Musculoskeletal System - Tendon Development
|Embryology - 18 Feb 2019 Expand to Translate|
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This page describes skeletal tendon development, during formation of the connective tissue connection muscle to bone.
The syndetome is the embryonic structural origin of tendons from the somite and originates from the dorsolateral edge of the sclerotome. Expression of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor scleraxis (SCX) in early progenitor cells is thought to be key regulator in the formation of tendon and ligament tissues. Scleraxis may also have additional roles in other tissues such as in early heart valve development.
The origins of some muscles and tendons in the head differ from those found in the remained of the body.
See also notes Connective Tissue Development.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.
Search term: syndetome <pubmed limit=5>syndetome</pubmed>
Mesoderm Development and Pax
dark green - syndetome originates from the dorsolateral edge of the sclerotome, as Pax1 and Pax9 are downregulated and scleraxis (Scx) upregulation leads to syndegenesis. Pax, paired homeobox; MYOD1, myogenic differentiation antigen 1; MYF5, myogenic factor 5; NKX, NK homeobox; SCX, scleraxis.
Scleraxis (SCX) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family. It is expressed in early mesoderm progenitor cells and may regulate the formation of tendon and ligament tissues.
- Cytogenetic location: 8q24.3
Tenomodulin (TNMD, Tnmd) is a marker of tendon differentiation, its expression has been shown to be regulated by the transcription factors Scleraxis and Mohawk. May also affect the tendon stem/progenitor cells.
- Links: NCBI databases - Tenomodulin
- <pubmed>11585810</pubmed> Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "PMID11585810" defined multiple times with different content
- Barnette DN, VandeKopple M, Wu Y, Willoughby DA & Lincoln J. (2014). RNA-seq analysis to identify novel roles of scleraxis during embryonic mouse heart valve remodeling. PLoS ONE , 9, e101425. PMID: 24983472 DOI.
- Lim J, Munivez E, Jiang MM, Song IW, Gannon F, Keene DR, Schweitzer R, Lee BH & Joeng KS. (2017). mTORC1 Signaling is a Critical Regulator of Postnatal Tendon Development. Sci Rep , 7, 17175. PMID: 29215029 DOI.
- Russo V, Mauro A, Martelli A, Di Giacinto O, Di Marcantonio L, Nardinocchi D, Berardinelli P & Barboni B. (2015). Cellular and molecular maturation in fetal and adult ovine calcaneal tendons. J. Anat. , 226, 126-42. PMID: 25546075 DOI.
- Brown JP, Finley VG & Kuo CK. (2014). Embryonic mechanical and soluble cues regulate tendon progenitor cell gene expression as a function of developmental stage and anatomical origin. J Biomech , 47, 214-22. PMID: 24231248 DOI.
- Schweitzer R, Zelzer E & Volk T. (2010). Connecting muscles to tendons: tendons and musculoskeletal development in flies and vertebrates. Development , 137, 2807-17. PMID: 20699295 DOI.
- Gilsohn E & Volk T. (2010). Slowdown promotes muscle integrity by modulating integrin-mediated adhesion at the myotendinous junction. Development , 137, 785-94. PMID: 20110313 DOI.
- Blake JA & Ziman MR. (2014). Pax genes: regulators of lineage specification and progenitor cell maintenance. Development , 141, 737-51. PMID: 24496612 DOI.
- Miyabara S, Yuda Y, Kasashima Y, Kuwano A & Arai K. (2014). Regulation of Tenomodulin Expression Via Wnt/β-catenin Signaling in Equine Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells. J Equine Sci , 25, 7-13. PMID: 24834008 DOI.
Brent AE, Schweitzer R & Tabin CJ. (2003). A somitic compartment of tendon progenitors. Cell , 113, 235-48. PMID: 12705871
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, February 18) Embryology Musculoskeletal System - Tendon Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Musculoskeletal_System_-_Tendon_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G