Musculoskeletal System - Cartilage Development
|Embryology - 18 Jul 2018 Expand to Translate|
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The musculoskeletal system consists of skeletal muscle, bone, and cartilage and is mainly mesoderm in origin with some neural crest contribution.
The mesoderm forms nearly all the connective tissues of the musculoskeletal system. Each tissue (cartilage, bone, and muscle) goes through many different mechanisms of differentiation. Recent studies show that Sox9 acts as a key regulator of early chondrocyte differentiation.
The intraembryonic mesoderm can be broken into paraxial, intermediate and lateral mesoderm relative to its midline position. During the 3rd week the paraxial mesoderm forms into "balls" of mesoderm paired either side of the neural groove, called somites. Somites appear bilaterally as pairs at the same time and form earliest at the cranial (rostral,brain) end of the neural groove and add sequentially at the caudal end. This addition occurs so regularly that embryos are staged according to the number of somites that are present. Different regions of the somite differentiate into dermomyotome (dermal and muscle component) and sclerotome (forms vertebral column). An example of a specialized musculoskeletal structure can be seen in the development of the limbs.
Skeletal muscle forms by fusion of mononucleated myoblasts to form mutinucleated myotubes. Bone is formed through a lengthy process involving ossification of a cartilage formed from mesenchyme. Two main forms of ossification occur in different bones, intramembranous (eg skull) and endochondrial (eg limb long bones) ossification. Ossification continues postnatally, through puberty until mid 20s. Early ossification occurs at the ends of long bones.
Musculoskeletal and limb abnormalities are one of the largest groups of congenital abnormalities.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Iris Ribitsch, Rupert L Mayer, Monika Egerbacher, Simone Gabner, Maciej M Kańduła, Julie Rosser, Eva Haltmayer, Ulrike Auer, Sinan Gültekin, Johann Huber, Andrea Bileck, David P Kreil, Christopher Gerner, Florien Jenner Fetal articular cartilage regeneration versus adult fibrocartilaginous repair: secretome proteomics unravels molecular mechanisms in an ovine model. Dis Model Mech: 2018, 11(7); PubMed 29991479
Lali Tsiklauri, Janina Werner, Marian Kampschulte, Klaus W Frommer, Lucija Berninger, Martina Irrgang, Kristina Glenske, Dirk Hose, Thaqif El Khassawna, Jörn Pons-Kühnemann, Stefan Rehart, Sabine Wenisch, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Elena Neumann Visfatin alters the cytokine and matrix-degrading enzyme profile during osteogenic and adipogenic MSC differentiation. Osteoarthr. Cartil.: 2018; PubMed 29908226
Yuanxu Guo, Zixin Min, Congshan Jiang, Wei Wang, Jidong Yan, Peng Xu, Ke Xu, Jing Xu, Mengyao Sun, Yitong Zhao, Safdar Hussain, Rui Zhang, Quancheng Wang, Yan Han, Fujun Zhang, Wenhua Zhu, Dongmin Li, Liesu Meng, Jian Sun, Shemin Lu Downregulation of HS6ST2 by miR-23b-3p enhances matrix degradation through p38 MAPK pathway in osteoarthritis. Cell Death Dis: 2018, 9(6);699 PubMed 29899528
Ewelina Stelcer, Katarzyna Kulcenty, Marcin Rucinski, Karol Jopek, Magdalena Richter, Tomasz Trzeciak, Wiktoria Maria Suchorska Forced differentiation in vitro leads to stress-induced activation of DNA damage response in hiPSC-derived chondrocyte-like cells. PLoS ONE: 2018, 13(6);e0198079 PubMed 29864138
Aliaa S A Al-Afify, Gehan El-Akabawy, Neveen M El-Sherif, Fatma El-Nabawya A El-Safty, Mostafa M El-Habiby Avocado soybean unsaponifiables ameliorates cartilage and subchondral bone degeneration in mono-iodoacetate-induced knee osteoarthritis in rats. Tissue Cell: 2018, 52;108-115 PubMed 29857819
- The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (8th Edition) by Keith L. Moore and T.V.N Persaud - Moore & Persaud Chapter 15 the skeletal system
- Larsen’s Human Embryology by GC. Schoenwolf, SB. Bleyl, PR. Brauer and PH. Francis-West - Chapter 11 Limb Dev (bone not well covered in this textbook)
- Before we Are Born (5th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 16,17: p379-397, 399-405
- Essentials of Human Embryology Larson Chapter 11 p207-228
- Identify the components of a somite and the adult derivatives of each component.
