Comparative Genomic Hybridization
|Embryology - 15 Oct 2018 Expand to Translate|
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This new test under development is based upon microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). All fetal cells should have complete copies of maternal and paternal genomes. The test compares regions of fetal DNA that deviate from this "pattern" due to either too much or too little DNA, alterations reflect regions of the genome that are either copied or deleted. These genetic changes may therefore cause disease.
Any two unrelated people have the same 99.9% DNA sequences, the remaining 0.1% is the genetic variants that influence how people differ in their risk of disease or their response to drugs.
Some Recent Findings
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Daniele Fanoni, Laura Corti, Silvia Alberti-Violetti, Cornelis P Tensen, Luigia Venegoni, Maarten Vermeer, Rein Willemze, Emilio Berti Array-based CGH of primary cutaneous CD8+ aggressive EPIDERMO-tropic cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer: 2018; PubMed 30307677
Lea Loriguet, Mony Chenda Morisse, Julie Dremaux, Louison Collet, Christophe Attencourt, Alexandre Coutte, Mathieu Boone, Henri Sevestre, Antoine Galmiche, Brigitte Gubler, Bruno Chauffert, Stephanie Trudel Combining genomic analyses with tumour-derived slice cultures for the characterization of an EGFR-activating kinase mutation in a case of glioblastoma. BMC Cancer: 2018, 18(1);964 PubMed 30305059
Dong Wu, Qiaofang Hou, Hongdan Wang, Tao Li, Xin Wang, Bing Kang, Chaoyang Zhang, Yanli Yang, Hongli Liu, Shixiu Liao [Prenatal diagnosis and genetic analysis of a fetus with 2p13.3-p12 microdeletion]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi: 2018, 35(5);711-714 PubMed 30298502
Yan-Fang Wang, Hua Wang, Lian-Yong Xi, Zhen-Hao Zhang, Jing Wang, Fei Dong, Xiao-Yan Ke [Detection of the Cytogenetic Aberrations in Multiple Myeloma by Using Microrray Comparative Genomic Hybridization]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi: 2018, 26(5);1389-1395 PubMed 30295256
Rohit Mehra, Simpa S Salami, Robert Lonigro, Ritu Bhalla, Javed Siddiqui, Xuhong Cao, Daniel E Spratt, Ganesh S Palapattu, Nallasivam Palanisamy, John T Wei, Arul M Chinnaiyan, Scott A Tomlins Association of ERG/PTEN status with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Med. Oncol.: 2018, 35(12);152 PubMed 30291535
Microarrays are a new technique that allows a large number of different genetic sequences to be arrayed on a slide which can then be used to identify specific sequences in an unknown mix of either DNA or RNA. This technique required the development of DNA synthetic techniques and microprocessor controlled robotics for array design and has been used extensively in cell biology.
What is an array? "to place in an orderly arrangement" Think of a hairbrush with each "hair" dipped in individual coloured inks and applied to paper. Each "hair" would makes an individual coloured "spot". Now consider instead of ink, if each hair had a different piece of DNA then a specific pattern is generated.
- Gaurav Majumdar, Abha Majumdar, Meena Lall, Ishwar C Verma, Kailash C Upadhyaya Preimplantation genetic screening for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization significantly increases implantation rates and clinical pregnancy rates in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization with poor prognosis. J Hum Reprod Sci: 2016, 9(2);94-100 PubMed 27382234
- Xin Guo, Philip Bayliss, Marian Damewood, John Varney, Emily Ma, Brett Vallecillo, Ravinder Dhallan A noninvasive test to determine paternity in pregnancy. N. Engl. J. Med.: 2012, 366(18);1743-5 PubMed 22551147
- Ji Hyeon Park, Jung Hoon Woo, Sung Han Shim, Song-Ju Yang, Young Min Choi, Kap-Seok Yang, Dong Hyun Cha Application of a target array comparative genomic hybridization to prenatal diagnosis. BMC Med. Genet.: 2010, 11;102 PubMed 20576126 | BMC Med Genet.
