Musculoskeletal System - Tendon Development
|Embryology - 10 Dec 2018 Expand to Translate|
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This page describes skeletal tendon development, during formation of the connective tissue connection muscle to bone.
The syndetome is the embryonic structural origin of tendons from the somite and originates from the dorsolateral edge of the sclerotome. Expression of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor scleraxis (SCX) in early progenitor cells is thought to be key regulator in the formation of tendon and ligament tissues. Scleraxis may also have additional roles in other tissues such as in early heart valve development.
The origins of some muscles and tendons in the head differ from those found in the remained of the body.
See also notes Connective Tissue Development.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Phong K Nguyen, Xuan Sabrina Pan, Jiewen Li, Catherine K Kuo Roadmap of molecular, compositional, and functional markers during embryonic tendon development. Connect. Tissue Res.: 2018;1-14 PubMed 30231651
Chi-Fen Hsieh, Zexing Yan, Ricarda G Schumann, Stefan Milz, Christian G Pfeifer, Matthias Schieker, Denitsa Docheva In Vitro Comparison of 2D-Cell Culture and 3D-Cell Sheets of Scleraxis-Programmed Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Primary Tendon Stem/Progenitor Cells for Tendon Repair. Int J Mol Sci: 2018, 19(8); PubMed 30072668
Sabine Conrad, Kathrin Weber, Ulrich Walliser, Florian Geburek, Thomas Skutella Stem Cell Therapy for Tendon Regeneration: Current Status and Future Directions. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.: 2018; PubMed 30043235
Manuel Delgado Caceres, Christian Pfeifer, Denitsa Docheva Understanding tendons: lessons from transgenic mouse models. Stem Cells Dev.: 2018; PubMed 29978741
Jeremy A Dubin, Daniel R Greenberg, Kag C Iglinski-Benjamin, Geoffrey D Abrams Effect of Micro-RNA on Tenocytes and Tendon-Related Gene Expression: A Systematic Review. J. Orthop. Res.: 2018; PubMed 29873411
Guang Yang, Benjamin B Rothrauff, Rocky S Tuan Tendon and ligament regeneration and repair: clinical relevance and developmental paradigm. Birth Defects Res. C Embryo Today: 2013, 99(3);203-22 PubMed 24078497
Yuki Sugimoto, Aki Takimoto, Yuji Hiraki, Chisa Shukunami Generation and characterization of ScxCre transgenic mice. Genesis: 2013, 51(4);275-83 PubMed 23349075
Paolo Alberton, Cvetan Popov, Markus Prägert, Julia Kohler, Chisa Shukunami, Matthias Schieker, Denitsa Docheva Conversion of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into tendon progenitor cells by ectopic expression of scleraxis. Stem Cells Dev.: 2012, 21(6);846-58 PubMed 21988170
Venugopal Rao Mittapalli, Bodo Christ, Felicitas Pröls, Martin Scaal Pleiotrophin is expressed in avian somites and tendon anlagen. Histochem. Cell Biol.: 2009, 132(4);413-22 PubMed 19526365
Mesoderm Development and Pax
dark green - syndetome originates from the dorsolateral edge of the sclerotome, as Pax1 and Pax9 are downregulated and scleraxis (Scx) upregulation leads to syndegenesis. Pax, paired homeobox; MYOD1, myogenic differentiation antigen 1; MYF5, myogenic factor 5; NKX, NK homeobox; SCX, scleraxis.
Scleraxis (SCX) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family. It is expressed in early mesoderm progenitor cells and may regulate the formation of tendon and ligament tissues.
- Cytogenetic location: 8q24.3
Tenomodulin (TNMD, Tnmd) is a marker of tendon differentiation, its expression has been shown to be regulated by the transcription factors Scleraxis and Mohawk. May also affect the tendon stem/progenitor cells.
- Links: NCBI databases - Tenomodulin
R Schweitzer, J H Chyung, L C Murtaugh, A E Brent, V Rosen, E N Olson, A Lassar, C J Tabin Analysis of the tendon cell fate using Scleraxis, a specific marker for tendons and ligaments. Development: 2001, 128(19);3855-66 PubMed 11585810
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- Barnette DN, VandeKopple M, Wu Y, Willoughby DA & Lincoln J. (2014). RNA-seq analysis to identify novel roles of scleraxis during embryonic mouse heart valve remodeling. PLoS ONE , 9, e101425. PMID: 24983472 DOI.
- Lim J, Munivez E, Jiang MM, Song IW, Gannon F, Keene DR, Schweitzer R, Lee BH & Joeng KS. (2017). mTORC1 Signaling is a Critical Regulator of Postnatal Tendon Development. Sci Rep , 7, 17175. PMID: 29215029 DOI.
- Russo V, Mauro A, Martelli A, Di Giacinto O, Di Marcantonio L, Nardinocchi D, Berardinelli P & Barboni B. (2015). Cellular and molecular maturation in fetal and adult ovine calcaneal tendons. J. Anat. , 226, 126-42. PMID: 25546075 DOI.
- Brown JP, Finley VG & Kuo CK. (2014). Embryonic mechanical and soluble cues regulate tendon progenitor cell gene expression as a function of developmental stage and anatomical origin. J Biomech , 47, 214-22. PMID: 24231248 DOI.
- Schweitzer R, Zelzer E & Volk T. (2010). Connecting muscles to tendons: tendons and musculoskeletal development in flies and vertebrates. Development , 137, 2807-17. PMID: 20699295 DOI.
- Gilsohn E & Volk T. (2010). Slowdown promotes muscle integrity by modulating integrin-mediated adhesion at the myotendinous junction. Development , 137, 785-94. PMID: 20110313 DOI.
- Blake JA & Ziman MR. (2014). Pax genes: regulators of lineage specification and progenitor cell maintenance. Development , 141, 737-51. PMID: 24496612 DOI.
- Miyabara S, Yuda Y, Kasashima Y, Kuwano A & Arai K. (2014). Regulation of Tenomodulin Expression Via Wnt/β-catenin Signaling in Equine Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells. J Equine Sci , 25, 7-13. PMID: 24834008 DOI.
Brent AE, Schweitzer R & Tabin CJ. (2003). A somitic compartment of tendon progenitors. Cell , 113, 235-48. PMID: 12705871
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 10) Embryology Musculoskeletal System - Tendon Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Musculoskeletal_System_-_Tendon_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G