Crest
- stage 9 - an indication of mesencephalic neural crest
- stage 10 - trigeminal, facial, and postotic components
- stage 11 - crest-free zones are soon observable in rhombomere 1, 3, and 5
- stage 12 - rhombomeres 6 and 7 neural crest migrate to pharyngeal arch 3 and then rostrad to the truncus arteriosus
- stage 13 - nasal crest and the terminalis-vomeronasal complex are last of the cranial crest to appear
stages 9-14 - otic vesicle primordium descends
Vagal Neural Crest
Recent research suggests that the vagal neural crest cells are a transitional population that has evolved between the head and the trunk, taking separate pathways to the both the heart and to the gut.
Trunk Neural Crest
Spinal ganglia increase in number over time and are in phase with the somites, though not their centre. There are 3 migratory pathways: ventrolateral between dermatomyotome and sclerotome, ventromedial between neural tube and sclerotomes, and lateral between surface ectoderm and dermatomyotome.
- stage 13 - about 19 present
- stage 14 - about 33 present
- stage 15-23 - 30–35 ganglia
Neck and Shoulder
A mouse study using individually labelled cells of postotic neural crest followed the development of the shoulder girdle (clavicle and scapula) that connects the upper limb to the axial skeleton.
- Clavicle is a neural crest-mesodermal structure, posterior dermal clavicle mesoderm.
- Cryptic cell boundaries traverse apparently homogeneous skeleton of the neck and shoulders.
- Bones and muscles code of connectivity that mesenchymal stem cells of both neural crest and mesodermal origin obey
- Neural crest anchors the head onto the anterior lining of the shoulder girdle
- Hox-gene-controlled mesoderm links trunk muscles to the posterior neck and shoulder skeleton.
- Skeleton identified as neural crest-derived is affected in human Klippel-Feil syndrome, Sprengel's deformity and Arnold-Chiari I/II malformation.
|Mouse melanocyte migration||Movie Mouse Skin - Melanoblast Migration E14.5|
- Samuel G Cox, Hyunjung Kim, Aaron Timothy Garnett, Daniel Meulemans Medeiros, Woojin An, J Gage Crump An essential role of variant histone H3.3 for ectomesenchyme potential of the cranial neural crest. PLoS Genet.: 2012, 8(9);e1002938 PubMed 23028350 | PLoS Genet.
- Frédéric Causeret, Monica Ensini, Anne Teissier, Nicoletta Kessaris, William D Richardson, Thibaut Lucas de Couville, Alessandra Pierani Dbx1-expressing cells are necessary for the survival of the mammalian anterior neural and craniofacial structures. PLoS ONE: 2011, 6(4);e19367 PubMed 21552538
- Erin Betters, Ying Liu, Anders Kjaeldgaard, Erik Sundström, Martín I García-Castro Analysis of early human neural crest development. Dev. Biol.: 2010, 344(2);578-92 PubMed 20478300
- Paul M Kulesa, Caleb M Bailey, Jennifer C Kasemeier-Kulesa, Rebecca McLennan Cranial neural crest migration: new rules for an old road. Dev. Biol.: 2010, 344(2);543-54 PubMed 20399765
- Gabsang Lee, Stuart M Chambers, Mark J Tomishima, Lorenz Studer Derivation of neural crest cells from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Protoc: 2010, 5(4);688-701 PubMed 20360764
- P M Kulesa, S E Fraser In ovo time-lapse analysis of chick hindbrain neural crest cell migration shows cell interactions during migration to the branchial arches. Development: 2000, 127(6);1161-72 PubMed 10683170
- Ronan O'Rahilly, Fabiola Müller The development of the neural crest in the human. J. Anat.: 2007, 211(3);335-51 PubMed 17848161 | PMC2375817 | J Anat.
- Bryan R Kuo, Carol A Erickson Regional differences in neural crest morphogenesis. Cell Adh Migr: 2010, 4(4);567-85 PubMed 20962585
- Bryan R. Kuo, Carol A. Erickson Vagal neural crest cell migratory behavior: A transition between the cranial and trunk crest. Volume 240, Issue 9, pages 2084–2100, September 2011 Dev Dynamics
- Toshiyuki Matsuoka, Per E Ahlberg, Nicoletta Kessaris, Palma Iannarelli, Ulla Dennehy, William D Richardson, Andrew P McMahon, Georgy Koentges Neural crest origins of the neck and shoulder. Nature: 2005, 436(7049);347-55 PubMed 16034409 | PMC1352163| Nature
- Sarah E Millar An ideal society? Neighbors of diverse origins interact to create and maintain complex mini-organs in the skin. PLoS Biol.: 2005, 3(11);e372 PubMed 16277556 | PLoS Biol.
- Richard L Mort, Leonard Hay, Ian J Jackson Ex vivo live imaging of melanoblast migration in embryonic mouse skin. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res: 2010, 23(2);299-301 PubMed 20067551 | PMC2859249
Young-Hoon Lee, Jean-Pierre Saint-Jeannet Sox9 function in craniofacial development and disease. Genesis: 2011, 49(4);200-8 PubMed 21309066
Phillip E Kish, Brenda L Bohnsack, Donika Gallina, Daniel S Kasprick, Alon Kahana The eye as an organizer of craniofacial development. Genesis: 2011, 49(4);222-30 PubMed 21309065
Manrong Jiang, Jennifer Stanke, Jill M Lahti The connections between neural crest development and neuroblastoma. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol.: 2011, 94;77-127 PubMed 21295685
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Neural Crest - Cranial Nerve Development. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_Crest_-_Cranial_Nerve_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G