- Give examples of sites of (a) endochondral and (b) intramembranous ossification and to compare these two processes.
- Identify the general times (a) of formation of primary and (b) of formation of secondary ossification centres, and (c) of fusion of such centres with each other.
- Briefly summarise the development of the limbs.
- Describe the developmental abnormalities responsible for the following malformations: selected growth plate disorders; congenital dislocation of the hip; scoliosis; arthrogryposis; and limb reduction deformities.
Below is a very brief overview using simple figures of 3 aspects of early musculoskeletal development. More detailed overviews are shown on other notes pages Mesoderm and Somite, Vertebral Column, Limb in combination with serial sections and Carnegie images.
|Cells migrate through the primitive streak to form mesodermal layer. Extraembryonic mesoderm lies adjacent to the trilaminar embryo totally enclosing the amnion, yolk sac and forming the connecting stalk.|
|Paraxial mesoderm accumulates under the neural plate with thinner mesoderm laterally. This forms 2 thickened streaks running the length of the embryonic disc along the rostrocaudal axis. In humans, during the 3rd week, this mesoderm begins to segment. The neural plate folds to form a neural groove and folds.|
| Segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm into somites continues caudally at 1 somite/90minutes and a cavity (intraembryonic coelom) forms in the lateral plate mesoderm separating somatic and splanchnic mesoderm.
Note intraembryonic coelomic cavity communicates with extraembryonic coelom through portals (holes) initially on lateral margin of embryonic disc.
|Somites continue to form. The neural groove fuses dorsally to form a tube at the level of the 4th somite and "zips up cranially and caudally and the neural crest migrates into the mesoderm.|
|Mesoderm beside the notochord (axial mesoderm, blue) thickens, forming the paraxial mesoderm as a pair of strips along the rostro-caudal axis.|
|Paraxial mesoderm towards the rostral end, begins to segment forming the first somite. Somites are then sequentially added caudally. The somitocoel, is a cavity forming in early somites, which is lost as the somite matures.|
|Cells in the somite differentiate medially to form the sclerotome (forms vertebral column) and dorsolaterally to form the dermomyotome.|
| The dermomyotome then forms the dermotome (forms dermis) and myotome (forms muscle).
Neural crest cells migrate beside and through somite.
|The myotome differentiates to form 2 components dorsally the epimere and ventrally the hypomere, which in turn form epaxial and hypaxial muscles respectively. The bulk of the trunk and limb muscle coming from the Hypaxial mesoderm. Different structures will be contributed depending upon the somite level.|
- Umeda K, Oda H, Yan Q, Matthias N, Zhao J, Davis BR & Nakayama N. (2015). Long-term expandable SOX9+ chondrogenic ectomesenchymal cells from human pluripotent stem cells. Stem Cell Reports , 4, 712-26. PMID: 25818812 DOI.
- Buchtova M, Oralova V, Aklian A, Masek J, Vesela I, Ouyang Z, Obadalova T, Konecna Z, Spoustova T, Pospisilova T, Matula P, Varecha M, Balek L, Gudernova I, Jelinkova I, Duran I, Cervenkova I, Murakami S, Kozubik A, Dvorak P, Bryja V & Krejci P. (2015). Fibroblast growth factor and canonical WNT/β-catenin signaling cooperate in suppression of chondrocyte differentiation in experimental models of FGFR signaling in cartilage. Biochim. Biophys. Acta , 1852, 839-50. PMID: 25558817 DOI.
- Michigami T. (2014). Current understanding on the molecular basis of chondrogenesis. Clin Pediatr Endocrinol , 23, 1-8. PMID: 24532955 DOI.
- Cheng A & Genever PG. (2010). SOX9 determines RUNX2 transactivity by directing intracellular degradation. J. Bone Miner. Res. , 25, 2680-9. PMID: 20593410 DOI.
- Hattori T, Müller C, Gebhard S, Bauer E, Pausch F, Schlund B, Bösl MR, Hess A, Surmann-Schmitt C, von der Mark H, de Crombrugghe B & von der Mark K. (2010). SOX9 is a major negative regulator of cartilage vascularization, bone marrow formation and endochondral ossification. Development , 137, 901-11. PMID: 20179096 DOI.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, July 18) Embryology Musculoskeletal System - Cartilage Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Musculoskeletal_System_-_Cartilage_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G