- Jennifer E Warren, David K Turok, Teresa M Maxwell, Arthur R Brothman, Robert M Silver Array comparative genomic hybridization for genetic evaluation of fetal loss between 10 and 20 weeks of gestation. Obstet Gynecol: 2009, 114(5);1093-102 PubMed 20168112
- A Craig Chinault, Chad A Shaw, Ellen K Brundage, Lin-Ya Tang, Lee-Jun C Wong Application of dual-genome oligonucleotide array-based comparative genomic hybridization to the molecular diagnosis of mitochondrial DNA deletion and depletion syndromes. Genet. Med.: 2009, 11(7);518-26 PubMed 19546809
- Karin de A B Nivoloni, Sueli M da Silva-Costa, Mariza C A Pomílio, Tânia Pereira, Karen de C Lopes, Vanessa C S de Moraes, Fabiana Alexandrino, Camila A de Oliveira, Edi L Sartorato Newborn hearing screening and genetic testing in 8974 Brazilian neonates. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.: 2010, 74(8);926-9 PubMed 20538352
- Jill Hardin, Richard H Finnell, David Wong, Michael E Hogan, Joy Horovitz, Jenny Shu, Gary M Shaw Whole genome microarray analysis, from neonatal blood cards. BMC Genet.: 2009, 10;38 PubMed 19624846 | BMC
- Massimiliano De Bortoli, Robert C Castellino, Xin-Yan Lu, Jeffrey Deyo, Lisa Marie Sturla, Adekunle M Adesina, Laszlo Perlaky, Scott L Pomeroy, Ching C Lau, Tsz-Kwong Man, Pulivarthi H Rao, John Y H Kim Medulloblastoma outcome is adversely associated with overexpression of EEF1D, RPL30, and RPS20 on the long arm of chromosome 8. BMC Cancer: 2006, 6;223 PubMed 16968546 | BMC Cancer
Gary Fruhman, Ignatia B Van den Veyver Applications of array comparative genomic hybridization in obstetrics. Obstet. Gynecol. Clin. North Am.: 2010, 37(1);71-85, Table of Contents PubMed 20494259
Justine Coppinger, Sarah Alliman, Allen N Lamb, Beth S Torchia, Bassem A Bejjani, Lisa G Shaffer Whole-genome microarray analysis in prenatal specimens identifies clinically significant chromosome alterations without increase in results of unclear significance compared to targeted microarray. Prenat. Diagn.: 2009, 29(12);1156-66 PubMed 19795450
Anthony J Schaeffer, June Chung, Konstantina Heretis, Andrew Wong, David H Ledbetter, Christa Lese Martin Comparative genomic hybridization-array analysis enhances the detection of aneuploidies and submicroscopic imbalances in spontaneous miscarriages. Am. J. Hum. Genet.: 2004, 74(6);1168-74 PubMed 15127362
- ART - Assisted Reproductive Technology a general term to describe all the clinical techniques used to aid fertility.
- blastomere biopsy - An ART preimplantation genetic diagnosis technique carried out at cleavage stage (day 3), excluding poor quality embryos, detects chromosomal abnormalities of both maternal and paternal origin. May not detect cellular mosaicism in the embryo.
- blastocyst biopsy - An ART preimplantation genetic diagnosis technique carried out at blastocyst stage (day 4-5), removes several trophoblast (trophoderm) cells, detects chromosomal abnormalities of both maternal and paternal origin and may detect cellular mosaicism.
- cell-free fetal deoxyribonucleic acid - (cffDNA) refers to fetal DNA circulating and isolated from the plasma portion of maternal blood.
- false negative rate - The proportion of pregnancies that will test negative given that the congenital anomaly is present.
- false positive rate - The proportion of pregnancies that will test positive given that the congenital anomaly is absent.
- free β human chorionic gonadotrophin - beta-hCG subunit of hCG used as a diagnostic marker for: early detection of pregnancy, Trisomy 21, spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy, hydatidiform mole or choriocarcinoma.
- multiples of the median - (MoM) A multiple of the median is a measure of how far an individual test result deviates from the median and is used to report the results of medical screening tests, particularly where the results of the individual tests are highly variable.
- negative predictive value - The probability that a congenital anomaly is absent given that the prenatal screening test is negative.
- Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing - (NIPT) could refer to ultrasound or other imaging techniques, but more frequently used to describe analysis of cell-free fetal DNA circulating in maternal blood.
- polar body biopsy - (PB biopsy) An ART preimplantation genetic diagnosis technique that removes either the first or second polar body from the zygote. As these are generated by oocyte meiosis they detects chromosomal abnormalities only on the female genetics.
- positive predictive value - The probability that a congenital anomaly is present given that the prenatal screening test is positive.
- pre-implantation genetic diagnosis - (PGD, pre-implantation genetic screening) a diagnostic procedure for embryos produced through Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART, in vitro fertilisation, IVF) for genetic diseases that would generate developmental abnormalities or serious postnatal diseases.
- prenatal screening sensitivity - (detection rate) The probability of testing positive on a prenatal screening test if the congenital anomaly is present.
- prenatal screening specificity - The probability of testing negative on a prenatal screening test if the congenital anomaly is absent.
- single nucleotide polymorphisms - (SNPs) the variation in a single DNA nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, October 15) Embryology Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Comparative_Genomic_Hybridization
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G