Cell Division - Mitosis
|Embryology - 27 Sep 2016 Expand to Translate|
|Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)|
العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Movies
- 4 Cell Changes
- 5 Mitosis Phases
- 6 Chromosome Changes
- 7 Cleavage of Zygote
- 8 Cytokinesis
- 9 Mitotic Spindle
- 10 Cell Organelles
- 11 References
- 12 Additional Images
- 13 External Links
- 14 Glossary Links
Normal cell division in all cells, except germ cells, occurs by 2 mechanical processes that initially divide the nucleus then the cell cytoplasm. This process produces two (daughter) cells that should be genetically identical to the parent cell.
- Mitosis segregation of chromosomes and formation of 2 nuclei
- Cytokinesis splitting of the cell as a whole into 2 daughter cells
- Recent Nobel Prizes- 2001 Cell Cycle, 2002 Cell Death
|Mitosis of the single zygote produces how many cells in the adult?|
| "In particular, the reported total cell number of a human being ranges between 1012 and 1016 and it is widely mentioned without a proper reference. ...A current estimation of human total cell number calculated for a variety of organs and cell types is presented. These partial data correspond to a total number of 3.72 × 1013."|
- Cell Division Links: Meiosis | Mitosis | Lecture - Cell Division and Fertilization | Spermatozoa Development | Oocyte Development | Fertilization | Zygote | Genetics
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Juan Liu, Yan Sun, Chunhong Yang, Yan Zhang, Qiang Jiang, Jinming Huang, Zhihua Ju, Xiuge Wang, Jifeng Zhong, Changfa Wang Functional SNPs of INCENP Affect Semen Quality by Alternative Splicing Mode and Binding Affinity with the Target Bta-miR-378 in Chinese Holstein Bulls. PLoS ONE: 2016, 11(9);e0162730 PubMed 27669152
Felipe Mora-Bermúdez, Farhath Badsha, Sabina Kanton, J Gray Camp, Benjamin Vernot, Kathrin Köhler, Birger Voigt, Keisuke Okita, Tomislav Maricic, Zhisong He, Robert Lachmann, Svante Pääbo, Barbara Treutlein, Wieland B Huttner Differences and similarities between human and chimpanzee neural progenitors during cerebral cortex development. Elife: 2016, 5; PubMed 27669147
Maria Alba Abad, Juan Zou, Bethan Medina-Pritchard, Erich A Nigg, Juri Rappsilber, Anna Santamaria, A Arockia Jeyaprakash Ska3 Ensures Timely Mitotic Progression by Interacting Directly With Microtubules and Ska1 Microtubule Binding Domain. Sci Rep: 2016, 6;34042 PubMed 27667719
Qianhua Dong, Feng-Xiang Yin, Feng Gao, Yuan Shen, Faben Zhang, Yang Li, Haijin He, Marlyn Gonzalez, Jinpu Yang, Shu Zhang, Min Su, Yu-Hang Chen, Fei Li Ccp1 Homodimer Mediates Chromatin Integrity by Antagonizing CENP-A Loading. Mol. Cell: 2016; PubMed 27666591
Ariana D Sanchez, Jessica L Feldman Microtubule-organizing centers: from the centrosome to non-centrosomal sites. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol.: 2016; PubMed 27666167
This movie shows a cell dividing by mitosis with a fluorescently labelled protein that is located at the kinetochores and along the axes of the chromosome arms. This allows you to see the chromosomes and the linking region (kinetochore) between chromosome pairs and the mitotic spindle microtubules.
- Chromosome condensation
- Nuclear envelope breakdown
- Cytoskeleton reorganization
- Spindle formation (MT) Contractile ring (MF)
- Organelle redistribution
- Mitosis Energy
- Cell division uses up a lot of energy, so cells ensure they have enough resources to complete the job before committing to it.
- Based on light microscopy of living cells light and electron microscopy of fixed and stained cells
- 5 Phases - prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
- Cytokinesis 6th stage overlaps the end of mitosis
- not a mitotic phase (discussed in cell cycle)
- Chromosomes dispersed in nucleus
- Gene expression
- Cytoskeleton and cell organelles - Distributed and functioning
- Mitochondria undergo independent proliferation/division
- Chromosome DNA has been earlier duplicated (S Phase)
- Chromosomes begin condensing
- Chromosome pairs (chromatids) held together at centromere
- Microtubules disassemble
- Mitotic spindle begins to form
- 3 sets of microtubules - (+) ends point away from centrosome at each pole.
- astral microtubules - anchor the pole end in position
- kinetochore microtubules - connected to chromosomes
- polar microtubules - form the structure of the spindle apparatus
At end of prophase nuclear envelope breaks down
- Microtubules now enter nuclear region
- Nuclear envelope forms vesicles around mitotic spindle
- Kinetochores form on centromere attach to some MTs of spindle
At end of prometaphase chromosomes move to metaphase plate
- Kinetochore MTs align chromosomes in one midpoint plane.
- Astrin is a spindle-associated protein required for chromosome alignment at the metaphase plate.
Metaphase ends when sister kinetochores separate
- Separation of sister Kinetochores
- shortening of Kinetochore microtubules pulls chromosome to spindle pole.
- Katanin is a microtubule-severing complex involved with this stage of microtubule dynamics.
Anaphase ends as nuclear envelope (membrane) begins to reform.
- Chromosomes arrive at spindle poles
- Kinetochore MTs lost
- Condensed chromosomes begin expanding
- Continues through cytokinesis
Cleavage of Zygote
Mouse zygote mitosis
|First metaphase||First anaphase|
Cleavage of the zygote forms 2 blastomeres and is cleavage with no cytoplasm synthesis.
