Endocrine - Parathyroid Development
|Embryology - 22 Feb 2017 Expand to Translate|
|Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)|
العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)
The parathyroid gland appears in the adult as a pair of inferior and a pair of superior "bumps" on the beside the (dorsal) thyroid (hence the name, "para"). The embryonic origin of this gland is from the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches endoderm, and could also have ectoderm and neural crest contributions. This developmental process also generates multiple small parathyroid clusters in addition to the main parathyroid glands.
At 6 weeks a diverticulum elongates from the pouch, initially hollow and then solidifynig with cell proliferation.
Interestingly, the inferior parathyroid originates from the third pharyngeal pouch and the superior arises from the fourth pharyngeal pouch, the adult anatomical position is the opposite of the pharyngeal rostro-caudal order. This occurs due to the third pharyngeal pouch also giving rise to the thymus, the superior pair descend along with the thymus.
The fetal parathyroids appear functional as they respond to calcium levels. The fetal calcium levels also higher than maternal levels.
|Endocrine Links: Introduction | BGD Lecture | Science Lecture | Pineal | Hypothalamus | Pituitary | Thyroid | Parathyroid | Thymus | Pancreas | Adrenal | Gonad | Placenta | Other Tissues | Stage 22 | Abnormalities | Hormones | Category:Endocrine|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Oliwia Anna Segiet, Mariusz Deska, Łukasz Mielańczyk, Marlena Brzozowa-Zasada, Grzegorz Buła, Jacek Gawrychowski, Romuald Wojnicz Expression of TRAIL and Fas in Primary Hyperparathyroidism. J Invest Surg: 2016;1-5 PubMed 27763797
P Libánský, P Broulík, M Fialová, J Kubinyi, R Lischke, D Táborská, J Tvrdoň, J Šedý, S Adámek [Videothoracoscopic excision of mediastinal parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism]. [Videothorakoskopické odstranění mediastinálně uloženého adenomu příštítného tělíska při primární hyperparathyreóze.] Rozhl Chir: 2016, 95(6);245-8 PubMed 27410759
Arthur Varoquaux, Electron Kebebew, Frederic Sebag, Katherine Wolf, Jean-François Henry, Karel Pacak, David Taieb Endocrine tumors associated with the vagus nerve. Endocr. Relat. Cancer: 2016; PubMed 27406876
M A D Silva, D F P Vasconcelos, M R Marques, S P Barros Parathyroid hormone intermittent administration promotes delay on rat incisor eruption. Arch. Oral Biol.: 2016, 69;102-108 PubMed 27285944
Vincenzo De Sanctis, Ashraf T Soliman, Salvatore Di Maio, Heba Elsedfy, Nada A Soliman, Rania Elalaily Thyroid Hemiagenesis from Childhood to Adulthood: Review of Literature and Personal Experience. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev: 2016, 13(3);612-9 PubMed 27116848
- Endoderm - third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, could also have ectoderm and neural crest
- 3rd Pharyngeal Pouch - inferior parathyroid, initially descends with thymus
- 4th Pharyngeal Pouch - superior parathyroid
- Week 6 - diverticulum elongate, hollow then solid, dorsal cell proliferation
- Fetal parathyroids - respond to calcium levels, fetal calcium levels higher than maternal
(PTH, parathormone or parathyrin) A polypeptide (84 amino acids) hormone which increases the concentration of calcium ions in the blood. Its actions oppose the hormone calcitonin from the thyroid gland parafollicular cells (C cells), which decrease calcium. Acts through the parathyroid hormone receptor in bone, kidney and gastrointestinal tract.
- stimulate osteoclasts - degrade bone matrix, releasing calcium
- increase calcium gastrointestinal tract absorption
(PTHrP) Originally identified in the clinical syndrome humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. It's developmental role is that of a regulatory protein expressed during the formation of many organs.
- mammary gland development - epithelial-mesenchymal interactions
- chondrocyte differentiation
- Postnatal adult ageing increased parathyroid hormone plasma levels are associated with cognitive decline and dementia.
- Parathyroid carcinoma (cancer) is a rare malignancy, occurring with an incidence of 0.5 to 4% of all cases of primary hyperparathyroidism.
- Zhijie Liu, Alison Farley, Lizhen Chen, Beth J Kirby, Christopher S Kovacs, C Clare Blackburn, Nancy R Manley Thymus-associated parathyroid hormone has two cellular origins with distinct endocrine and immunological functions. PLoS Genet.: 2010, 6(12);e1001251 PubMed 21203493
- Jena L Chojnowski, Kyoko Masuda, Heidi A Trau, Kirk Thomas, Mario Capecchi, Nancy R Manley Multiple roles for HOXA3 in regulating thymus and parathyroid differentiation and morphogenesis in mouse. Development: 2014, 141(19);3697-708 PubMed 25249461
- M E Dunbar, J J Wysolmerski Parathyroid hormone-related protein: a developmental regulatory molecule necessary for mammary gland development. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia: 1999, 4(1);21-34 PubMed 10219904
- Benjamin A Alman, Jay S Wunder Parathyroid hormone-related protein regulates glioma-associated oncogene transcriptional activation: lessons learned from bone development and cartilage neoplasia. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.: 2008, 1144;36-41 PubMed 19076361
- The development of the parathyroid gland: from fish to human. Zajac JD, Danks JA. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2008 Jul;17(4):353-6. Review. PMID: 18660669
- Parathyroid development and the role of tubulin chaperone E. Parvari R, Diaz GA, Hershkovitz E. Horm Res. 2007;67(1):12-21. Epub 2006 Sep 27. Review. PMID: 17008776
- Role of parathyroid hormone-related peptide and Indian hedgehog in skeletal development. Jüppner H. Pediatr Nephrol. 2000 Jul;14(7):606-11. Review. PMID: 10912527
Search April 2010
- Parathyroid Development - All (3523) Review (768) Free Full Text (741)
Search Pubmed: parathyroid development
- parathyroid hormone - (PTH, parathormone or parathyrin) A polypeptide (84 amino acids) hormone secreted by the parathyroid gland, which increases the concentration of calcium ions in the blood. Its actions oppose the hormone calcitonin from the thyroid gland parafollicular cells (C cells), which decrease calcium. Acts through the parathyroid hormone receptor located mainly in bone, kidney and gastrointestinal tract. Hormone dual role is to: stimulate osteoclasts in bone to degrade bone matrix releasing calcium; increase gastrointestinal tract absorption of calcium.
- A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols
Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Endocrine - Parathyroid Development. Retrieved February 22, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Endocrine_-_Parathyroid_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G