- special "embryonic" cell cycle S phases and M phases alternate without any intervening G1 or G2 phases (MSMSMSMS, adult MG1SG2) therefore individual cell volume decreases
Cell division within these cells is initially synchronous (at the same time), then becomes asynchronously (at different times).
- slow- centre cells, larger fast- peripheral cells
- Links: Zygote | Cell Division - Mitosis | Movie - Early Cell Division | Movie - Week 1 Cell Cleavage | Carnegie stage 1
- Division of cytoplasmic contents
- Contractile ring forms at midpoint under membrane
- Microfilament ring - contracts forming cleavage furrow
- myosin II is the motor
- Eventually fully divides cytoplasm
Spindle assembly motors
Microtubule (MT)-bound motors promote bipolar spindle formation, whereas chromosome-associated motors drive proper kinetochore orientation and chromosome movement to the equator.
|Box 1||Box 2||Box 3||Box 4||Box 5|
|Motor-dependent mechanisms establish bipolarity as Eg5 (kinesin-5) motors slide antiparallel microtubules apart with their minus ends leading and their plus ends directed toward the spindle equator.||Minus end–directed motors such as dynein move microtubules poleward with their minus ends leading, thereby incorporating K-fibers into the spindle and focusing spindle poles.||Kinetochore-associated dynein transports chromosomes along astral microtubules toward the spindle poles from the periphery.||Plus end–directed chromokinesins (kinesin-4 and -10) eject chromosome arms outward.||CENP-E (kinesin-7) transports unattached kinetochores toward the equator along spindle microtubules. MTOC, microtubule organizing centre.|
- Divide independently of cell mitosis
- distributed into daughter cells
- localise at spindle poles
Peroxisome (red) location at Interphase (a) and during Mitosis (b and c)
- Associated with nuclear membrane.
- 2 processes - disassembly and reassembly
- Golgi stack undergoes a continuous fragmentation process
- fragments are distributed into daughter cells
- are reassembled into new Golgi stacks
- Unstacking - mediated by two mitotic kinases (cdc2 and plk)
- Vesiculation - mediated by COPI budding machinery ARF1 and the coatomer complex
- Fusion - formation of single cisternae by membrane fusion
- Restacking - requires dephosphorylation of Golgi stacking proteins by protein phosphatase PP2A
- Eva Bianconi, Allison Piovesan, Federica Facchin, Alina Beraudi, Raffaella Casadei, Flavia Frabetti, Lorenza Vitale, Maria Chiara Pelleri, Simone Tassani, Francesco Piva, Soledad Perez-Amodio, Pierluigi Strippoli, Silvia Canaider An estimation of the number of cells in the human body. Ann. Hum. Biol.: 2013, 40(6);463-71 PubMed 23829164
- Michaela Clever, Tomoko Funakoshi, Yasuhiro Mimura, Masatoshi Takagi, Naoko Imamoto The nucleoporin ELYS/Mel28 regulates nuclear envelope subdomain formation in HeLa cells. Nucleus: 2012, 3(2);187-99 PubMed 22555603
- Penny A Tavormina, Marie-George Côme, Joanna R Hudson, Yin-Yuan Mo, William T Beck, Gary J Gorbsky Rapid exchange of mammalian topoisomerase II alpha at kinetochores and chromosome arms in mitosis. J. Cell Biol.: 2002, 158(1);23-9 PubMed 12105179
- Russan NM. Let's Build a Spindle. ASCB Image & Video Library. 2008;CYT-190. Available at: http://cellimages.ascb.org/u?/p4041coll12,521
- Anja K Dunsch, Emily Linnane, Francis A Barr, Ulrike Gruneberg The astrin-kinastrin/SKAP complex localizes to microtubule plus ends and facilitates chromosome alignment. J. Cell Biol.: 2011, 192(6);959-68 PubMed 21402792
- Dong Zhang, Gregory C Rogers, Daniel W Buster, David J Sharp Three microtubule severing enzymes contribute to the "Pacman-flux" machinery that moves chromosomes. J. Cell Biol.: 2007, 177(2);231-42 PubMed 17452528
- Khursheed Iqbal, Seung-Gi Jin, Gerd P Pfeifer, Piroska E Szabó Reprogramming of the paternal genome upon fertilization involves genome-wide oxidation of 5-methylcytosine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2011, 108(9);3642-7 PubMed 21321204 | PMC2132672 | PNAS
- Rebecca Heald, Alexey Khodjakov Thirty years of search and capture: The complex simplicity of mitotic spindle assembly. J. Cell Biol.: 2015, 211(6);1103-11 PubMed 26668328
- Simone Kredel, Franz Oswald, Karin Nienhaus, Karen Deuschle, Carlheinz Röcker, Michael Wolff, Ralf Heilker, G Ulrich Nienhaus, Jörg Wiedenmann mRuby, a bright monomeric red fluorescent protein for labeling of subcellular structures. PLoS ONE: 2009, 4(2);e4391 PubMed 19194514 | PMC2633614 | PLoS One.
- Danming Tang, Kari Mar, Graham Warren, Yanzhuang Wang Molecular mechanism of mitotic Golgi disassembly and reassembly revealed by a defined reconstitution assay. J. Biol. Chem.: 2008, 283(10);6085-94 PubMed 18156178
Search Pubmed: mitosis
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- Nature - Cell Division Milestones
- A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols
Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2016) Embryology Cell Division - Mitosis. Retrieved September 27, 2016, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Cell_Division_-_Mitosis
- © Dr Mark Hill 2016, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G